The ATP Rankings are the objective merit-based method used by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for determining the qualification for entry as well as the seeding of players in all singles and doubles tournaments. The first rankings for singles were published on 23 August 1973 while the doubles players were ranked for the first time on 1 March 1976. Ranking points are awarded according to the stage of tournament reached, and the prestige of the tournament, with the four Grand Slams awarding the most points. The rankings are updated every Monday, and points are dropped 52 weeks after being awarded (with the exception of the ATP Finals, from which points are dropped on the Monday following the last ATP World Tour event of the following year.
The ATP began as the men's trade union in 1972, through the combined efforts of Jack Kramer, Cliff Drysdale, and Donald Dell, and rose to prominence when 81 of its members boycotted the 1973 Wimbledon Championships. Just two months later, in August, the ATP introduced its ranking system intended to objectify tournament entry criteria, which up to that point was controlled by national federations and tournament directors.
The ATP's new ranking system was quickly adopted by men's tennis. While virtually all ATP members were in favor of objectifying event participation, the system's first No. 1, Ilie N?stase, lamented that "everyone had a number hanging over them," fostering a more competitive and less collegial atmosphere among the players.
The original ATP ranking criteria, which persisted through the 1980s, was based on averaging each player's results, though the details were revised a number of times. Starting in 1990, in conjunction with the expansion of ATP purview as the new men's tour operator, the ranking criteria was replaced with a 'best of' system modeled after competitive downhill skiing. This 'best of' system originally used 14 events but expanded to 18 in 2000.
A player's ATP Ranking is based on the total points he accrued in the following 19 tournaments (18 if he did not qualify for the ATP Finals):
The requirement to play in four ATP World Tour 500 events does not apply to a player who was outside the top 30 in the previous year-end ranking; however, no more than four of his results from 500 level events may be counted. For a better result within the same tour type to be transposed one has to wait for the expiry of the first worse result from previous year. It only expires at the drop date of that tournament and only if the player reached a worse result or has not entered the current year.
Ranking points gained in a tournament are dropped 52 weeks later, with the exception of the ATP Finals, from which points are dropped on the Monday following the last ATP World Tour event of the following year.
The Monte-Carlo Masters 1000 became optional in 2009, but if a player chooses to participate in it, its result is counted and his fourth-best result in an ATP 500 event is ignored (his three best ATP 500 results remain). From 2009 until 2015, if a player did not play enough ATP 500 events and did not have an ATP 250 or Challenger appearance with a better result, the Davis Cup was counted in the 500's table. The World Team Cup was also included before its cancellation in 2012.
For the Davis Cup points, from 2009 until 2015, point were distributed for the World Group countries. Instead of having an exact drop date they were gradually updated at each phase of the cup (compared to the results of the player from previous year and arranged his total sum of Davis Cup points to it. E.g. if a player played two matches in a semifinal but plays one the next year only that one missing match will be extracted from his points).
A player who is out of competition for 30 or more days, due to a verified injury, will not receive any penalty. The ATP Finals will count as an additional 19th tournament in the ranking of its eight qualifiers at season's end.
For every Grand Slam tournament or mandatory ATP World Tour Masters 1000 tournament for which a player is not in the main draw, and was not (and, in the case of a Grand Slam tournament, would not have been, had he and all other players entered) a main draw direct acceptance on the original acceptance list, and never became a main draw direct acceptance, the number of his results from all other eligible tournaments in the ranking period that count for his ranking is increased by one.
Once a player is accepted in the main draw of a Grand Slam tournament or ATP World Tour Masters 1000 tournament,[c] his result in this tournament counts for his ranking, regardless of whether he participates. A player's withdrawal from an ATP World Tour 500 event, regardless of whether the withdrawal was on time, results in a zero point included as one of his best of four results. Further non-consecutive withdrawals results in a zero point allocation replacing the next best positive result for each additional withdrawal.
Players with multiple consecutive withdrawals who are out of competition for 30 days or longer because of injury are not subject to a ranking penalty as long as verified and approved medical forms are provided; or, a player will not have the ranking penalty imposed if he completes the Promotional Activities requirement as specified under "Repeal of Withdrawal Fines and/or Penalties" or if the on-site withdrawal procedures apply. Players may also appeal withdrawal penalties to a Tribunal who will determine whether the penalties are affirmed or set aside.
Between 2000 and 2012, ranking points were awarded based on results in the Summer Olympics. This was changed before the 2016 Olympics where no ranking points were awarded.
With these rules, a player playing and winning the mandatory 4 Grand Slams and 8 ATP Masters 1000 events, a further 5 ATP 500 events and the Monte-Carlo Masters 1000 can amass a total of 19,500 points before the ATP Finals and end the calendar year with a maximum of 21,000 points. Novak Djokovic's haul of 16,585 points in the 2015 season is the best in history.[better source needed]
Points are awarded as follows:
|(200 for each round robin match win)|
|Masters 1000||1000||600||360||180||90||45||10 (25)||(10)||25 (16)|
|500 Series||500||300||180||90||45||(20)||20 (10)|
|250 Series||250||150||90||45||20||(10)||12 (10)|
|Challenger 125,000 +H||125||75||45||25||10||5|
|Challenger 40,000 +H||80||48||29||15||6||3|
|Futures 25,000 +H||35||20||10||4||1|
|Olympics (since 2016
no points are awarded)
In addition qualifiers and main draw entry players will then also receive the points in brackets for the rounds they reached.
+Change since previous week's rankings
?Change since previous week's rankings
The following is a list of players who have achieved the number one position in singles since the inception of the rankings in 1973:
|#||Player||Date reached||Total weeks|
|1||Ilie N?stase||August 23, 1973||40|
|2||John Newcombe||June 3, 1974||8|
|3||Jimmy Connors||July 29, 1974||268|
|4||Björn Borg||August 23, 1977||109|
|5||John McEnroe||March 3, 1980||170|
|6||Ivan Lendl||February 28, 1983||270|
|7||Mats Wilander||September 12, 1988||20|
|8||Stefan Edberg||August 13, 1990||72|
|9||Boris Becker||January 28, 1991||12|
|10||Jim Courier||February 10, 1992||58|
|11||Pete Sampras||April 12, 1993||286|
|12||Andre Agassi||April 10, 1995||101|
|13||Thomas Muster||February 12, 1996||6|
|14||Marcelo Ríos||March 30, 1998||6|
|15||Carlos Moyá||March 15, 1999||2|
|16||Yevgeny Kafelnikov||May 3, 1999||6|
|17||Patrick Rafter||July 26, 1999||1|
|18||Marat Safin||November 20, 2000||9|
|19||Gustavo Kuerten||December 4, 2000||43|
|20||Lleyton Hewitt||November 19, 2001||80|
|21||Juan Carlos Ferrero||September 8, 2003||8|
|22||Andy Roddick||November 3, 2003||13|
|23||Roger Federer||February 2, 2004||310|
|24||Rafael Nadal||August 18, 2008||183|
|25||Novak Djokovic||July 4, 2011||223|
|26||Andy Murray||November 7, 2016||41|
Last update: 23 July 2018
a In 2009 a new point system was introduced where points were roughly doubled.
The following is a list of players who were ranked world No.5 or higher but not No.1 in the period since the 1973 introduction of the ATP computer rankings: