Al-Shafi%E2%80%98i
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Al-Shafi%E2%80%98i
Imam-ul-Fiqh
Ab? ?Abdill?h Muhammad ibn Idr?s al-Sh?fi'?
Al-Shafie Name.png
Abu ?Abdillah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i with Islamic calligraphy
Title Shaykh al-Isl?m
Born August 767 CE
Gaza, Bilad al-Sham, the Abbasid Caliphate
Died 19th of January 820 CE (aged 52)
al-Fustat, Egypt
Ethnicity Arab
Era Islamic Golden Age
Religion Islam
Jurisprudence Ijtihad
Main interest(s) Fiqh
Notable idea(s) Shafi'i madhhab
Notable work(s) Risalah: Usul al Fiqh, Kitab al-Umm

Ab? ?Abdull?h Muhammad ibn Idr?s al-Sh?fi (Arabic: ? ? ? ? ?) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Ul al-fiqh). Often referred to as 'Shaykh al-Isl?m', al-Sh?fi'? was one of the four great Imams, whose legacy on juridical matters and teaching eventually led to the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or Madh'hab). He was the most prominent student of Imam Malik ibn Anas and he also served as the Governor of Najar.[5] Born in Gaza, he also lived in Mecca, Medina, Yemen, Egypt and Baghdad.

Introduction

The biography of al-Sh?fi'i is difficult to trace. Dawud al-Zahiri was said to be the first to write such a biography, but the book has been lost.[6][7][8][page needed] The oldest surviving biography goes back to Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (died 327 AH/939 CE) and is no more than a collection of anecdotes, some of them fantastic. A biographical sketch was written by Zakar?ya b. Yahya al-S?j? was later reproduced, but even then, a great deal of legend had already crept into the story of al-Sh?fi'i's life.[9] The first real biography is by Ahmad Bayhaqi (died 458 AH/1066 CE) and is filled with what a modernist eye would qualify as pious legends. The following is what seems to be a sensible reading, according to a modern reductionist perspective.

Biography

Ancestry

Al-Sh?fi'? belonged to the Qurayshi clan of Banu Muttalib, which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim, to which the Prophet Muhammad and the 'Abbasid caliphs belonged. This lineage may have given him prestige, arising from his belonging to the tribe of Muhammad, and his great-grandfather's kinship to him.[9] However, al-Sh?fi'? grew up in poverty, in spite of his connections in the highest social circles.

Early life

He was born in Gaza by the town of Asqalan in 150 AH (767 CE).[10] His father died in Ash-Sham while he was still a child. Fearing the waste of his shar?f lineage, his mother decided to move to Mecca when he was about two years old. Furthermore, his maternal family roots were from Al-Yemen, and there were more members of his family in Mecca, where his mother believed he would better be taken care of. Little is known about al-Sh?fi'?'s early life in Mecca, except that he was brought up in poor circumstances and that from his youth he was devoted to learning.[9] An account states that his mother could not afford to buy his paper, so he would write his lessons on bones, particularly shoulder-bones.[11] He studied under Muslim ibn Khalid az-Zanji, the Mufti of Mecca then, who is thus considered to be the first teacher of Imam al-Sh?fi'?.[12] By the age of seven, al-Sh?fi'? had memorized the Qur'an. At ten, he had committed Imam Malik's Muwatta' to heart, at which time his teacher would deputize him to teach in his absence. Al-Sh?fi'? was authorized to issue fatwas at the age of fifteen.[13]

Apprenticeship under Imam M?lik

Al-Sh?fi'? moved to Al-Medinah in a desire for further legal training,[9] as was the tradition of acquiring knowledge. Accounts differ on the age in which he set out to Medina; an account placed his age at thirteen,[10] while another stated that he was in his twenties.[9] There, he was taught for many years by the famous Imam Malik ibn Anas,[14] who was impressed with his memory, knowledge and intelligence.[10][15] By the time of Imam M?lik's death in 179 AH (795 CE), al-Sh?fi'? had already gained a reputation as a brilliant jurist.[9] Even though he would later disagree with some of the views of Imam M?lik, al-Sh?fi'? accorded the deepest respect to him by always referring to him as "the Teacher".[10]

The Yemeni Fitna

At the age of thirty, al-Sh?fi'? was appointed as the 'Abbasid governor in the Yemeni city of Najran.[10][14] He proved to be a just administrator but soon became entangled with factional jealousies. In 803 CE, al-Sh?fi'? was accused of aiding the 'Alaw?s in a revolt, and was thus summoned in chains with a number of 'Alawis to the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid at Raqqa.[9] Whilst other conspirators were put to death, al-Shafi'i's own eloquent defense convinced the Caliph to dismiss the charge. Other accounts state that the famous Hanafi jurist, Mu?ammad ibn al-?asan al-Shayb?n?, was present at the court and defended al-Sh?fi'? as a well-known student of the sacred law.[9] What was certain was that the incident brought al-Sh?fi'? in close contact with al-Shayb?n?, who would soon become his teacher. It was also postulated that this unfortunate incident impelled him to devote the rest of his career to legal studies, never again to seek government service.[9]

