An unofficial mixed doubles match of beach volleyball
|Highest governing body||FIVB|
|First played||1915 at the Outrigger Canoe Club, in Waikiki|
|Mixed gender||Single and mixed|
As in indoor volleyball, the objective of the game is to send the ball over the net and to ground it on the opponent's court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent. A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball across the net. The ball is put in play with a serve--a hit by the server from behind the rear court boundary over the net to the opponents. The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes "out", or is not returned properly.
The team winning a rally scores a point and serves to start the following rally. The four players serve in the same sequence throughout the match, changing server each time a rally is won by the receiving team.
Sand volleyball was apparently born in 1915 on Waikiki Beach in Hawaii, at the Outrigger Canoe Club. According to a 1978 interview of an Outrigger Canoe Club member, George David "Dad" Center put a net up there, and the first recorded game of beach volleyball took place. In 1920, new jetties in Santa Monica, California created a large sandy area for public enjoyment, planting the seed for beach volleyball development in that region. The first permanent nets began to appear, and people soon began playing recreational games on public parts of the beach and in private beach clubs. Eleven such beach clubs appeared in the Santa Monica area, beginning in late 1922. The first inter-club competitions were staged in 1924.
Most of these early beach volleyball matches were played with teams of at least six players per side, much like indoor volleyball. The concept of the modern two-man beach volleyball game is credited to Paul "Pablo" Johnson, an indoor player of Santa Monica Athletic Club. In the summer of 1930, while waiting for players to show up for a six-man game, Johnson decided to try playing with only the two people present. The game was forever changed. Though recreational games continue to be played with more players, the most widely played version of the game, and the only one contested at an elite level, has only two players per team.
Beach volleyball began to appear in Europe in the 1930s. By the 1940s, doubles tournaments were being played on the beaches of Santa Monica for trophies. In 1948 the first tournament to offer a prize was held in Los Angeles, California. It awarded the best teams with a case of Pepsi, supplied by Dr. Caleb Mohrhauser, often noted as one of the most enthusiastic patrons of early beach volleyball. In the 1960s, an attempt to start a professional volleyball league was made in Santa Monica. It failed, but a professional tournament was held in France for 30,000 French francs. The first Manhattan Beach Open was held in 1960, a tournament which grew in prestige to become, in the eyes of some, the "Wimbledon of Beach Volleyball".
In 1974 there was an indoor tournament: "The $1500.00 World Indoor Two-Man Volleyball Championship" played in front of 4,000 volleyball enthusiast at the San Diego Sports Arena. Fred Zuelich teamed with Dennis Hare to defeat Ron Von Hagen and Matt Gage in the championship match, Winston Cigarettes was the sponsor. Dennis Hare went on to write the first book on the subject of beach volleyball: The Art of Beach Volleyball.
The first professional beach volleyball tournament was the Olympia World Championship of Beach Volleyball, staged on Labor Day weekend, 1976, at Will Rogers State Beach in Pacific Palisades, California. The event was organized by David Wilk of Volleyball Magazine, based in Santa Barbara. The winners, the first "world champions", were Greg Lee and Jim Menges. They split $2,500 out of a total prize purse of $5,000.
Volleyball Magazine staged the event the next year at the same location, this time sponsored by Schlitz Light Beer. In 1978 Wilk formed a sports promotion company named Event Concepts with Craig Masuoka and moved the World Championship of Beach Volleyball to Redondo Beach. Jose Cuervo tequila signed on as sponsor and the prize purse. The event was successful and Cuervo funded an expansion the next year to three events. The California Pro Beach Tour debuted with events in Laguna Beach, Santa Barbara and the World Championship in Redondo.
In following years the tour expanded nationally and was renamed the Pro Beach Volleyball Tour. It consisted of five events in California and tournaments in Florida, Colorado, and Chicago. Top players included Karch Kiraly, Randy Stoklos, Singin Smith, Andy Fishburn, and Steve Obradovich. By 1984 the Pro Beach consisted of 16 events around the country and had a total prize purse of $300,000. At the end of the year, however, Event Concepts was forced out of the sport by a players' strike at the World Championship and the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) was founded.
At the professional level, the sport remained fairly obscure until the 1980s when beach volleyball experienced a surge in popularity with high-profile players such as Sinjin Smith, Randy Stoklos, and Karch Kiraly. Kiraly won an Olympic gold medal in beach volleyball in its first Olympic appearance in 1996, adding that to the two Olympic golds he won as part of the USA men's indoor team, and has won 142 titles. In 1987, the FIVB created the first World Beach Volleyball Championships, played in Rio Janeiro, Brazil won By Sinjin Smith and Randy Stoklos. The FIVB began organizing worldwide professional tournaments, and laid the groundwork for the sport's Olympic debut in 1996.
