There is a well-worn image and phrase for libertarianism: âatomized individualism.â This hobgoblin has spread so thoroughly that even some libertarians think their philosophy unreservedly supports private persons, whatever the situation, whatever their behavior. Smithâs Self-Interest and Social Order in Classical Liberalism, corrects this misrepresentation with careful intellectual surveys of Hume, Smith, Hobbes, Butler, Mandeville, and Hutcheson and their respective contributions to political philosophy.
"Is there still anything worth living for? Is anything worth pursuing, apart from money, love, and caring for one's own family?"
Internationally known social philosopher and ethicist Peter Singer has an answer to these and other questions in this compelling new volume. "If we can detach ourselves from our own immediate preoccupations and look at the world as a whole and our place in it, there is something absurd about the idea that people should have trouble finding something to live for."
Singer suggests that people who take an ethical approach to life often avoid the trap of meaninglessness, finding a deeper satisfaction in what they are doing than those people whose goals are narrower and more self-centered. He spells out what he means by an ethical approach to life, and shows that it can bring about significant and far-reaching changes to one's life.
Block's widely awaited new book shows how the spirit of partnership and service can be made part of every business, government agency, and nonprofit institution. The author of The Empowered Manager unveils radical new models of stewardship for organizations and individuals within organizations.
For decades social scientists have observed that Americans are becoming more selfish, headstrong and callous. Instead of lamenting a cultural slide towards narcissism, this book provides comprehensive research on both the problems of egocentrism and ways of transcending it.
Loving Life demonstrates that morality is a matter not of divine revelation or social convention or personal opinion -- but, rather, of the factual requirements of human life and happiness. Biddle shows how a true morality is derived logically from observable facts, what in essence such a morality demands, and why it is a matter of pure self-interest.
Lode Walgrave has made a highly significant contribution to the worldwide development of the restorative justice movement over the last two decades. This book represents the culmination of his vision for restorative justice. Coming to the subject from a juvenile justice background he initially saw restorative justice as a means of escaping the rehabilitation-punishment dilemma, and as the basis for a more constructive judicial response to youth crime that had been the case hitherto. Over time his conception of restorative justice moved in the direction of focusing on repairing harm and suffering rather than ensuring that the youthful offender met with a 'just' response, and encompassing the notion that restorative justice was not so much about a justice system promoting restoration, more a matter of doing justice through restoration.
This book develops Lode Walgrave's conception of restorative justice further, incorporating a number of key elements.
â¢Â a clearly outcome-based definition of restorative justice â¢Â acceptance of the need to use judicial coercion to impose sanctions as part of the reparative process â¢Â presenting restorative justice as a fully fledged alternative to the punitive apriorism â¢Â development of a more sophisticated concept of the relationship between restorative justice and the law, and acceptance of the need for legal regulation â¢Â a consideration of the expansion of a restorative justice philosophy into other areas of social life and the threats and opportunities this provides â¢Â a consideration of the implications of the expansion of restorative justice for the discipline of criminology and democracy
Prentice Hall's Self-Assessment Library is a unique learning tool that allowsÂ students to assessÂ their knowledge, beliefs, feelings, and actions in regard to a wide range of personal skills, abilities, and interests. Provided scoring keysÂ allow for immediate, individual analysis. This single volume ofÂ sixty-nine research-based instruments is organized intoÂ four partsâ and offers studentsÂ one source from which to learn more about themselves.
Ever since "Know Thyself" was inscribed at Delphi, Western philosophers have struggled to understand the relations between morality and self-interest. This edited volume of essays pushes forward one of the oldest and most important debates in philosophy. Is morality a check on self-interest or is it in one's self interest to be moral? Can morality and self-interest be understood independently of each other?