Apprenticeship under Al-Shayb?n?, and exposure to Hanaf? Jurists

Al-Sh?fi'? traveled to Baghdad to study with Abu Hanifah's acolyte al-Shayb?n? and others.[14] It was here that he developed his first madh'hab, influenced by the teachings of both Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik.[] His work thus became known as "al Madhhab al Qadim lil Imam as Shafi'i," or the Old School of al-Shafi'i.[]

It was here that al-Sh?fi'? actively participated in legal arguments with the Hanaf? jurists, strenuously defending the M?lik? school of thought.[9] Some authorities stress the difficulties encountered by him in his arguments.[9] Al-Sh?fi'? eventually left Baghdad for Mecca in 804 CE, possibly because of complaints by Hanaf? followers to al-Shayb?n? that al-Shafi'i had become somewhat critical of al-Shayb?n?'s position during their disputes. As a result, al-Sh?fi'? reportedly participated in a debate with al-Shayb?n? over their differences, though who won the debate is disputed.[9]

In Mecca, al-Sh?fi'? began to lecture at the Sacred Mosque, leaving a deep impression on many students of law, including the famous Hanbali jurist, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.[9] Al-Sh?fi'?'s legal reasoning began to mature, as he started to appreciate the strength in the legal reasoning of the Hanaf? jurists, and became aware of the weaknesses inherent in both the M?lik? and Hanaf? schools of thought.[9]

Departure to Baghdad and Egypt

Al-Sh?fi'? eventually returned to Baghdad in 810 CE. By this time, his stature as a jurist had grown sufficiently to permit him to establish an independent line of legal speculation.[9] Caliph Al-Ma'mun is said to have offered al-Sh?fi'? a position as a judge, but he declined the offer.[9]

In 814 CE, al-Sh?fi'? decided to leave Baghdad for Egypt. The precise reasons for his departure from Al-'Iraq are uncertain, but it was in Egypt that he would meet another tutor, Sayyidah Nafisah bint Al-Hasan, who would also financially support his studies,[3][4] and where he would dictate his life's works to students. Several of his leading disciples would write down what al-Sh?fi'? said, who would then have them read it back aloud so that corrections could be made.[9] Al-Sh?fi'? biographers all agree that the legacy of works under his name are the result of those sessions with his disciples.[9]

Death

At least one authority states that al-Sh?fi'? died as a result of injuries sustained from an attack by supporters of a Maliki follower named Fityan. The story goes that al-Sh?fi'? triumphed in the argument over Fityan, who, being intemperate, resorted to abuse. The Governor of Egypt, with whom al-Shafi'i had good relations, ordered Fityan punished by having him paraded through the streets of the city carrying a plank and stating the reason for his punishment. Fityan's supporters were enraged by this treatment and attacked Shafi'i in retaliation after one of his lectures. Al-Shafi'i died a few days later.[16] However, al-Sh?fi'? was also known to have suffered from a serious intestinal illness, which kept him frail and ailing during the later years of his life. The precise cause of his death is thus unknown.[17]

Al-Sh?fi'? died at the age of 54 on the 30th of Rajab in 204 AH (20 January 820 CE), in Al-Fustat, Egypt, and was buried in the vault of the Ban? 'Abd al-Hakam, near Mount al-Muqattam.[9] The qubbah (Arabic: ?, dome) was built in 608 AH (1212 CE) by the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil, and the mausoleum remains an important site today.[18][19]

Legacy

Al-Sh?fi'? is credited with creating the essentials of the science of fiqh (the system of Islamic jurisprudence). He designated the four principles/sources/components of fiqh, which in order of importance are:

  1. The Qur'an;
  2. Hadith. i.e collections of the words, actions, and silent approval of Muhammad. (Together with the Qur'an these make up "revealed sources".);
  3. Ijma. i.e. the consensus of the (orthodox) Muslim community;
  4. Qiyas. i.e. the method of analogy.[20][21][22][23][24]

With this systematization of shari'a, he provided a legacy of unity for all Muslims and forestalled the development of independent, regionally based legal systems. The four Sunni legal schools or madhhabs keep their traditions within the framework that Shafi'i established. One of the schools is named for Al-Sh?fi'?. Shafi'i fiqh -- the Shafi'i school -- is followed in many different places in the Islamic world: Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen as well as Sri Lanka and southern parts of India.