Despite its increased popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, American beach volleyball suffered setbacks. In early 1998, the American women's professional tour - the WPVA - closed its doors and filed for bankruptcy. Later that same year, the American professional men's tour - the AVP - also filed for bankruptcy, plagued by problems as a player-run organization.
In 2001, the AVP reemerged as a for-profit, publicly traded company that combined the men's and women's professional tours, with equal prize money for both sexes. In 2010, the AVP shut its doors once again and filed bankruptcy.
Beach volleyball has become a global sport, with international competition organized by the FIVB. Brazil and the USA are dominant, with 20 of the 30 Olympic medals awarded to date between them, and 16 of the 20 gold and silver medals. But the sport's popularity has spread to the rest of the world as well.
Beach volleyball is fundamentally similar to indoor volleyball: a team scores points by sending the ball over the net (the height of which is 2.43 m (7 ft in) for men and 2.24 m (7 ft in) for women) and grounding it on the opponents' court, or when the opposing team commits a fault (error or illegal action); consecutive contacts must be made by different players (except after a block touch, when any player may legally contact the ball).
Rules vary slightly depending on the governing organization. Major rules in international competition (governed by the FIVB) that are specific to the beach include:
There are several basic skills competitive players need to master: serving, passing, setting, attacking, blocking, and digging.
Serving is the act of putting the ball into play by striking it with the hand or arm from behind the rear court boundary. Serving can take the form of an underhand serve, overhand serve or a jump serve. The underhand and overhand serves are similar on the beach and indoors, with the exception that on the beach the wind often has a significant effect on the trajectory of the ball. Although the serve can be used as an offensive weapon, most rallies are won by the receiving team, as they have the first attack opportunity.
The pass is the first of a team's 3 allowed contacts, and is also very similar on the beach and indoors. However, the standards for hand setting (handling the ball overhand using finger action with the hands separated) are stricter on the beach. In practice, this means that players are effectively forbidden from setting the ball on serve receive; similarly, players seldom use a hand setting motion as the first (except on a hard driven attack) or last of the three allowed team contacts. Digging is a similar skill to passing, but the term is not used to describe receiving the serve or a free ball, but rather refers to an attempt to prevent an opponent's attack hit from touching the court.
The set is the second team contact, and its purpose is to position the ball for an attack on the third hit. A hand setting motion is often used, but bump setting, an underhand motion in which the ball bounces off the forearms, is also common. When using the hand motion contact for the setting the player's hands must contact the ball simultaneously. If a referee determines that a double-hit has occurred, the point will be given to the other team. Excessive spin after a ball has been set is often used as an indicator of a double contact fault, but causing a ball to spin while setting is not explicitly prohibited. After completing the contact, the setter typically turns his attention to the defense and communicates to his partner whether a blocker is up and which area of the court is open. The second contact can also be used to attack the ball.
Attacking includes skills such as spiking--hitting the ball hard with one open hand on a downward trajectory from above the top of the net; rolling--a similar motion to spiking, but softer and with an arcing trajectory; and dinking--directing the ball very softly low over the net. Attack hits are also frequently made with a poking motion with the knuckles or stiff straight fingers.
Blocking is an attempt to direct an attack hit by the opponents back into their court by reaching above the top of the net. Players often decide against blocking (if the pass and set are not in a good position to produce a spike attack) and instead opt to peel off the net and dig. This peeling action is a skill almost exclusive to beach volleyball.
A team is composed exclusively of two players, who must always be in play and who cannot be subjected to any substitutions or replacement. At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be within its own court (with the exception of the server), but there are no determined positions on the court, such that no positional faults can be committed. The two players can switch at any point of the game; there is no set position that you must stay in like indoor.
Some competitive teams have no specializations, with the two players taking turns blocking and playing defense. This allows them to conserve energy since the demand for energy on the sand is higher.
Competitive players also tend to specialize in playing on either the right- or left-side of the court. This allows for greater consistency in receiving serve and shot selection. Left-handed players generally prefer to play on the right-side while right-handed players generally prefer to play on the left-side, as it is easier to spike a ball that has not passed across the line of one's body.
The first to win two sets wins the match. A set is won by the first team to reach 21 points (15 points in the deciding final set) with a two-point advantage. Thus, if the score is 21-20 (or 15-14 in a final set) the set continues.
Whenever a team fails to execute a legal service or to return the ball, or commits any other fault, the opposing team wins the rally, scores a point, and serves to start the following rally.
Teams switch ends of the court after every 7 points (set 1 and 2) and 5 points (set 3) played. When the total points are 21 (adding the score of both teams) there is a technical time out.
The ball may touch any part of the body (except during the serve, when only the hand or arm may make contact), but must be hit, not caught or thrown. During a hit, a player may only make contact with the ball one time.
