1998 Winter Olympics
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1998 Winter Olympics
XVIII Olympic Winter Games
1998 Winter Olympics logo.svg
The emblem represents a flower, with each petal representing an athlete practicing a different winter sport. It can also be seen as a snowflake, thus the name "Snowflower" was given to it.
Host city Nagano, Japan
Motto Coexistence with Nature (Japanese: , Shizen to no Ky?zon)
Nations participating 72
Athletes participating 2,176 (1,389 men, 787 women)[1]
Events 68 in 7 sports (14 disciplines)
7 February
Closing ceremony 22 February
Officially opened by Emperor Akihito
Athlete's Oath Kenji Ogiwara
Judge's Oath Junko Hiramatsu
Olympic Torch Midori Ito
Stadium Olympic Stadium
Winter
Summer

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver)[2](Japanese, Dai J?hachi-kai Orinpikku T?kiky?gi Taikai), and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.

72 nations and 2,176 participants contested in 7 sports and 68 events at 15 venues. The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey, curling and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey.

The host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund, Jaca and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. Nagano is so far the southernmost city to host a Winter Olympics, next to Squaw Valley, host of the 1960 Winter Olympics. The games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

Host city selection

Other candidate cities for the 1998 Olympics were Aosta, Italy; Jaca, Spain; Östersund, Sweden; and Salt Lake City, United States. The host city selection was held in Birmingham, United Kingdom, on 15 June 1991, at the 97th IOC session. Nagano prevailed over Salt Lake City by just 4 votes. In June 1995, Salt Lake was chosen as the host of the following 2002 Winter Olympics.

The Nagano Olympic bid committee spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.[3][4]

1998 Winter Olympics bidding results[5]
City Country Round 1 Run-off Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Nagano  Japan 21 -- 30 36 46
Salt Lake City  United States 15 59 27 29 42
Östersund  Sweden 18 -- 25 23 --
Jaca  Spain 19 -- 5 -- --
Aosta  Italy 15 29 -- -- --

Marketing

Mascots

Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also known as the Snowlets are the 1998 Winter Olympic mascots and are four snowy owls. They represent respectively fire (Sukki), air (Nokki), earth (Lekki) and water (Tsukki) and together they represent the four major islands of Japan.

Sponsors

Broadcasting rights

 Australia Seven Network

 Canada CBC

 China CCTV

 France TF1, FTV

 United Kingdom BBC

 United States CBS Sports, Turner Sports

In the United States, this was CBS' last of three cycles as Winter Olympic broadcast partner. Turner Sports, through TNT, had been its cable television partner for the three competitions CBS was contracted to carry.

NBC, which had aired the Summer Olympics since 1988, took over the Winter Olympics beginning with the Salt Lake City Games, and its family of networks has been the exclusive home for the Olympics in the United States ever since.

Events

There were 68 events contested in 7 sports (14 disciplines).

Venues

Hakuba

Iizuna

Karuizawa

Nagano

Nozawaonsen:

Yamanouchi

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics at USD 2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 56% in real terms.[6] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Nagano 1998 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of USD 51[7] billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.

Participating National Olympic Committees

72 nations participated in the 1998 Winter Olympic Games. The nations Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela participated in their first Winter Olympic Games.

Participating nations
Participating National Olympic Committees

Calendar

All dates are in Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OC Opening ceremony ? Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg Alpine skiing ? 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 10
Biathlon pictogram.svg Biathlon 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg Bobsleigh ? 1 ? 1 2
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg Cross country skiing 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 10
Curling pictogram.svg Curling ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 2
Figure skating pictogram.svg Figure skating ? 1 ? ? 1 ? 1 ? 1 4
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg Freestyle skiing ? 2 ? 2 4
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? 1 2
Luge pictogram.svg Luge ? 1 ? 1 1 3
Nordic combined pictogram.svg Nordic combined ? 1 ? 1 2
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg Short track 2 1 3 6
Ski jumping pictogram.svg Ski jumping 1 1 1 3
Snowboarding pictogram.svg Snowboarding 1 2 1 4
Speed skating pictogram.svg Speed skating 1 ? 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
Daily medal events 3 3 5 7 4 3 4 6 5 6 4 5 5 6 2 68
Cumulative total 3 6 11 18 22 25 29 35 40 46 50 55 60 66 68
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Total events


Medal table

The silver, gold and bronze medals.

(Host nation is highlighted.)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Germany 12 9 8 29
2  Norway 10 10 5 25
3  Russia 9 6 3 18
4  Canada 6 5 4 15
5  United States 6 3 4 13
6  Netherlands 5 4 2 11
7  Japan 5 1 4 10
8  Austria 3 5 9 17
9  South Korea 3 1 2 6
10  Italy 2 6 2 10

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2012. 
  2. ^ "French and English are the official languages for the Olympic Games.", [1].(..)
  3. ^ Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (21 January 1999), "Nagano Burned Documents Tracing '98 Olympics Bid", Washington Post, pp. A1, retrieved 2016 
  4. ^ Macintyre, Donald (1 February 1999). "Japan's Sullied Bid". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2016. 
  5. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  6. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9-13. SSRN 2804554 Freely accessible. 
  7. ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved . 

External links

Preceded by
Lillehammer
Winter Olympics
Nagano

XVIII Olympic Winter Games (1998)
Succeeded by
Salt Lake City

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1998_Winter_Olympics
 



 

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