American Soccer Pyramid
The professional soccer clubs of the United States and Canadian teams playing in U.S. leagues (2015).

The United States soccer league system is a series of professional and amateur soccer leagues based, in whole or in part, in the United States. Sometimes called the American soccer pyramid, teams and leagues in the United States are not linked by the system of promotion and relegation typical in soccer elsewhere. Instead, U.S. Soccer (USSF) officially defines leagues in levels, called divisions, with the top three sanctioned directly by the USSF.

For practical and historical reasons, some teams from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, Canada, and Puerto Rico (considered a separate country by FIFA) also compete in these leagues, although they are not eligible for the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup, which is open only to teams affiliated with U.S. Soccer, and cannot represent the United States in the CONCACAF Champions League; only USSF-affiliated teams can represent the U.S. in the continental tournament.

Structure

No professional league in any of the major pro sports leagues in the US or Canada, including the professional soccer leagues, currently uses a system of promotion and relegation.[1] The country's governing body for the sport, the United States Soccer Federation (also known as the USSF or U.S. Soccer), oversees the league system and is responsible for sanctioning professional leagues. The leagues themselves are responsible for admitting and administering individual teams. Amateur soccer in the United States is regulated by the United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA), the only amateur soccer organization sanctioned by the USSF.

Limited forms of promotion and relegation have existed in the past; for example, the United Soccer Leagues previously ran multiple sanctioned leagues, between which teams could voluntarily move, although this was largely unused. Several franchises had been voluntarily relegated from the First Division to the Second, and occasionally from the professional ranks to the PDL, usually to reduce operating costs or to re-structure the organization of the franchise in question. Similarly, some franchises have been given the opportunity to move up to a higher level having found success in the lower divisions--most recently USL2 champions Cleveland City Stars moving to USL1 in 2009--but this was not a regular occurrence. Automatic relegation between the two leagues, as exists in many other national league systems, was considered by the USL, but was never implemented.[2]

Some amateur leagues sanctioned by the USASA also use promotion and relegation systems within multiple levels of their leagues. However, there has never been a merit-based promotion system offered to the USASA's "national" leagues, the NPSL and the PDL.

College soccer in the United States is sanctioned by bodies outside the direct control of the USSF, the most important of which is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). See NCAA Division I women's soccer programs, NCAA Division I men's soccer programs, and NCAA Division II men's soccer programs for a list of college soccer programs in the United States.

Men

In the United States, professional men's outdoor soccer leagues are ranked by the United States Soccer Federation into one of three divisions: Division I, Division II, and Division III.[3] Amateur soccer organizations are also recognized by the USSF, but individual amateur leagues are not.[4] The only adult amateur soccer organization currently recognized by U.S. Soccer is the USASA, although several other leagues operate independently under the USASA umbrella.

Professional

League Division Teams Attendance Founded
Major League Soccer Division I 22 21,801 1994
North American Soccer League Division II 8 4,390 2009
United Soccer League 30 4,326 2010

The standards for division I, II and III leagues are set by the USSF. [5]

Since 1996, Major League Soccer (MLS) has been the only sanctioned USSF Division I men's outdoor soccer league in the United States. MLS has grown from 10 teams in 1996 to 22 teams as of the 2017 season.

The two sanctioned Division II men's outdoor soccer leagues are the North American Soccer League (NASL) and the United Soccer League (USL). NASL was formed in 2009, but did not debut until 2011 following the controversial 2010 season which saw neither the USL First Division nor the NASL receive Division II sanctioning from the USSF, resulting in the temporary USSF Division 2 Pro League. NASL was provisionally sanctioned as a Division II league in 2011-2017 and fielded 8 teams for the 2017 season.[6] However, the USSF rejected the NASL's application to maintain provisional Division II status in September 2017 as NASL did not present a plan[7] on how it would meet the Division II criteria[8]. In response NASL filed "a federal antitrust suit against the U.S. Soccer Federation"[9] in an attempt to force USSF to drop all Division designations.

The USL, formed as a result of the merger of the former USL First Division and USL Second Division, was sanctioned as Division III league from 2011-2016. USL was also provisionally sanctioned as a Division II league for 2017[10], and claims that their final applications meets all the standards for Division II sanctioning.[11] USL is divided into 2 conferences East and West to reduce travel costs for its teams and has minimal inter-conference games. The conference champions then meet in a single match to determine the league champion.

