Alvars
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Alvars
Alvars
Religion Hinduism

The alvars, also spelt as alwars or azhwars (v?rka? [a:a:r], 'those immersed in god') were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu Supreme god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[1] They are venerated especially in Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu or Krishna as the Supreme Being.

Many modern academics place the Alvars date between 5th century to 10th century CE. Orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and Madhurakavi Alvar, making the number twelve.[2] Andal is the only female saint-poet in the 12 Alvars. Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva Nayanars, they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu.

The devotional outpourings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his avatars. They praised the Divya Desams, 108 "abodes" (temples) of these Vaishnava deities. The poetry of the Alvars echoes bhakti to God through love, and in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions.[3] The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha. The Bhakti literature that sprang from Alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit.[4] As part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[5]

Etymology

The word azhwar has traditionally been etymologized as from Tamil. 'Azh' (), 'to immerse oneself' as 'one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god'[6] However recently Indologist S.Palaniappan has shown that what was originally v?r (?) meaning 'One who rules', or '(Spiritual) Master' got changed through hypercorrection and folk etymology to ?zhv?r (?) meaning 'One who is immersed'[7] Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence and even literary evidence from Vaisnhavaite tradition itself for a gradual sound change from v?r to ?zhv?r over a period of two centuries from the 9th to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaishnavism, Shaivism and even Jainism and to political personalities. He states: "?zhv?r is but a corrupt form of v?r which has been used interchangeably with n?yan?r in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaishnava claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that Nathamuni has used the form v?r but Pin [A disciple and younger cousin of R?m?nuja] ended up using the form ?zhv?r suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers. This error was obviously due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere". The original word ? compares with the epithet 'ã?' ((?) for the female canonized Vaishnava saint G?dai ((?) and they share the same verb Tamil. ((), the former being the honorific non-past (or present-future) form and the latter the feminine past form of that same verb.

Legacy

Alvars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism in the Tamil-speaking regions.[8] The alvars were influential in promoting the Bhagavata cult and the two Hindu epics, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[9] The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[10][11] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824 - 924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda or Tamil Veda".[12][13] The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[11][14]

The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three alvars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage; Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin caste; Kulasekhara was a Kshatria, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from Tamil Panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the alavars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu.

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). It is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[10][11][15][16][17] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region.

Summary

Some modern scholars suggest that they lived during 5th - 9th century CE, "on the basis of a few historical evidences", although no "clear" evidence exists to fit them between 5th to 9th century CE.[18][19] The Encyclopædia Britannica says that Alvars lived between 7th-10th century CE.[20] Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, James G. Lochtefeld of Carthage College, notes in his The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, the first three Alvars Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belonged to the 7th century; while Nammalvar and Madhurakavi belonged to the 10th century; while rest of them lived in the 9th century.[21]

Traditionally the Alvars are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE.[22][23] Traditional dates take them to the age of Shuka from the period of the Bhagavata Purana, many are from Dwaparayuga, while Nammalwar belongs to the early part of Kaliyuga.[24]

The following table shows the place, century and star of birth of each Alvar. Scholarly dating, except that of Kulasekhara Alvar, is based on summary of views of modern scholars by Dr. N Subba Reddiar, although even these dates lack historical evidence.[18] Much effort has went into dating Kulasekhara Alvar recently. The Alvar is now identified as Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara (reigned 844--883 CE), the second known ruler of the Cheras of Makotai (Cranganore) (c. 800--1124 CE).[25]