When receiving a ball from a hit that is not hard driven, the ball must be contacted "cleanly"--if a player receives the ball open-handed, the contact of each hand with the ball must be exactly simultaneous. In practice, this means that serves are never received open-handed. When receiving an opponent's hard-driven attack, a double contact (provided both contacts occur in a single action) and/or a slight lift of the ball is allowed. In particular, in defensive action of a hard driven ball, the ball can be held momentarily overhand with the fingers.
When employing an overhand pass (hands separated, ball handled with the fingers) as the second of three team touches (usually with the intent of "setting" the ball, so that the other player may make a more effective attack-hit), the standard for a double contact fault is more lenient than when receiving or attacking, though still much stricter than in indoor volleyball. The standard for a lift fault during an overhand pass is less strict than in indoor games--it is legal to allow the ball to come to rest for a small period of time.
Attack-hits using an "open-handed tip or dink" directing the ball with the fingers are illegal, as are attack-hits using an overhand pass to direct the ball on a trajectory not perpendicular to the line of the shoulders (overhand passes which accidentally cross over the net are an exception). These differences between the rules of indoor volleyball and beach volleyball strongly affect tactics and techniques.
Beach volleyball players use hand signals to indicate to their partners the type of block they intend to make. Block signals are made behind the back to hide them from the opposing team. They are usually given with both hands by the serving player's partner prior to the serve, with each hand referring to the type of block that should be put up against an attack from the corresponding opponent. A player may also "wiggle" or "flash" one block signal to indicate which opponent to serve to.
If the server is the designated blocker, he or she may run up to the net to block after serving. Otherwise, the signaling player will perform the block.
Block signals may also be given during a rally while the opposing team is preparing their attack.
Note: In Europe closed fist and open hand signals have the opposite meaning of blocking. If the partner is showing the closed fist the blocker should block "ball" and open hand means that the blocker should "pull-off" the net.
The primary international governing body for beach volleyball is the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB). The regional governing bodies are:
In the United States, USA Volleyball is the governing body for beach volleyball, as well as indoor volleyball.
In the 2010-11 academic year, the NCAA began sponsoring beach volleyball, which it initially called "sand volleyball", as an "emerging" women's sport. Initially, it was sponsored only for Division II, with Division I added the following academic year. NCAA competition follows standard beach volleyball rules, with competitions involving five doubles teams from each participating school.
Beach volleyball became a fully sanctioned NCAA championship sport in the 2015-16 school year, following votes by leaders of all three NCAA divisions to launch a single all-divisions national championship. At the end of June 2015, the NCAA dropped the name of "sand volleyball" in favor of the more usual "beach volleyball."
Competitors such as Natalie Cook and Holly McPeak have confirmed the FIVB's claims that the uniforms are practical for a sport played on sand during the heat of summer, but British Olympian Denise Johns claimed that the regulation uniform is intended to be "sexy" and to draw attention.
During the 2004 Summer Olympic Games, a study was conducted on the camera angles during the beach volleyball games. Twenty percent of the camera angles were focused on the chest area and seventeen percent of the angles were focused on the buttock area. The study concludes that this implies the look of the players is having a greater impact on fans than their actual athleticism.
Some conservative cultures have expressed moral objections to the swimsuit as a uniform. At the 2007 South Pacific Games, rules were adjusted to require less revealing shorts and cropped sports tops. At the 2006 Asian Games, only one Muslim country fielded a team in the woman's competition, amid concerns the uniform was inappropriate.
In early 2012, the International Volleyball Federation announced it would allow shorts (maximum length 3 cm (1.2 in) above the knee) and sleeved tops at the London 2012 Olympics. The federation spokesman said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible". And in fact, the weather was so cold for the evening games at London 2012 that the players sometimes had to wear shirts and leggings.
Beach volleyball culture includes the people, language, fashion, and life surrounding the sport of modern beach volleyball. With its origins in Hawaii and California, beach volleyball is strongly associated with a casual, beach-centric lifestyle. As it developed nearly in parallel with modern surfing, beach volleyball culture shares some similarities with surf culture. The beach bum archetype is one such example.
Fashion often extends from the clothing worn during play, like the bikini or boardshorts. And much like surfers, beach volleyball players are at the mercy of the weather; patterns of play often develop based on weather conditions like sun and wind.
Nudists were early adopters of the game. Records of regular games in clubs can be found as early as the 1920s. Given the outdoor nature of nudism/naturism, a beach version of volleyball was naturally adopted. By the 1960s, a volleyball court could be found in almost all nudist/naturist clubs. A large (over 70 teams) nude volleyball tournament has been held each fall since 1971 at White Thorn Lodge in western Pennsylvania, and several smaller tournaments occur each year throughout North America.
The most common injuries in beach volleyball are knee, ankle and finger injuries. Pain due to overuse of the knee, lower back, and especially shoulder is common as well. Many players use kinesiology tape. Interest in this tape has surged after American beach volleyball player and three-time Olympic gold medalist Kerri Walsh wore it at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.