There are currently no sanctioned Division III leagues. Two leagues have indicated that they will seek Division III status. United Soccer Leagues, admistrator of the USL and PDL leagues, announced that they would start a new league, tentatively called D3, and seek Division III certification and targeting 2019 as the first season for the new league.[12] National Independent Soccer Association (NISA) led by former Chicago Fire general manager Peter Wilt plans on fielding 8-10 teams in 2018 and has stated that it will seek Division III certification.[13]

In September 2015, it was reported that the USSF was proposing the addition of eligibility requirements for sanctioned Division I soccer leagues, including that they must have at least 16 teams, stadiums with a capacity of at least 15,000, and at least 75% of the teams must be in cities that have a population of at least 2 million.[14]

Tier Leagues in each Division

(Sanctioned by USSF as professional leagues)

Professional League Standards[15]
Minimum #
of Teams
Timezones[16] Metro Size
(75%)[17]
Stadium
Capacity
Required Bond
Max for League
Minimum Ownership Net Worth[18]

USSF Division I

Major League Soccer (MLS)
19 U.S. clubs and 3 Canadian clubs

12 in year 1
14 by year 3
Eastern
Central
Pacific
1,000,000 15,000 $1,000,000/team
$20,000,000
$40,000,000 primary
$70,000,000 combined

Western Conference
10 U.S. clubs and 1 Canadian club

Eastern Conference
9 U.S. clubs and 2 Canadian clubs

USSF Division II


North American Soccer League (NASL)
6 U.S. clubs,
1 Canadian club and 1 Puerto Rican club

United Soccer League (USL)
27 U.S. clubs and 3 Canadian clubs

8 in year 1
10 by year 3
12 by year 6
Eastern
Central
Pacific
750,000 5,000 $750,000/team
$15,000,000
$20,000,000
no combined minimum

Western Conference (USL)
14 U.S. clubs and 1 Canadian club

Eastern Conference (USL)
13 U.S. clubs and 2 Canadian clubs

USSF Division III

No leagues have been sanctioned for Division III in 2017
(see text for announcements regarding future leagues)
8 teams not specified no minimum 1,000 $250,000/team
no league max
$10,000,000
no combined minimum

Below is a list of the number of teams[19] sanctioned by the USSF in the so-called "modern era" under the division sanctioning scheme described above.

Pro Soccer Teams (includes teams outside US)
Year Total Pro Teams[a] Division I Division II Division III Non-Sanctioned[b]
MLS APSL USISL PL -
1994 41 - 7[c] -[d]
1995 61 - 6 55
MLS APSL/USISL SL USISL PL -
1996 65 10 28[e] 27
MLS A-League USISL D3PL -
1997 73 10 24[f] 39[g]
1998 79 12 28 39
1999 68 12 30 26[h]
2000 59 12 25 22
2001 50 12 21 17
2002 46 10 18 18
MLS A-League Pro League -
2003 42 10 19 13[i]
2004 38 10 16 12
MLS USL-1[j] USL-2 MLS Reserve
2005 33 12 12 9 12[k]
2006 33 12 12 9 12
2007 35 13 12 10 13
2008 35 14 11 10 14
2009 35 15 11 9
MLS USSF D2 Pro[l] USL-2 -
2010 34 16 12 6
MLS NASL[m] USL[n] MLS Reserve
2011 38 18 8 12 18
2012 38 19 8 11 19
2013 40 19 8 13 15
2014 43 19 10 14 8[o]
2015 55 20 11 24
2016 61 20 12 29
MLS NASL/USL * -
2017 60 22 38[p] none[q]
NOTES
  1. ^ Only includes those sanctioned by USSF as Professional
  2. ^ Teams with players receiving salary (professional teams) that played in leagues not sanctioned as Division I, II, or III by USSF.
  3. ^ American Professional Soccer League changed their name to A-League and gained official Division II sanctioning this year.
  4. ^ The USISL Professional League included 70 teams of which 36 were Amateur teams. Not included as the league did not yet have Division III sanctioning.
  5. ^ USISL divided into 2 Division. USISL Select League had 21 teams and was shared status of Division II sanctioning together the A-League. The USISL Pro League had 27 teams and was status of Division III.
  6. ^ A-League merged with USISL and teams from USISL Select League became part of the A-League. The merger avoided competing Division II leagues.
  7. ^ USISL renamed Division III league to USISL D3 Pro.
  8. ^ USISL D3 Pro was renamed USL D3 Pro as part of the re-branding of USISL to United Soccer Leagues.
  9. ^ Started season called the USL Pro Select League but was changed to Pro Soccer League for legal reasons.
  10. ^ The A-League was renamed USL First Division commonly called USL-1.
  11. ^ MLS sponsored a Reserve League with players from MLS teams that are not on the active roster from 2005-2008 & 2011-2013.
  12. ^ Due to the conflict resulting from the sale of United Soccer Leagues by Nike, USSF organized this league which had teams from the First Division of United Soccer Leagues and the newly formed North American Soccer League.
  13. ^ NASL gained provisional Division II sanctioning this year.
  14. ^ Was branded as USL Pro until 2015.
  15. ^ Last year of MLS Reserve League - teams now expected to have a USL affiliate instead.
  16. ^ USL had 30 teams and gained provisional Division II sanctioning in 2017. NASL and its 8 teams continued their provisional Division II sanctioning in 2017.
  17. ^ No league played at the Division III level in 2017.

