Black Hispanic
Black Hispanic and Latino Americans
Estadounidenses latinos e hispanos negros
Total population
1,243,471[1]
0.4% of the United States population (2010)[1]
2.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans (2010)[1]
2.5% of all African Americans (2010)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Northeast o Midwest o West Coast o Texas o Florida
Languages
American English o American Spanish o Spanish creole o Spanglish o Nuyorican English
Religion
Roman Catholicism, but also Protestantism and African diasporic religions
Related ethnic groups
Afro-Latin Americans and other Latin Americans o African Americans o Black people and African ethnic groups o Hispanic and Latino Americans, and other ethnic groups of the United States o Afro-Caribbeans

In the United States, a Black Hispanic[2] or Afro-Hispanic[2] (Spanish: Afrohispano) is an American citizen or resident who is officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies as a Black American of Hispanic descent."[3]

Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "African American", is between those who report Hispanic backgrounds and all others who do not. Non-Hispanic Black Americans consists of an ethnically diverse collection of all others who are classified as Black or African American that do not report Hispanic ethnic backgrounds.

Demographic information

States like New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Connecticut have some of the highest percentages of Hispanics identifying as Black, where up to 25% of Hispanics identify as black, compared to 2.5% of Hispanics nationwide.[4][4] Overall, the Northeast region has the largest concentration of Black Hispanics, this is partly because of the large Puerto Rican, Dominican, and other mostly or partly African descended Hispanic populations in the region.[4][5]

Black Hispanics account for 2.5% of the entire U.S. Hispanic population.[1] Most Black Hispanics in the United States come from within the Dominican and Puerto Rican populations.[6][7][8] Aside from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, large numbers of Black Hispanics can also be found in populations originating from Cuba, northern South America, and the Caribbean coast of Central America as well, including the Cuban, Panamanian, and Colombian communities, among others.[9]

The main aspects which distinguish Black Hispanics born in the United States of America from African Americans is having Spanish as their mother tongue or most recent ancestors' native language, their culture passed down by their parents, and their Spanish surnames. Of all Hispanic groups, Puerto Ricans have the closest relationship with the African American community, and because of this there is also increasing intermarriages and offspring between non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics of any race, mainly between Puerto Ricans and African Americans, which increases both the Hispanic ethnic and black racial demographics.[10][11][12]

Since the early days of the movie industry in the United States of America, when Black Hispanic actors were given roles, they would usually be cast as African Americans.[13] For those with Spanish-speaking accents that betrayed an otherwise presumed African American, they may seldom have been given roles as Hispanics, and the mixed race Hispanic and Latino actors of African appearance were mostly given Hispanic roles.

Those who claim that Black Hispanics are not sought to play Hispanic roles in the United States allege this unfairly leads the masses of viewers to an ignorance to the existence of darker skinned Hispanics. Further, some Black Hispanics who identify themselves as black but of also mixed race heritage once affirming their Hispanicity may be deprived of their status as Black people among African Americans, and categorized by society as non-Black in the American historical context.

Same situation happens in U.S. Hispanic media; critics accuse U.S. Hispanic media, including Latin American media, of overlooking black Hispanic and Latino Americans and black Latin Americans in the telenovelas, mostly stereotyping them as impoverished people.[14][15]

Health

A review of twenty-one studies found Black Hispanics to have poorer health compared to White Hispanics. The causes are still unknown, but researchers suggested that racial discrimination and segregation may contribute to racial health differences among the Hispanic population in the United States.[16]

Culture

Although Black Hispanics are often overlooked or dichotomized as either "black" or "hispanic" in the United States of America, Black Hispanic writers often reflect upon their racialized experience in their works. The most commonly used term in literature to speak of this ambiguity and multilayered hybridity at the heart of Latino/a identity and culture is miscegenation.[17]:48 This "mestizaje" depicts the multi-faceted racial and cultural identity that characterize Black Hispanics and highlights that each individual Black Hispanic has a unique experience within a broader racial and ethnic range.[17]:49 The memoirs, poetry, sociological research, and essays written by the following Afro-Latino writers reflect this concept of mestizaje in addition to revealing the confusion and uncertainty about one's self-image of being both "Black" and "Hispanic". The psychological and social factors also prove to be central in determining how one ultimately defines him/herself.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Humes, Karen R.; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". U.S. Census Bureau. June 12, 2003. Retrieved 2016. 
  3. ^ "Race: 2010 Census of Population, P94-171 Redistricting Data File". U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. 2013. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Coming Out As Black, When You Were Hispanic". npr.org. June 6, 2013. Retrieved 2016. 
  6. ^ Szot, Hilary S. (February 26, 2014). "Black History Month: New Generation Of Afro-Latinos Tackles Race And Identity". Fox News Latino. Retrieved 2016. 
  7. ^ Bailey, Benjamin (2006). "Dominican-American Etbnic/Racial Identities and United States Social Categories". International Migration Review. Wiley-Blackwell. 35 (3): 677-708. JSTOR 2675839. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2001.tb00036.x. Retrieved 2016. (Subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ Garsd, Jasmine (May 25, 2013). "'Las Caras Lindas': To Be Black And Puerto Rican In 2013". npr.org. Retrieved 2016. 
  9. ^ Guadalupe, Patricia; Suzanne Gamboa (February 27, 2014). "Afro Latinos' Mixed Identity Can Leave Them Out of the Mix". NBC News. Retrieved 2016. 
  10. ^ Cruz, José E. (2000). "Interminority Relations in Urban Settings". In Yvette Marie Alex-Assensoh; Lawrence J. Hanks. Black and Multiracial Politics in America. NYU Press. pp. 96-97. ISBN 978-0-8147-0663-3. Retrieved 2016. 
  11. ^ Torres, Andrés (1995). Between Melting Pot and Mosaic: African Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York Political Economy. Temple University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-56639-280-8. Retrieved 2016. 
  12. ^ "Detailed tables: Hispanic or Latino By Race". U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Archived from the original on September 10, 2010. Retrieved 2014. 
  13. ^ "Myth: Hispanics are portrayed accurately on TV". thehispanicmyth.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  14. ^ Quinonez, Ernesto (June 19, 2003). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien: Latinos Are Racist, Too. Just Turn On The Tv". newsweek.com. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  15. ^ Fletcher, Michael A. (August 6, 2000). "Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-language Tv". sun-sentinel.com. Retrieved 2016. 
  16. ^ Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Williams, David R. (2016-12). "Race and Skin Color in Latino Health: An Analytic Review". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (12): 2131-2136. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 5104999 Freely accessible. PMID 27736206. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303452.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  17. ^ a b Pinn, Anthony B.; Benjamin Valentin (2001). Ties That Bind: African American and Hispanic American/Latino/a Theologies in Dialogue. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-8264-1326-0. 

Further reading

  • The Afro-Latin@ Project - The Afro Latin@ Project aims to document, promote, coordinate and support the development of Afro-Latin@ studies and grass roots activities in the United States. This primary focus is informed and enriched by the historical and contemporary experience of African-descendant peoples in the Americas.
  • RUSQ Afro-Latino Archives - An extensive list of books, films, memoirs, databases, and articles which provide more insight into the Afro-Latino experience, in and out of the United States.

External links


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