Sl no Alwar Saint Scholarly dating[18] Traditional date[26][27] and Place Composition Month Nakshatra Avatar of
1 Poigai Alvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Kanchipuram Mudhal Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Thiruvonam (Sravana) Panchajanya (Vishnu's conch)
2 Bhoothathalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Thirukadalmallai (Mahabhalipuram) Irandam Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Avittam (Dhanishta) Kaumodaki (Vishnu's Mace)
3 Peyalvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Mylapore Moondram Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Sadayam (Satabhishak) Nandaka (Vishnu's sword)
4 Thirumalisai Alvar 720 CE 4203 BCE Thirumazhisai Nanmugan Thiruvandhadhi, 96 verses; ThiruChanda Virutham, 120 verses. Thai Magam (Magh?) Sudarshana Chakra (Vishnu's discus)
5
Kalamegaperumal1 (2).jpg
Nammalvar 798 CE 3102/3059 BCE[28]Azhwar Thirunagari (Kurugur) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses. Vaikasi Vishaakam (Vish?kh?) Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander)
6 Madhurakavi Alvar 800 CE 3102 BCE, Thirukollur Kanninun Siruthambu, 11 verses. Chitthirai Chitthirai (Chithra) Garuda (Vishnu's mount)
7 Kulasekhara Alvar (Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara[29]) 9th century CE (reigned 844-883 CE)[30] 3075 BCE, Tiruvancikkulam (Cranganore), Chera Kingdom of Makotai Perumal Thirumozhi, 105 verses. Maasee Punar Poosam (Punarvasu) Kaustubha (Vishnu's jewel embedded in his necklace)
8 Periyalvar 785 CE 3056 BCE, Srivilliputhur Thiruppallaandu, 12 verses; Periyazhwar Thirumozhi, 461 verses. Aani Swathi (Swaathee) Garuda (Vishnu's mount)
9 Andal 767 CE 3005 BCE, Srivilliputhur Nachiyar Thirumozhi, 143 verses; Thiruppavai, 30 verses. Aadi Pooram (P?rva Phalgun? (Pubbha)) Bhudevi (Vishnu's wife and the earth goddess)
10
Thondaradipodi Azhwar.jpg
Thondaradippodi Alvar 726 CE 2814 BCE, Thirumandangudi Thirumaalai, 45 verses; Thirupalliezhuchi, 10 verses. Margazhi Kettai (Jyeshta) Vanamalai (Vishnu's garland)
11
Thirupaan Azhwar.jpg
Thiruppaan Alvar 781 CE 2760 BCE, Uraiyur Amalan Adi Piraan, 10 verses. Karthigai Rogini (Rohinee) Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest)
12
Thirumangai Azhwar.jpg
Thirumangai Alvar 776 CE 2706 BCE, Thirukurayalur Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses; Siriya Thirumadal, 40 verses; Periya Thirumadal, 78 verses; Kaarthigai Krithika (K?ttik?) Sharanga (Vishnu's bow)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ Flood 1996, p. 131
  3. ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages". Indian literature , Govt of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ "About Alvars". divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ Mittal, S. G. R.; Thursby (2006). Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9780203970027. 
  6. ^ "Meaning of Alvar". ramanuja.org. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ Alvar or Nayanar : The Role of Sound Variation, Hypercorrection and Folk Etymology in Interpreting the Nature of Vaisnava Saint-Poets (PDF). South-Indian Horizons, Institut Francais de Pondichéry (French Institute of Pondicherry). 2005. 
  8. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 47-48
  9. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  10. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram - Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 
  11. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  12. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 
  13. ^ Garg, Ga?g? R?m (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352-354. ISBN 9788170223757. 
  14. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 
  15. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 
  16. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17-18. 
  17. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 
  18. ^ a b c "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the ?l?v?rs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 11
  19. ^ "M?dhavêndra Pur?: A Link between Bengal Vaiavism and South Indian "Bhakti", by Friedhelm HardyThe Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No. 1 (1974), pp. 23-41, Published by: Cambridge University Press, URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25203503
  20. ^ "Azhvar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 30 Dec. 2014 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/18115/Azhvar>.
  21. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 29-30. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8. 
  22. ^ "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the ?l?v?rs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 10
  23. ^ "?r?bhyam: Catu?s?try?tmaka?", by R?m?nuja, Raghunath Damodar Karmarkar, p.18, original from = The University of Michigan
  24. ^ Jean Filliozat. Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 23. 
  25. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy--Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800-AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996
  26. ^ "Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India", by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, p. 403-404, publisher = Asian Educational Services
  27. ^ "Music and temples, a ritualistic approach", by L. Annapoorna, p. 23, year = 2000, ISBN 9788175740907
  28. ^ "History of Classical Sanskrit Literature", by M. Srinivasachariar, p. 278, ISBN 9788120802841
  29. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy--Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800-AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996
  30. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy--Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800-AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996

References

  • Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Hymns For The Drowning by A.K. Ramanujan (Penguin),

Nammalvar by A.Srinivasa Raghavan (Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi),1975, ISBN 81-260-0416 9 Alwargal - ^Or Eliya Arimugam by Sujatha (Visa Publications, Chennai, India)(in Tamil), 2001

External links


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