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See also: ? and ?

Ancient Greek

Etymology

From (pskh?, "I blow") +? -? (-?), but never had the meaning "breath", even in Homer.

Pronunciation

 
  • (file)

Noun

? o (ps?kh?f (genitive ); first declension

  1. life (the state of being alive)
    • New Testament, Revelation 8:9, (text according to Stephanus [1550] and Scrivener [1894])
      ? .
      kaì apéthanen tò tríton tôn ktismát?n tôn en têi thaláss?i tà ékhonta psukhàs kaì tò tríton tôn ploí?n diephthar?.
      Young's Literal Translation (1862):
      and die did the third of the creatures that [...] in the sea, those having life, and the third of the ships were destroyed.
  2. (poetic) life-breath, life-blood ('the state of being alive' made corporeal)
    • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 14.516-519
      ?' ' ' ? ? / ? ? ?, ?'
      : ? ' ? / ' ?, ? .
      Atre?d?s d' ár' épeith' Huper?nora poiména laôn / oûta katà lapár?n, dià d' éntera khalkòs áphusse
      d?i?sas: psukh? dè kat' outamén?n ?teil?n / éssut' epeigomén?, tòn dè skótos ósse kálupse.
      • 1990 translation by Robert Fagles
        Menelaus took the hardened captain Hyperenor, / gouged his flank and the bronze ripped him open,
        spurting his entrails out -- and his life[-blood], gushing forth / through the raw, yawning wound, went pulsing fast
        and the dark came swirling down across his eyes.
    • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 16.505
      ? ?' ' .
      toîo d' háma psukh?n te kaì énkheos exérus' aikhm?n.
      • 1990 translation by Robert Fagles
        so he dragged out both the man's life breath and the weapon's point together.
  3. soul (the immortal part of a person)
    • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.1-5
      ? / , ? ?' ? ?' ,
      ?' ? / ,
      ?, ? ?' .
      mênin áeide theà P?l?ïáde? Akhilêos / oulomén?n, h? murí' Akhaioîs álge' éth?ke,
      pollàs d' iphthímous psukhàs Áïdi pro?apsen / h?rn, autoùs dè hel?ria teûkhe kúnessin
      oi?noîsí te pâsi, Diòs d' eteleíeto boul?.
      • 1990 translation by Robert Fagles
        Rage -- Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son Achilles, / [...] doomed, that cost the Achaeans countless losses,
        hurling down to the House of Death so many sturdy [...] / great fighters' souls, but made their bodies carrion,
        feasts for the dogs and birds, / and the will of Zeus was moving toward its end.
  4. ghost (the spirit of a dead person)
    • Homer, (Odyssey), book 23, lines 362-363, and book 24, lines 1-2:
      ' ? / , ? ?:
      ? / : [...]
      Robert Fagles' translation (1996):
      [Go] quick as the rising sun the news will spread / of the suitors that I killed inside the house.
      Now Cyllenian Hermes called away the suitors' ghosts, [...]
  5. the mind (seat or organ of thought), (the faculty of) reason
    • 430 BCE - 354 BCE, Xenophon, Economics 6.16
      ' , ' ? ? ? .
      all' ouk ára eîkhen hoút?s, all' eníous edókoun katamanthánein tôn kalôn tàs morphàs pánu mokhth?roùs óntas tàs psukhás.
      • 1979 translation by E. C. Marchant, O. J. Todd and William Heinemann
        But after all, it was not so: I thought I discovered that some who were beautiful to look at were thoroughly depraved in their minds.
  6. spirit (animated attitude)
    • 430 BCE - 354 BCE, Xenophon, On Horsemanship 11.1
      ? ? ? ? , ? ? , ? ? ? ? .
      ?n dé tis ára boul?thêi kaì pompikôi kaì mete?r?i kaì lamprôi hípp?i khr?sasthai, ou mála mèn tà toiaûta ek pantòs híppou gígnetai, allà deî hupárxai autôi kaì t?n psukh?n megalóphrona kaì tò sôma eúr?ston.
      • c. 1898 translation by Henry Graham Dakyns
        If, however, the wish is to secure a horse adapted to parade and state processions, a high stepper and a showy animal, these are qualities not to be found combined in every horse, but to begin with, the animal must have high spirit and a stalwart body.
    • 522 BCE - 443 BCE, Pindar, Isthmian Ode 53-55
      , ?' , ' ? / , ? ? , / ?
      Th?bân apò Kadmeïân morphàn brakhús, psukhàn d' ákamptos, prospalaís?n êlth' an?r / tàn purophóron Libúan, kraníois óphra xén?n naòn Poseidá?nos eréphonta skhéthoi, / huiòs Alkm?nas
      • 1990 translation by Diane Svarlien
        And yet once there went from Thebes, Cadmus' city, a hero short in stature but unflinching in spirit. This hero went to the house of Antaeus in grain-bearing Libya, to keep him from roofing Poseidon's temple with the skulls of strangers, Alcmena's son.
  7. (rare, extended from the meaning 'soul') butterfly
    • 384 BCE - 322 BCE, Aristotle, History of Animals 5.19
      ?' ? , , ? ?, ? ?.
      Gínontai d' hai mèn kaloúmenai psukhaì ek tôn kampôn, haì gínontai epì tôn phúll?n tôn khl?rôn, kaì málista epì tês rhaphánou, h?n kaloûsí tines krámb?n.
      Those arise -- those which one calls butterflies (psukhai) -- out of those caterpillars which arise on leaves of green, especially on the [leaves] of the cabbage-plant (raphanos), which some call cabbage (kramb?).

