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Soil with broken rock fragments overlying bedrock, Sandside Bay, Caithness
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets. The broken and weathered regolith includes soil and subsoil. The surface of the bedrock beneath the soil cover is known as rockhead in engineering geology, and its identification by digging, drilling or geophysical methods is an important task in most civil engineering projects. Superficial deposits (also known as drift) can be extremely thick, such that the bedrock lies hundreds of meters below the surface.
Bedrock may also experience subsurface weathering at its upper boundary, forming saprolite.
A solid geologic map of an area will usually show the distribution of differing bedrock types, rock that would be exposed at the surface if all soil or other superficial deposits were removed.
Soil profile with bedrock labeled R
In soil science
Soil scientists use the capital letters O, A, B, C, and E to identify the master soil horizons. Hard bedrock, which is not soil, uses the letter R.
- ^ Price, David George, Engineering Geology: Principles and Practice, Springer, 2009, p.16 ISBN 978-3540292494
- ^ Gribble C. & McLean A. (2003). Geology for Civil Engineers. CRC Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780203362150.
- ^ "Swinford, E. Mac What the glaciers left behind - drift thickness map of Ohio, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, newsletter 2004, No.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-02. Retrieved .
- ^ BGS. "Digital Geology - Bedrock geology theme". Archived from the original on 13 December 2009. Retrieved .
- Media related to Bedrock at Wikimedia Commons