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%C4%90%E1%BA%A1i Nam Th%E1%BB%B1c L%E1%BB%A5c
i Nam th?c l?c
Cover of i Nam th?c l?c ti?n biên
AuthorQu?c s? quán of Nguy?n dynasty
Original title????
Countryi Nam
LanguageClassical Chinese
SubjectHistory of Vietnam
PublisherNguy?n dynasty
Publication date

i Nam th?c l?c (Hán t?: ?, lit. "Veritable Records of the Great South", "Annals of i Nam", "Chronicle of Greater Vietnam") were Veritable Records of Nguy?n dynasty, Vietnam. It contained royal records of Nguy?n lords, and imperial annals of Nguy?n dynasty emperors until 1925 (except the last emperor B?o i). Just like other Veritable Records, i Nam th?c l?c was written in Classical Chinese. The annals comprised 584 volumes.[1]

At first the records were called "i Nam th?t l?c", its Hán t? was "????". During Thi?u Tr?'s reign, "?" changed to "?",[2] and its pronunciation changed to "th?c",[3] because "?" was against the naming taboo of Empress Tá Thiên, whom was Thi?u Tr?'s mother.

i Nam th?c l?c was the most important primary source of Nguy?n dynasty. It was an important reference of Cao Xuân D?c's Qu?c tri?u chính biên toát y?u and Tr?n Tr?ng Kim's Vi?t Nam s? lc.

History of compilation

Gia Long prepared the project after he crowned the emperor. However, many records were scattered and lost during Tây S?n rebellion.[4] In 1811, he ordered to collect historical records.[5]

The compilation career was carried out during Minh M?ng's reign. Qu?c s? quán was established in 1821 to write royal historical records. Nguy?n V?n Nh?n was appointed the chief editor, while Tr?nh Hoài c served as his deputy. The draft was completed in 1824.[6][7]

In 1830, an envoy was dispatched to Qing China. The envoy also had a secret mission: to obtain manuscripts of Ming Shilu from China. It was supposed that Vietnamese got the manuscript in 1833.[8] Then, Minh M?ng ordered to rewrite the draft following the writing style of Ming Shilu. The new version was completed and handed over to the emperor in 1835. Minh M?ng polished it personally.

Emperors (including Minh M?ng, Thi?u Tr? and T? c) got involved in the compilation directly to control the opinion.[9] This regulation was abolished after T? c's death.[10]


Generally speaking i Nam th?c l?c contained two parts: i Nam th?c l?c ti?n biên (???, Prequel Records) i Nam th?c l?c chính biên (???, Principal Records). ti?n biên were records of Nguy?n lords, chính biên were records of Nguy?n dynasty emperors. Sometimes i Nam li?t truy?n ti?n biên (, Prequel biographies) and i Nam chính biên li?t truy?n (?, Principal biographies) were regarded as parts of i Nam th?c l?c.

i Nam th?c l?c ti?n biên

i Nam th?c l?c ti?n biên was published in 1844.

i Nam th?c l?c chính biên

i Nam li?t truy?n ti?n biên

i Nam li?t truy?n ti?n biên was published in 1852.

i Nam chính biên li?t truy?n

i Nam chính biên li?t truy?n contained two collections. The first collection (s? t?p, ??) was published in 1889; the second collection (nh? t?p, ??) was published in 1895.

Transmission and modern publication

i Nam th?c l?c was kept secretly in the royal palace. Only few people could read the text. Besides the woodblock printing version, there were several manuscript versions. They were all much of a muchness. During French colonial period, i Nam th?c l?c was republished several times as ordered by colonial government.

In 1933, a Japanese scholar, Matsumoto Nobuhiro ( ), invited George Coedès to act as an intermediary, and obtained i Nam th?c l?c (Annals No. 1 to No. 6) and li?t truy?n from Nguy?n royal palace successfully. Matsumoto came back to Japan in 1935, he distribed i Nam th?c l?c to Tokyo Imperial University (present day University of Tokyo), Kyoto Imperial University (present day Kyoto University), T?h? Bunka Gakuin, T?y? Bunko and Keio University.[11] Keio University published it in 1961.[12]

Annals No. 6 (supplement annals) and No. 7 were completed in 1935, however, they were not published. After WWII, the drafts were achieved in Ngô ?ình Nhu's official residence. It was not clear who held the drafts after 1963 South Vietnamese coup. It is supposed that Vietnamese government holds the drafts present day.[13]

i Nam th?c l?c was published in Vietnamese alphabet in 1960s. The complete version was published in Vietnamese alphabet in the early 21st century.


i Nam th?c l?c ti?n biên (vol. 1-2, vol. 3-6, vol. 7-9, vol. 10-12) and part of i Nam chính biên li?t truy?n s? t?p (vol. 1-3, vol. 4-7, vol. 8-11, vol. 12-15, vol. 16-20, vol. 21-23, vol. 24-29, vol. 30) were digitized by National Library of Vietnam.

Part of i Nam th?c l?c chính biên Annal No. 4 (vol. 25-29, vol. 66-70) and part of i Nam chính biên li?t truy?n s? t?p (vol. 32-33) were digitized by Temple University.

i Nam li?t truy?n ti?n biên (vol. 1-2, vol. 3-4, vol. 5-6) was digitized by Bibliothèque nationale de France.


  1. ^ Anh Tuá?n Hoàng Silk for Silver: Dutch-Vietnamese Relations, 1637-1700 2007 Page 276 "i Nam th?c l?c [Chronicle of Greater Vietnam], I (Hanoi: Giáo d?c, 2002)."
  2. ^ ? 1982 p.570-571
  3. ^ ? 1982 p.572
  4. ^ ?
  5. ^ 1982 p.680?
  6. ^ 1936 p.119-120
  7. ^ ? 2000 p.107-108
  8. ^ ? 2000 pp.106-111
  9. ^ ? 2000 pp.111-115
  10. ^ ? 2001
  11. ^ 1936
  12. ^ 1982
  13. ^ ? 1982 pp. 575-582


  • . 1982::
  • . 2000::18?
  • . 2001:(2):?5?
  • . 2003:(3):9?
  • . 2008a(4):?41?
  • . 2008b:?(5):??42(1)?
  • . 2010:?(6-A):?44?
  • ?. 1935:?14(2)?1935?
  • ?. 1936:??:Bibliographie annamite15-1?
  • Ngô c Th?. 1997: Nghiên c?u ch? huy Vi?t Nam qua các tri?u i / Les Caractères Interdits au Vietnam à Travers l'Histoire. traduit et annoté par Emmanuel Poisson, Hà N?i: Nxb V?n hoá.
  • Nguy?n Q. Th?ng & Nguy?n Bá Th?. 1992: T? ?i?n Nhân v?t L?ch s? Vi?t Nam. In l?n th? hai có s?a ch?a và b? sung, Sài Gòn: Nxb KHXH.
  • ?. 1982::
  • ?. 1961:?597?1961?

External links

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