Allegiance Bias
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Allegiance Bias

Allegiance bias (or allegiance effect) in behavioral sciences, denote to the finding or conclusions being crafted in a manner that reconciles best with the investigator's or researcher's perspectives and preferences, instead of retaining its empirical, innate or native state.[1]




Despite the fact that researchers find the outcomes of psychological evaluations to be influenced from allegiance from a specific school of thought, the role of allegiance in the research field should be evaluated cautiously. Several meta-analyses have shown contradictory results between experimenter's allegiance (EA) and assessment effect sizes in favor of the preferred conclusions.[4]



Also, we should not include meta-analysis that examines a combination of psychotherapy and non-psychotherapy treatments (e.g., medication) if it was directly compared with another type of psychotherapy or meta-analysis evaluating direct comparisons between different types of psychotherapy. Meta-analysis assessing non-verbal techniques, web-based treatments and non-specific or miscellaneous treatments (e.g., yoga, dietary advice, recreation, biofeedback, etc.) should also be excluded.[4]

Forensic psychology

Most often forensic experts indulge in having formed a biased opinion of the assessment in favor of the party retaining their services as opposed to having it objective by means of the evidence available.[6]


Evaluations in Capital Cases





The analysis on direct comparisons did not address the quality of studies and neither did it have any significant association between allegiant and non-allegiant studies; whereas significant differences were observed in cases where treatment integrity was not evaluated.[13]


In legal cases, evaluator attitudes and other attributes may systematically influence from whom evaluators are willing to accept a referral. Filtering and selection effects in adversarial settings have been assumed to exist, but with few empirical tests of the hypothesis to date.[17][18] Current studies demonstrate that these experts have preexisting biases that may affect for whom they are willing to work in the adversarial system-thus, likely amplifying the effects of the system-induced biases when layered with preexisting expert biases.




Objective methods

  • Creating a list - this would be the simplest method for a professional to hypothesize all/any possibilities that would seem reasonable, at the inception of an evaluation process.[6]
  • Surveillance[20][21]


Reporting policies

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users.[22]


Since the development of the QUOROM (quality of reporting of meta-analysis) statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported.[23]


Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analysis of evaluations of health care interventions.[24][25]

The PRISMA statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this explanation and elaboration document, they have explained the meaning and rationale for each checklist item & have include an example of good reporting, while also where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature.[26]