Amateur

The USSF does not officially recognize distinctions between amateur soccer leagues in the United States. However, the USASA sanctions affiliated, but separately run, national leagues that are recognized in practical terms as playing at a higher level than the USASA state association leagues; for example, as of 2014 they receive automatic berths to the US Open Cup.[]

The Premier Development League takes place during the summer months, and the player pool is drawn mainly from NCAA college soccer players seeking to continue playing high level soccer during their summer break, while still maintaining their college eligibility.[20] The National Premier Soccer League is similar to the Premier Development League and also attracts top amateur talent from around the United States. However, unlike the PDL the NPSL does not have any age limits or restrictions, thus incorporating both college players and former professional players.[]

Leagues[m 1] sanctioned through United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA)[21]
an Organization Member of USSF and only member of the Adult Council[22]

United Soccer Leagues
Premier Development League
(PDL)
72 clubs (in 4 conferences and 10 divisions)
(plus 6 Canadian clubs)

Central Conference
Eastern Conference
Southern Conference
Western Conference

National Premier Soccer League (NPSL)
96 clubs (in 4 regions and 14 conferences)
Northeast Region
South Region
Midwest Region
West Region

USASA Elite Amateur Leagues
13 State & Regional Leagues[23]

Other Regional Leagues
American Soccer League
Premier League of America

United States Adult Soccer Association state leagues
55 state associations in 4 regions
See List of USASA affiliated leagues for complete list
Region I
Region II
Region III
Region IV

US Club Soccer (USCS)
39 leagues in 4 regions
East Region
Midwest Region
South Region
West Region

  1. ^ Tier/Division numbers are omitted for these leagues as U.S. Soccer does not designate a Division number or directly sanction them. The leagues are generally ordered by quality of play from top to bottom.[] Currently there is no relegation/promotion among any of these leagues.

Men's national soccer cups

Women

The Women's United Soccer Association started playing in 2001, but suspended operations in 2003. It was replaced in 2009 with Women's Professional Soccer. WPS closed after the 2011 season due to a dispute with owners, and the WPSL Elite League was the de facto top tier of women's soccer in 2012. In November 2012 the National Women's Soccer League, sponsored by the United States Soccer Federation, the Canadian Soccer Association and the Mexican Football Federation was announced.[24] The league started play in April 2013.

There were two leagues that acted as an unofficial lower division. The United Soccer Leagues ran the W-League from 1995 to 2015.[25][26] The Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL) was founded in 1998.[27] Almost immediately following the demise of the W-League, United Women's Soccer was founded with orphan W-League teams and WPSL breakaways.[28]

While there was never official distinction between the national amateur leagues, it was commonly assumed that the W-League was a higher quality than WPSL. Two W-League teams had effectively promoted into the first division - the Buffalo Flash becoming the Western New York Flash in 2011 and D.C. United Women becoming the Washington Spirit in 2013 - while no WPSL teams have ever done so. UWS, as W-League's spiritual successor, has strengthened this image of being the higher-quality amateur league by attracting four teams that had been associated with WPSL Elite.

