The humid continental climate of Barnaul (KöppenDfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of -15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below -45 °C (-49 °F) in the winter to above +35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.
The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.
A historical wooden house used to be as the Imperator Restaurant (former Russian Tea Restaurant), now is under reconstruction
The area around the city has been inhabited by modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation and fishing. In the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples.
While 1730 is considered Barnaul's official establishment date, its first mention dates back to 1724. It was granted city status in 1771. Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, it was founded by the wealthy Demidov family. The Demidovs wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, and soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became the center of silver production of the entire Russian Empire.
In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest draft riot in Russia during World War I. There were more than 100 casualties from the fighting. Street fighting also took place between anti-Communist White Russians and Reds during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Maria Stepanovna (née Zudilova) (1912-1996) was born and lived as a child in this city. She later became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood (born Natalia Zakharenko) and Lana Wood (born Lana Gurdin). Her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took Maria and her siblings as refugees to Harbin, China. Maria married a Russian there, and they had a daughter Olga together. Maria eventually immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok, and had two daughters with him.
World War II
Over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II is estimated to have been manufactured in Barnaul.
Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120,000 people. Leading industries include diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tires, furniture and footwear. There are a lot of Higher Universities with good training bases so the city has a strong working potential. Now the old city centre is reconstructing to have a touristic cluster with a brandname "Barnaul is a mining town".
^The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
^? ? . No107- 3 ? 2011 ?. « ? ?», ? . No271- 03 ? 2016 ?. «? ? " ? ?"». ? ? ? ? ? (6 ? 2011 ?.). : "? ", No120, 6 ? 2011 ?. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
^"? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
^"? 1979 ?. " [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). ? 1979 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University--Higher School of Economics.
?. ? No789 20 ? 2008 ?. « ? -- ? ?», ? . ? No766 31 2017 ?. «? ? ? -- ? ? (? . ? 16.12.2016 No706)». ? ? ? ? (15 ? 2008 ?.) ( , ? ? ? ? ? ). : " ?", No103, 15 ? 2008 ?. (Barnaul City Duma. Decision #789 of June 20, 2008 Charter of the Urban Okrug--the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Decision #766 of March 31, 2017 On Amending the Charter of the Urban Okrug--the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai (rev. #706 of December 16, 2016). Effective as of the day of the official publication (July 15, 2008) (with the exception of clauses which take effect on different dates).).
? . No3- 5 ? 1995 ?. « ( ) ? ?», ? . No118- 1 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ( ) ? ?». : " ", No100, 14 ? 1995 ?. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. #3-ZS June 5, 1995 Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #118-ZS of December 1, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai. ).
? . No28- 1 2008 ?. « - ? ? ?», ? . No16- 4 2017 ?. «? ? ? ? 572 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ? 8 2008 ?. : " ", No67, 8 2008 ?. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #16-ZS of April 4, 2017 On Merging the Station of Zheleznodorozhnaya Kazarma 572 km into the Settlement of Oktyabrsky in Oktyabrsky Selsoviet of Kulundinsky District of Altai Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Altai Krai. Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
? . No144- 27 ? 2008 ?. «? ? ? ? -? ? ? ?», ? . No44- 2 ? 2009 ? «? ? ? 1 ? ? ? "? ? ? ? -? ? ? ?"». ? ? ? 10 ? ?. : " ", No5-6, 15 2009 ?. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).