Al-Sh?fi'? emphasized the final authority of a hadith of Muhammad, so that even the Qur'an was "to be interpreted in the light of traditions (i.e. hadith), and not vice versa."[25][26] While traditionally the Quran is considered above the Sunna in authority, Al-Shafi'i "forcefully argued" that the sunna stands "on equal footing with the Quran", (according to scholar Daniel Brown) for (as Al-Shafi'i put it) "the command of the Prophet is the command of God." [27][28]

Al-Sh?fi'?

"insists time after time that nothing can override the authority of the Prophet, even if it be attested only by an isolate tradition, and that every well-authenticated tradtion going back to the Prophet has precedence over the opinions of his Companions, their Successors, and later authorities."[29]

The focus by the Muslim community on ahadith of Muhammad and disinterest in ahadith of Muhammad's companions (most of whom survived him and spread his teachings after his death and whose ahadith were commonly used before Al-Sh?fi'? ) is thought (by scholar Jospeh Schacht) to reflect the success of Al-Sh?fi'?'s doctrine.[30]


Saladin built a madrassah and a shrine on the site of his tomb. Saladin's brother Afdal built a mausoleum for him in 1211 after the defeat of the Fatamids. It remains a site where people petition for justice.[31]

Among the followers of Imam al-Sh?fi'?'s school were:

Works

He authored more than 100 books.

In addition to this, al-Shafi'i was an eloquent poet, who composed many short poems aimed at addressing morals and behavior.

Anecdotal Stories

Many stories are told about the childhood and life of al-Shafi'i, and it is difficult to separate truth from myth:

Tradition says that he memorized the Qur'an at the age of seven; by ten, he had memorized the Muwatta of Malik ibn Anas; he was a mufti (given authorization to issue fatwa) at the age of fifteen. He recited the Qur'an every day in prayer, and twice a day in Ramadan. Some apocryphal accounts claim he was very handsome, that his beard did not exceed the length of his fist, and that it was very black. He wore a ring that was inscribed with the words, "Allah suffices Muhammad ibn Idris as a reliance." He was also known to be very generous.

He was also an accomplished archer,[10] a poet and some accounts call him the most eloquent of his time. Some accounts claim that there was a group of Bedouin who would come and sit to listen to him, not for the sake of learning, but just to listen to his eloquent use of the language. Even in later eras, his speeches and works were used by Arabic grammarians. He was given the title of Nasir al-Sunnah, the Defender of the Sunnah.

Al-Shafi'i loved the Islamic prophet Muhammad very deeply. Al Muzani said of him, "He said in the Old School: 'Supplication ends with the invocation of blessings on the Prophet, and its end is but by means of it.'" Al-Karabisi said: "I heard al-Shafi'i say that he disliked for someone to say 'the Messenger' (al-Rasul), but that he should say 'Allah's Messenger' (Rasul Allah) out of veneration for him." He divided his night into three parts: one for writing, one for praying, and one for sleeping.

Apocryphal accounts claim that Imam Ahmad said of al-Shafi'i, "I never saw anyone adhere more to hadith than al-Shafi'i. No one preceded him in writing down the hadith in a book." Imam Ahmad is also claimed to have said, "Not one of the scholars of hadith touched an inkwell nor a pen except he owed a huge debt to al-Shafi'i."

Muhammad al-Shaybani said, "If the scholars of hadith speak, it is in the language of al-Shafi'i."

Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, an 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar stated:[35]

According to many accounts, he was said to have a photographic memory. One anecdote states that he would always cover one side of a book while reading because a casual glance at the other page would commit it to memory.

He claimed that the game of chess was an image of war, and it was possible to play chess as a mental exercise for the solution of military tactics. Chess could not be played for a stake, but if a player was playing for a mental exercise, he was not doing anything illegal. Provided the player took care that his fondness for chess did not cause him to break any other rule of life, he saw no harm in playing chess. He played chess himself, defending his practice by the example of many of his companions.

Quotations

  • He who seeks pearls immerses himself in the sea.[36]
  • He said to the effect that no knowledge of Islam can be gained from books of Kalam, as kalam "is not from knowledge"[37][38] and that "It is better for a man to spend his whole life doing whatever Allah has prohibited - besides shirk with Allah - rather than spending his whole life involved in kalam."[11]
  • Ahadith from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad have to be accepted without questioning, reasoning, critical thinking. "If a hadith is authenticated as coming from the Prophet, we have to resign ourselves to it, and your talk and the talk of others about why and how, is a mistake ..."[39]

