The administration of a business includes the performance or management of business operations and decision making, as well as the efficient organization of people and other resources, to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. In general, administration refers to the broader management function, including the associated finance, personnel and MIS services.
Some analyses view management as a subset of administration, specifically associated with the technical and operational aspects of an organization, and distinct from executive or strategic functions. Alternatively, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of routine office tasks, usually internally oriented and reactive rather than proactive. Administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the organization's goals. Henri Fayol described these "functions" of the administrator as "the five elements of administration". Sometimes creating output, which includes all of the processes that generate the product that the business sells, is added[by whom?] as a sixth element.
A business administrator oversees a business and its operations. The job aims to ensure that the business meets its goals and is properly organized and managed. The tasks a person in this position has are both wide and varied, and often include ensuring that the right staff-members are hired and properly trained, making plans for the business' success, and monitoring daily operations. When organizational changes are necessary, a person in this position usually leads the way as well. In some cases, the person who starts or owns the business serves as its administrator, but this is not always the case, as sometimes a company hires an individual for the job.
A person with the title of "business administrator" essentially functions as the manager of the company and of its other managers. Such a person oversees those in managerial positions to ensure that they follow company policies and work toward the company's goals in the most efficient manner.
For example, business administrators may work with the managers of the human-resources, production, finance, accounting, and marketing departments to ensure that they function properly and are working in line with the company's goals and objectives. Additionally, they might interact with people outside the company, such as business partners and vendors.
The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA, B.B.A., B.Sc.) is a bachelor's degree in commerce and business administration. The degree is designed to give a broad knowledge of the functional aspects of a company and their interconnection, while also allowing for specialization in a particular area. The degree also develops the student's practical, managerial and communication skills, and business decision-making capability. Many programs incorporate training and practical experience, in the form of case projects, presentations, internships, industrial visits, and interaction with experts from industry.
The Master of Business Administration is a master's degree in business administration with a large focus on management. The MBA degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy. Most programs also include elective courses.
The MBA is a terminal professional degree (the DBA is the terminal research doctoral degree). Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive (abridged coursework typically occurring on nights and/or weekends), and distance learning students, many with concentrations.
The Doctor of Business Administration (abbreviated DBA, D.B.A., DrBA, or Dr.B.A.) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the field of business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal degree in business administration, and is equivalent to the Ph.D in Business Administration.
PhD in Management is the highest academic degree awarded in the study of management science. The degree was designed for those seeking academic research and teaching careers as faculty or professors in the study of management at business schools worldwide.
A newer form of a management doctorate is the Doctor of Management (D.M., D.Mgt. or DMan). It is a doctoral degree conferred upon an individual who is trained through advanced study and research in the applied science and practice of professional management. This doctorate has elements of both research and practice relative to social and managerial concerns within society and organizations.
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