Tier

Leagues/divisions

USSF Division 1[w 1]

National Women's Soccer League
(NWSL)
10 clubs

[w 2] Affiliated through United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA)[21][31]

United Women's Soccer
(UWS)
20 clubs (in 3 conferences)
(plus 1 Canadian club)

Women's Premier Soccer League
(WPSL)
110 clubs (in 16 divisions)
(plus 2 Canadian clubs)

[w 2]

United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA)
55 state associations in 4 regions
See List of USASA affiliated leagues for complete list
Region I
Region II
Region III
Region IV

  1. ^ U.S. Soccer has been heavily involved in the creation and operation of the NWSL; however, it did not initially refer to the new league as a sanctioned Division 1 league.[29] U.S. Soccer has now officially labeled NWSL as a Division 1 Professional league, and has added the league to its Professional Council.[30]
  2. ^ a b The tiers or levels here are approximate and not specifically so designated by USSF.

Women's national soccer cups

Indoor soccer

Indoor soccer in North America is governed by the Confederación Panamericana de Minifutbol (CPM), a member of the World Minifootball Federation (WMF).

Leagues/divisions

Major Arena Soccer League
(MASL)
15 U.S. clubs and 2 Mexican clubs

Premier Arena Soccer League
(PASL)
30 U.S. clubs

See also

References

  1. ^ Galarcep, Ives (October 9, 2014). "Jurgen Klinsmann backs promotion-relegation system for American soccer". Sporting News. Retrieved 2015. 
  2. ^ "Q & A with USL Vice President Tim Holt". United Soccer Leagues. April 21, 2006. Retrieved 2007. 
  3. ^ USSF Policy 202(H)(1) (PDF)
  4. ^ USSF Bylaws 109(13) to 109(17) (PDF)
  5. ^ Kenn, Larry. "USSF Professional Standards". Retrieved 2016. 
  6. ^ "Eight clubs will take the field in April". NASL. January 6, 2017. 
  7. ^ kennedy, Paul (October 17, 2017). "NASL vs. USSF: Court filings show settlement discussions were ongoing". SoccerAmericaDaily. 
  8. ^ "US Soccer Federation Rejects NASL's Division II application". fiftyfive.one. September 5, 2017. 
  9. ^ Straus, Brian. "NASL files lawsuit vs. USSF over division sanction". SI.com. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ Straus, Brian (January 6, 2017). "U.S. Soccer grants provisional division two sanctioning to both NASL, USL". Sports Illustrated. 
  11. ^ Straus, Brian (October 3, 2017). "USL President Ensures Compliance as League Submits D2 Application to U.S. Soccer". 
  12. ^ "USL to Launch Third-Division League in 2019". United Soccer Leagues. April 2, 2013. . See also USLD3.com.
  13. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: The National Independent Soccer Association (NISA) - A New Division III Professional Soccer League Expects to Launch in 2018". NISA. June 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  14. ^ "NASL accuses U.S. Soccer and MLS of violating antitrust laws". ESPN FC. Retrieved 2015. 
  15. ^ UNITED STATES SOCCER FEDERATION PROFESSIONAL LEAGUE STANDARDS dated 2-28-14
  16. ^ At least 1 team in each of the listed timezones
  17. ^ Of teams in the league, 75% of them must meet this minimum size requirement
  18. ^ Required of primary owner defined as owning 35% or more of team. Combined Net Worth for all owners also required
  19. ^ See All-Time Division II Standings for Division II list of teams and records. and All-Time Division III Standings for Division III teams
  20. ^ "United Soccer Leagues". www.uslpdl.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  21. ^ a b "Premier Leagues". www.usadultsoccer.com. Retrieved 2014. 
  22. ^ "Affiliates: Adult Council". United States Soccer Federation. 
  23. ^ "USASA Elite Amateur Leagues". www.usadultsoccer.com. Retrieved 2014. 
  24. ^ "Equalizer Soccer - Eight teams to start new women's pro soccer league in 2013". Equalizersoccer.com. November 21, 2012. Retrieved 2013. 
  25. ^ "W-League Statement". United Soccer Leagues (USL). November 6, 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  26. ^ "USL W-League, once top flight, folds after 21 seasons". Equalizersoccer.com. November 6, 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  27. ^ WPSL Website
  28. ^ Conor, Ryan (December 15, 2015). "After struggles with former league, New England Mutiny helping form new United Women's Soccer league". MassLive. Retrieved 2015. 
  29. ^ See NWSL Announces Allocation of 55 National Team Players to Eight Clubs where U..S Soccer confirms it will subsidize salary for U.S. National Team players.
  30. ^ "Professional Council". United States Soccer Federation. Retrieved 2013. 
  31. ^ http://uwssoccer.com/2015/12/16/uws-to-form-national-pro-am-womens-soccer-league-in-2016/

External links


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