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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 125, ?+0, 6 strokes, cangjie input (JKP), four-corner 44711, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #125, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 960, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28842
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1407, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2778, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8001

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series (?) (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
? *ru:?
? *ru:?, *ma:?
? *ru:?
? *ru:?

Ideogrammic compound (): ? ("man") + ? ("hair") + ? ("cane") - a man with long hair (an old man), leaning on a cane. Compare top component to ? (OC *q?ru:s).

Cognate to ? (OC *k?lu:?); the most commonly cited example of ("reciprocal meaning").

Etymology

Unknown. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-raw ("withered, residue, corpse"), *rwat ("stiff, tough"), whence Burmese ? (rau, "wither, become overripe; age"), ? (rwat, "old, stiff, tough"). See also ? (g?), ? ().

An old Sino-Vietnamese borrowing is r?u ("overripe, pulpy").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. old; aged; elderly (for persons, animate and inanimate objects generally)
  2. + the elderly; one's elders
  3. experienced
  4. + to respect (the elderly, one's elders)
  5. (of cooked food) overcooked; tough; stringy; hard
    • ???,?????? [MSC, trad.]
      ???,?????? [MSC, simp.]
      Niúpái tài l?o le, w? y?o bù dòng t?. [Pinyin]
      The steak was so tough I couldn't eat it.
    • ????,???? [MSC, trad.]
      ????,???? [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè j?dàn zh? l?o le, n? méi zh?ngwò h?o hu?hòu. [Pinyin]
      This egg is hard; you didn't time it properly.
  6. (of food or potable liquids) stale; not fresh
  7. always; all the time
    • ???! / ???!  -  N? bié l?o zhèyàng!  -  Stop being always like this!
  8. (chiefly dialectal) very; quite
    • ??????  -  T? rén l?o h?o le.  -  He is such a nice person! [colloquial, somewhat regional]
    • ??? [Shanghainese, trad.]
      ??? [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [k?ø³³ t n²³ t?s? g²¹ l?²³ k?e ²¹] [IPA]
      I am really happy to see you.
  9. (affectionate, respectful) Used before surnames to refer to heads or elder members of families.
    -> ? (xi?o) (for younger people)
    • ????,??????? [MSC, trad.]
      ????,??????? [MSC, simp.]
      L?o Zh?ng m?shàng lái le, w? d?i g?nj?n sh?ushí y? xià w? z?. [Pinyin]
      Old Zhang is going to be here any minute. I need to hurry up and straighten the room up a bit.
  10. (usually respectful and affectionate) Used by analogy in several other relationship terms.
    • ?? / ??  -  l?osh?  -  teacher
    • ??  -  l?o  -  wifey
    • ??  -  l?og?ng  -  hubby
  11. (obsolete, originally honorific) Prefix for animals or people considered senior, fierce, and often awe-inspiring.
    • ?? / ??  -  l?oy?ng  -  eagle
    • ??  -  l?oh?  -  tiger
    • ??  -  l?osh?  -  mouse, rat; (obsolete) bat
    • ??  -  l?oláng  -  (rare) elder and experienced wolf
    • ?? / ??  -  l?om?o  -  (rare) elder (potentially annoying) cat
    • ?  -  l?ohúlí  -  (surviving usage) elder, cunning and experienced fox
    • ? / ?  -  l?o?hu?  -  (please add an English translation of this example)
    • ? / ?  -  l?od?ngx?  -  (please add an English translation of this example)
    • ? / ?  -  l?ozásuì  -  (please add an English translation of this example)
  12. (colloquial) Used before nouns, especially names of ethnicities, places and countries, to form nouns.
    • ??  -  l?owài  -  foreigner; (pejorative) layman, one who lacks knowledge of a subject
    • ??  -  l?om?i  -  Yank
    • ??  -  l?obi?o  -  a friend (direct speech, may be intimate or offensive depending on provinces)
    • ?  -  l?omáozi  -  (pejorative) Russian person
    • ?  -  l?oméngg?  -  (pejorative) Mongols
    • ?  -  l?ob?ij?ng  -  indigenous Beijing person
    • ? / ?  -  l?osh?nd?ng  -  indigenous Shandong person
    • ? / ?  -  l?ox?r  -  (affectionate) Shanxi person
    • ?  -  l?ohuíhuí  -  Hui person (affectionate in some cases, pejorative in other cases, never neutral, depend on the region, speaker, listener situation and speaking mood)
  13. (Mainland China, Hong Kong) Short for / (L?ow?, "Laos").

Synonyms

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 4 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. old age, an elderly person, the aged, the elderly

Readings

Compounds


Korean

Hanja

? o (ro>no) (hangeul ?>?)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

? (lão, láu, l?o, l?u, r?u, l?u, l?o, l?u)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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