Inflection

Quotations

  • (text according to Stephanus (1550), Westcott-Hort (1881) and Scrivener (1894))
    ? ? ?
    in your patience possess ye your souls. (YLT, KJV)
    Stand firm, and you will win life. (NIV)
  • 522 BCE - 443 BCE, Pindar, Nemean Ode 37-39
    / ? ? / / ? ?
    paûroi dè bouleûsai phónou / parpodíou nephélan trépsai potì / dusmené?n andrôn stíkhas / khersì kaì psukhâi dunatoí
    cited by Liddell and Scott as an example of ? meaning "the conscious self or personality as centre of emotions, desires, and affections"
    Diane Svarlien's translation (1990):
    But few are able to conspire with hand and heart to turn back against the ranks of the enemy the cloud of slaughter that presses close upon them.
    Dawson Turner's prose translation (1852):
    But few are able to counsel how with hands and soul to turn the cloud of war that is upon them upon the ranks of the enemies.
    Abraham Moore's metrical translation (1852):
    Few are the fiery souls that know, / When war's fierce tempest heaviest falls, / Back on th' assailant's arms and wavering ranks / With hand and heart to turn / The wasteful wreck.

Derived terms

  • ? (ps?khikós)

Descendants

  • -> Coptic: ? (psukh?)
  • Greek: ? (psychí)
  • -> Latin: psych?

References

  • ? in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ? in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ? in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • ? in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • Bauer, Walter et al. (2001) A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Third edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • ? in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • "G5590", in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
  • ? in An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon by Liddell & Scott, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1899: "breath; the life, spirit"
  • 2006, Steven Paul, The Apocalypse Letter by Letter: A Literary Analysis of the Book of Revelation, page 281 (discussing Revelation 8:9): "The literal meaning of the noun "?" [psykhë, or psyche] is "breath"; hence, like "" [pneuma], it can also mean "spirit, soul, mind.""
  • 2007, Leon Marvell, Transfigured light: philosophy, cybernetics and the hermetic imaginary ISBN 978-1-933146-27-0, page 128: "the psyche (the term derives from ?, the breath, and , to breathe)"

Greek

Etymology

From Ancient Greek ? (psukh?).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [psi'çi]
  • Hyphenation:

Noun

? o (psychíf (plural )

  1. soul
  2. human, man
  3. the emotional and moral world
  4. courage, courageousness
  5. one who incites courage
  6. butterfly

Declension

Related terms

  • (en vrasmó psychís)
  • ? ? (mia psychí pou eínai na vgei)
  • ? ? ? ? (píge i psychí mou stin Koúlouri)
  • (psycháki)
  • (psychára)
  • ? (psychí te kai sómati)
  • (psychiká)
  • (psychikó)
  • ? (psychikós)
  • (psychismós)
  • ? (psychoúla)
  • ? (psychoúdi)
  • (psychoménos)
  • (psýchosi)
  • (psychotikós)
  • (xepsychó)

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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