Christopher Morris, The Trouble With Justice Mathias Risse, Nietzsche on Selfishness, Justice, and the Duties of the Higher Men Richard Joyce, Morality, Schmorality David Schmidtz, Because It's Right Thomas Nagel, The Value of Inviolability Samuel Scheffler, Potential Congruence Stephen Finlay, Too Much Morality Terence Irwin Scotus and the Possibility of Moral Motivation Ralph Wedgwood, Butler on Virtue, Self Interest, and Human Nature Julia Annas, Virtue Ethics and the Charge of Egoism W.D. Falk, Morality, Self, and Others Paul Bloomfield, Why It's Bad To Be Bad Joel Kupperman, Classical and Sour Forms of Virtue Michael Stocker, Shame and Guilt; Self Interest and Morality
What do Wikipedia, Zip Carâs business model, Barack Obama's presidential campaign, and a small group of lobster fishermen have in common? They all show the power and promise of human cooperation in transforming our businesses, our government, and our society at large. Because today, when the costs of collaborating are lower than ever before, there are no limits to what we can achieve by working together.
For centuries, we as a society have operated according to a very unflattering view of human nature:Â that, humans are universally and inherently selfish creatures. As a result, our most deeply entrenched social structures â our top-down business models, our punitive legal systems, our market-based approaches to everything from education reform to environmental regulation - have been built on the premise that humans are driven only by self interest, programmed to respond only to the invisible hand of the free markets or the iron fist of a controlling government. Â In the last decade, however, this fallacy has finally begun to unravel, as hundreds of studies conducted across dozens of cultures have found that most people will act far more cooperatively than previously believed.Â Here, Harvard University Professor Yochai Benkler draws on cutting-edge findings from neuroscience, economics, sociology, evolutionary biology, political science, and a wealth of real world examples to debunk this long-held myth and reveal how we can harness the power of human cooperation to improve business processes, design smarter technology, reform our economic systems, maximize volunteer contributions to science, reduce crime, improve the efficacy of civic movements, and more. Â For example, he describes how: Â
Â Â Â â¢Â By building on countless voluntary contributions, open-source software communities have developed some of the most important infrastructure on which the World Wide Web runs Â Â Â â¢Â Experiments with pay-as-you-wish pricing in the music industry reveal that fans will voluntarily pay far more for their favorite music than economic models would ever predic Â Â Â â¢Â Many self-regulating communities, from the lobster fishermen of Maine to farmers in Spain, live within self-regulating system for sharing and allocating communal resources Â Â Â â¢Â Despite recent setbacks, Toyotaâs collaborative shop-floor, supply chain, and management structure contributed to its meteoric rise above its American counterparts for over a quarter century. Â Â Â â¢Â Police precincts across the nation have managed to reduce crime in tough neighborhoods through collaborative, trust-based, community partnerships. Â A must-read for anyone who wants to understand the dynamics of cooperation in 21st century life, The Penguin and the Leviathan not only challenges so many of the ways in which we live and work, it forces us to rethink our entire view of human nature.
A dramatic transformation has begun in the way scholars think about human nature. Political scientists, psychologists, economists, and evolutionary biologists are beginning to reject the view that human affairs are shaped almost exclusively by self-interestâa view that came to dominate social science in the last three decades.
In Beyond Self-Interest, leading social scientists argue for a view of individuals behavior and social organization that takes into account the powerful motivations of duty, love, and malevolence. Economists who go beyond "economic man," psychologists who go beyond stimulus-response, evolutionary biologists who go beyond the "selfish gene," and political scientists who go beyond the quest for power come together in this provocative and important manifesto.
The essays trace, from the ancient Greeks to the present, the use of self-interest to explain political life. They investigate the differences between self-interest and the motivations of duty and love, showing how these motivations affect behavior in "prisoners' dilemma" interactions. They generate evolutionary models that explain how altruistic motivations escape extinction.
They suggest ways to model within one individual the separate motivations of public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit in citizen and legislative behavior, and demonstrate that the view of democracy in existing Constitutional interpretations is not based on self-interest. They advance both human evil and mothering as alternatives to self-interest, this last in a penetrating feminist critique of the "contract" model of human interaction.