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6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC.
It falls into the Holocene climatic optimum, with rising sea levels.
Culturally, Mesopotamia is in the Pottery Neolithic ( Halaf culture), and agriculture spreads to Europe and to Egypt.
World population grows dramatically as a result of the Neolithic Revolution, perhaps quadrupling, from about 10 to 40 million, over the course of the millennium. 
Culture Near East Europe South Asia China New World
Environment A massive volcanic landslide off
Mount Etna, Sicily, caused a megatsunami that devastated the eastern Mediterranean coastline on the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe.  c. 6000 BC: The entire 6th millennium was a part of the
Holocene climatic optimum (so were the 4th, 5th, and 7th millennia). This was a warm period also known as the Atlantic period and was characterized by minimal glaciation and high sea levels. (McEvedy) c. 6000 BC:
Doggerland, the land bridge connecting England with the rest of Europe, disappears beneath the waters of the North Sea and the English Channel. c. 6000 BC: Peak of
meltwater pulse 1C, leading to a rapid rise of sea level by about 6.5 m in less than 140 years.  c. 6000 BC:
Equidae (horses) disappear from the Americas. c. 5760 BC: The
volcano Puy de Dôme in France erupts. c. 5677 BC: Cataclysmic
volcanic eruption of 12,000-foot (3,700 m) high Mount Mazama creates Oregon's Crater Lake when the resulting caldera fills with water. It is the largest single Holocene eruption in history of the  Cascade Range, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7. c. 5600 BC: Beginning of the desertification of
North Africa, ultimately leading to the creation of the Sahara desert. This process may have spurred migration to the region of the Nile in the east, thereby laying the groundwork for the rise of Egyptian civilization. c. 5600 BC: According to the
Black Sea deluge hypothesis, the Black Sea floods with salt water. Some 3000 cubic miles (12,500 km 3) of seawater is added, significantly expanding the body of water and transforming it into a sea from a fresh-water landlocked lake. c. 5450 BC: Hekla volcanic eruption.
Astronomy and calendars
Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC (the calendar is from the 12th century).
^ Jean-Noël Biraben, "Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes",
Population 34-1 (1979), 13-25.
^ Bailey (1973)
^ a b Roberts, J:
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"Georgia made 'world's oldest wine. '" BBC News. 2017-11-13 . Retrieved .
"700 years added to Malta's history". . 16 March 2018. Times of Malta Archived from the original on 16 March 2018.
"Art of cheese-making is 7,500 years old". Nature. 12 December 2012.
^ G.W. Crawford and C. Shen, "The Origins of rice agriculture: recent progress in East Asia",
Antiquity 72(278):858-866 (December 1998), doi: 10.1017/S0003598X00087494
Hidden in plain sight: Indigenous Australian rock art on Sydney's doorstep by The Guardian (Author: Brigid Delaney)
Pareschi, M. T.; Boschi E.; Favalli M. (2006). "Lost tsunami". Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (22): L22608. Bibcode: 2006GeoRL..3322608P. doi: 10.1029/2006GL027790.
^ Blanchon, P., and Shaw, J. (1995)
Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and icesheet collapse. Geology, 23:4-8.
Zdanowicz, C. M.; Zielinski, G. A.; Germani, M. S. (1999). "Mount Mazama eruption; calendrical age verified and atmospheric impact assessed". Geology. 27 (7): 621-624. Bibcode: 1999Geo....27..621Z. doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0621:MMECAV>2.3.CO;2.
^ Mann, Neil,
, 2000s W.B. Yeats and a Vision: The Astrological Great Year