Conflict of interest




See also


  1. ^ Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Bryson, Susan W. (2017-03-31). "Allegiance Bias and Therapist Effects: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Binge Eating Disorder". Clinical Psychology. 18 (2): 119-125. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2011.01243.x. ISSN 0969-5893. PMC 4118818Freely accessible. PMID 25089079. 
  2. ^ Dragioti, Elena; Dimoliatis, Ioannis; Evangelou, Evangelos (2015-05-30). "Disclosure of researcher allegiance in meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy: a systematic appraisal". BMJ Open. 5 (6). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007206. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 4458582Freely accessible. PMID 26033943. 
  3. ^ Staines, Graham L.; Cleland, Charles M. "Bias in meta-analytic estimates of the absolute efficacy of psychotherapy". Review of General Psychology. 11 (4): 329-347. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.11.4.329. 
  4. ^ a b Dragioti, Elena; Dimoliatis, Ioannis; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Evangelou, Evangelos (2015-09-15). "A systematic appraisal of allegiance effect in randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy". Annals of General Psychiatry. 14. doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0063-1. ISSN 1744-859X. PMC 4570291Freely accessible. PMID 26379758. 
  5. ^ Falkenström, Fredrik; Markowitz, John C.; Jonker, Hanske; Philips, Björn; Holmqvist, Rolf (2013-05-01). "Can psychotherapists function as their own controls? Meta-analysis of the crossed therapist design in comparative psychotherapy trials". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 74 (5): 482-491. doi:10.4088/JCP.12r07848. ISSN 1555-2101. PMC 3683365Freely accessible. PMID 23146326. 
  6. ^ a b "Identifying and managing potential bias in forensic evaluations". APA Div. 41: American Psychology-Law Society. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ Neal, Tess M. S. (2016-04-28). "Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?". PLoS ONE. 11 (4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154434. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4849669Freely accessible. PMID 27124416. 
  8. ^ DeMatteo, David; Edens, John F.; Galloway, Meghann; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney; Formon, Dana (2014-06-01). "The role and reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in U.S. sexually violent predator evaluations: a case law survey". Law and Human Behavior. 38 (3): 248-255. doi:10.1037/lhb0000059. ISSN 1573-661X. PMID 24127888. 
  9. ^ DeMatteo, David; Edens, John F.; Galloway, Meghann; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney; Formon, Dana. "The role and reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised in U.S. sexually violent predator evaluations: A case law survey." Law and Human Behavior. 38 (3): 248-255. doi:10.1037/lhb0000059. 
  10. ^ BA, Gianni Pirelli; PhD, Patricia A. Zapf (2008-04-16). "An Investigation of Psychologists' Practices and Attitudes toward Participation in Capital Evaluations". Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. 8 (1): 39-66. doi:10.1080/15228930801947294. ISSN 1522-8932. 
  11. ^ Deitchman, Mary Ann; Kennedy, Wallace A.; Beckham, Jean C. (1991-06-01). "Self-selection factors in the participation of mental health professionals in competency for execution evaluations". Law and Human Behavior. 15 (3): 287-303. ISSN 0147-7307. PMID 11654262. 
  12. ^ Leykin, Yan; DeRubeis, Robert J. (2009-03-01). "Allegiance in Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Separating Association From Bias". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 16 (1): 54-65. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2009.01143.x. ISSN 1468-2850. 
  13. ^ Weisz, John R.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M. "Evidence-based youth psychotherapies versus usual clinical care: A meta-analysis of direct comparisons". American Psychologist. 61 (7): 671-689. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.61.7.671. 
  14. ^ Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Laska, Kevin M.; Del Re, A. C.; Baardseth, Timothy P.; Fluckiger, Christoph; Minami, Takuya; Kivlighan, D. Martin; Gunn, Wade (2011-12-01). "Evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety versus treatment-as-usual: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (8): 1304-1312. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.07.012. ISSN 1873-7811. PMID 21996291. 
  15. ^ Munder, Thomas; Gerger, Heike; Trelle, Sven; Barth, Jürgen (2011-11-01). "Testing the allegiance bias hypothesis: A meta-analysis". Psychotherapy Research. 21 (6): 670-684. doi:10.1080/10503307.2011.602752. ISSN 1050-3307. PMID 21797736. 
  16. ^ Munder, Thomas; Gerger, Heike; Trelle, Sven; Barth, Jürgen (2011-11-01). "Testing the allegiance bias hypothesis: a meta-analysis". Psychotherapy Research. 21 (6): 670-684. doi:10.1080/10503307.2011.602752. ISSN 1468-4381. PMID 21797736. 
  17. ^ Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Guarnera, Lucy A.; Rufino, Katrina A. (2013-10-01). "Are forensic experts biased by the side that retained them?". Psychological Science. 24 (10): 1889-1897. doi:10.1177/0956797613481812. ISSN 1467-9280. PMID 23969777. 
  18. ^ Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Guarnera, Lucy A.; Rufino, Katrina A. (2013-08-22). "Are Forensic Experts Biased by the Side That Retained Them?". Psychological Science. 24 (10): 1889-1897. doi:10.1177/0956797613481812. 
  19. ^ Gaffan, E. A.; Tsaousis, I.; Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. (1995-12-01). "Researcher allegiance and meta-analysis: the case of cognitive therapy for depression". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63 (6): 966-980. ISSN 0022-006X. PMID 8543719. 
  20. ^ Robinson, L. A.; Berman, J. S.; Neimeyer, R. A. (1990-07-01). "Psychotherapy for the treatment of depression: a comprehensive review of controlled outcome research". Psychological Bulletin. 108 (1): 30-49. ISSN 0033-2909. PMID 2200072. 
  21. ^ Imel, Zac E.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Miller, Scott D.; Fleming, Reg R. (2008-12-01). "Distinctions without a difference: direct comparisons of psychotherapies for alcohol use disorders". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 22 (4): 533-543. doi:10.1037/a0013171. ISSN 0893-164X. PMID 19071978. 
  22. ^ Moher, David; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Sampson, Margaret; Altman, Douglas G. (2007-03-27). "Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews". PLoS Medicine. 4 (3): e78. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040078. ISSN 1549-1676. PMC 1831728Freely accessible. PMID 17388659. 
  23. ^ Moher, D.; Cook, D. J.; Eastwood, S.; Olkin, I.; Rennie, D.; Stroup, D. F. (1999-11-27). "Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses". Lancet. 354 (9193): 1896-1900. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 10584742. 
  24. ^ Wen, Jin; Ren, Yu; Wang, Li; Li, Youping; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Min; Liu, Ping; Ye, Lu; Li, Yi (2008-08-01). "The reporting quality of meta-analyses improves: a random sampling study". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 61 (8): 770-775. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2007.10.008. ISSN 0895-4356. PMID 18411041. 
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  31. ^ Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Bero, Lisa A.; Coyne, James C.; Lexchin, Joel; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D. (2011-03-09). "Reporting of conflicts of interest in meta-analyses of trials of pharmacological treatments". JAMA. 305 (10): 1008-1017. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.257. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID 21386079. 
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  33. ^ Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen (2016-04-26). "Conflicts of interest and spin in reviews of psychological therapies: a systematic review". BMJ Open. 6 (4). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010606. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 4853969Freely accessible. PMID 27118287. 
  •  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  •  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  •  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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