Islamic scholars

See also

References

  1. ^ "Imam Ja'afar as Sadiq". History of Islam. 
  2. ^ The Origins of Islamic Law: The Qur'an, the Muwaa' and Madinan ?Amal, by Yasin Dutton, pg. 16
  3. ^ a b Nafisa at-Tahira
  4. ^ a b Aliyah, Zainab. "Great Women in Islamic History: A Forgotten Legacy". Young Muslim Digest. Retrieved 2015. 
  5. ^ Fadel M. (2008). The True, the Good and the Reasonable: The Theological and Ethical Roots of Public Reason in Islamic Law Archived 2010-06-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence.
  6. ^ Al-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-Asma wal-Lughat, v.1, pg.82
  7. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Tawalli al-Ta`sis li-Ma'ali Muhammad bin Idris, pg.26
  8. ^ Ibn 'Asakir, History of Damascus
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Khadduri, Majid (2011). Translation of al-Sh?fi'i's Ris?la -- Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence. England: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 8, 11-16. ISBN 978 0946621 15 6. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Haddad, Gibril Fouad (2007). The Four Imams and Their Schools. United Kingdom: Muslim Academic Trust. pp. 189, 190, 193. ISBN 1 902350 09 X. 
  11. ^ a b Ibn Abi Hatim, Manaaqibush-Shaafi'ee, pg. 39
  12. ^ Ibn Kathir, Tabaqat Ash-Shafi'iyyin, Vol 1. Page 27 D?r Al-Wafa'
  13. ^ Ibn Ab? H?tim. Man?qib al-Sh?fi'? wa-?b?duh. Dar Al Kotob Al-Ilmiyyah. p. 39. 
  14. ^ a b c A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 35. ISBN 978-1780744209. 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ Khadduri, pp. 15-16 (Translator's Introduction). Khadduri cites for this story Yaqut's Mu'jam al-Udab?, vol. VI pp. 394-95 (ed. Margoliouth, London: 1931), and Ibn Hajar's Taw?l? al-Ta's?s, p. 86.
  17. ^ Khadduri, p. 16 (Translator's Introduction).
  18. ^ "Archnet". Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. 
  19. ^ "Tour Egypt :: The Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi". 
  20. ^ Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 1. 
  21. ^ Snouck Hurgronje, C. Verspreide Geschriften. v.ii. 1923-7, page 286-315
  22. ^ Étude sur la théorie du droit musulman (Paris : Marchal et Billard, 1892-1898.)
  23. ^ Margoliouth, D.S., The Early Development of Mohammedanism, 1914, page 65ff
  24. ^ Schacht, Joseph in Encyclopedia of Islam, 1913 v.IV, sv Usul
  25. ^ J. SCHACHT, An Introduction to Islamic Law (1964), supra note 5, at 47
  26. ^ Forte, David F. (1978). "Islamic Law; the impact of Joseph Schacht" (PDF). Loyola Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review. 1: 13. Retrieved 2018. 
  27. ^ al-Shafii ''Kitab al-Risala'', ed. Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1940), 84
  28. ^ Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0521570778. Retrieved 2018. 
  29. ^ Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 11. 
  30. ^ Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 4. 
  31. ^ Ruthven Malise, Islam in the World. 3rd edition Granta Books London 2006 ch. 4, page 122
  32. ^ The Levels of the Shafiee scholars by Imam As-Subki
  33. ^ Nahyan Fancy, Science and Religion in Mamluk Egypt (2013, ISBN 1136703616), page 23: "... highlighted by the latter-day Shafi'i authority, Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti."
  34. ^ Scott C. Lucas, Constructive Critics, ?ad?th Literature, and the Articulation of Sunni Islam (2004, ISBN 9004133194), page 72: "It is somewhat astonishing that al-Dhahabi, a purported adherent to the Shafi'i madhhab, does not honor al-Shafi'i with the sobriquet Shayk al-Islam." (Emphasis added.)
  35. ^ Izalat al-Khafa p. 77 part 7
  36. ^ Diwan al-Imam al-shafi'i, (book of poems - al-shafi'i) p. 100; Dar El-Mrefah Beirut - Lebanon 2005. ISBN 9953-429-33-2
  37. ^ Dhammul-Kalaam (Q/213)
  38. ^ Dhahabi, as-Siyar (10/30)
  39. ^ Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 13. 
Notes
  • Ruthven Malise, Islam in the World. 3rd edition Granta Books London 2006 ch. 4
  • Majid Khadduri (trans.), "al-Shafi'i's Risala: Treatise on the Foundation of Islamic Jurisprudence". Islamic Texts Society 1961, reprinted 1997. ISBN 0-946621-15-2.
  • al-Shafi'i, Muhammad b. Idris,"The Book of the Amalgamation of Knowledge" translated by Aisha Y. Musa in Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008

Helal M Abu Taher, Char Imam(Four Imams), Islamic Foundation, Dhaka,1980.

External links


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