Ampheck

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## Definition

### Truth table

### Logical Equivalences

## Properties

## Other Boolean Operations in terms of the Logical NOR

## See also

## References

This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Ampheck

In boolean logic, **logical nor** or **joint denial** is a truth-functional operator which produces a result that is the negation of logical or. That is, a sentence of the form (*p* NOR *q*) is true precisely when neither *p* nor *q* is true--i.e. when both of *p* and *q* are *false*. In grammar, **nor** is a coordinating conjunction.

The NOR operator is also known as **Peirce's arrow**--Charles Sanders Peirce introduced the symbol ? for it,^{[1]} and demonstrated that the logical NOR is completely expressible: by combining uses of the logical NOR it is possible to express any logical operation on two variables. Thus, as with its dual, the NAND operator (a.k.a. the Sheffer stroke--symbolized as either ?, | or /), NOR can be used by itself, without any other logical operator, to constitute a logical formal system (making NOR functionally complete). It is also known as **Quine's dagger** (his symbol was +), the **ampheck** (from Ancient Greek ?, *amph?k?s*, "cutting both ways") by Peirce,^{[2]} or **neither-nor**.

Other ways of notating include, P NOR Q, and "X*pq*" (in Boche?ski notation). It is logically equivalent to , where the symbol signifies OR and signifies the negation.

The computer used in the spacecraft that first carried humans to the moon, the Apollo Guidance Computer, was constructed entirely using NOR gates with three inputs.^{[3]}

The **NOR operation** is a logical operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of *true* if and only if both operands are false. In other words, it produces a value of *false* if and only if at least one operand is true.

The truth table of (also written as **P NOR Q**) is as follows:

T | T | F |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | T |

The logical NOR is the negation of the disjunction:

Logical NOR does not possess any of the five qualities (truth-preserving, false-preserving, linear, monotonic, self-dual) required to be absent from at least one member of a set of functionally complete operators. Thus, the set containing only NOR suffices as a complete set.

NOR has the interesting feature that all other logical operators can be expressed by interlaced NOR operations. The logical NAND operator also has this ability.

Expressed in terms of NOR , the usual operators of propositional logic are:

**^**Hans Kleine Büning; Theodor Lettmann (1999).*Propositional logic: deduction and algorithms*. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-521-63017-7.**^**C.S. Peirce, CP 4.264**^**Hall, Eldon C. (1996),*Journey to the Moon: The History of the Apollo Guidance Computer*, Reston, Virginia, USA: AIAA, p. 196, ISBN 1-56347-185-X

This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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