Butte, Montana
Butte, MT Events Directory
 
About Butte, MT
Butte, Montana
Consolidated city-county
Butte-Silver Bow
Clockwise, left to right: View of uptown Butte from west; Our Lady of the Rockies; Curtis Music Hall; aerial view of the Berkeley Pit; mine framehead; and the Finlen Hotel.
Clockwise, left to right: View of uptown Butte from west; Our Lady of the Rockies; Curtis Music Hall; aerial view of the Berkeley Pit; mine framehead; and the Finlen Hotel.
Official seal of Butte, Montana
Seal
Nickname(s): Butte America
Motto: The Richest Hill on Earth
Map of Silver Bow County showing the city of Butte
Map of Silver Bow County showing the city of Butte
Coordinates: 45°59?56?N 112°31?27?W / 45.99889°N 112.52417°W / 45.99889; -112.52417
Country United States
State Montana
County Silver Bow
Settled 1864
Area
 o Consolidated city-county 719.18 sq mi (1,867.6 km2)
 o Land 718.48[1] sq mi (1,854.7 km2)
 o Water 0.7 sq mi (1.7 km2)
Elevation[2] 5,538 ft (1,688 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 o Consolidated city-county 34,200
 o Estimate (2016)[4] 33,853
 o Density 48/sq mi (18/km2)
 o Metro 34,680
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 o Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP code 59701, 59702, 59703, 59707, 59750
Area code(s) 406
FIPS code 30-11397
GNIS feature ID 2409651[2]
Website http://co.silverbow.mt.us

Butte is a city in, and the county seat of Silver Bow County, Montana, United States.[5] In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the sole entity of Butte-Silver Bow. The city covers 718 square miles (1,860 km2), and, according to the 2010 census, has a population of approximately 34,200, making it Montana's fifth largest city. It is served by Bert Mooney Airport with airport code BTM.

Established in 1864 as a mining camp in the northern Rocky Mountains on the Continental Divide, Butte experienced rapid development in the late-nineteenth century, and was Montana's first major industrial city.[6] By the turn of the twentieth century, it was the largest city between Chicago and San Francisco, though the population steadily declined with falling copper prices after World War I. In its heyday between the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, it was one of the largest and most notorious copper boomtowns in the American West, home to hundreds of saloons and a famous red-light district. Employment opportunities in the mines attracted surges of Asian and European immigrants, particularly the Irish; contemporarily, Butte has the largest population of Irish Americans per capita of any city in the United States.[7]

Butte was also the site of various historical events involving its mining industry and active labor unions and Socialist politics, the most famous of which was the labor riot of 1914. Despite the dominance of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, Butte was never a company town, instead priding itself on architectural diversity and a civic ethos of rough-and-tumble individualism.[8] Other major events in the city's history include the 1917 Speculator Mine disaster, the largest hard rock mining disaster in world history.

Over the course of its history, Butte's mining and smelting operations generated an excess of $48 billion worth of ore, but also resulted in numerous environmental implications for the city: The upper Clark Fork River, with headwaters at Butte, is the largest Superfund site in the United States, and the city is also home to the Berkeley Pit. In the late-twentieth century, cleanup efforts from the EPA were instated, and the Butte Citizens Technical Environmental Committee was established in 1984. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Butte's heritage are addressing both the town's historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture.[9] The city is home to Montana Tech, a public engineering and technical university affiliated with the University of Montana.

History

Early history and immigrants

Butte began as a mining camp in the 1860s[10] in the Silver Bow Creek Valley (or Summit Valley), a natural bowl sitting high in the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide.[11] The city is positioned on the southwestern side of a large mass of granite known as the Boulder Batholith, which dates to the Cretaceous era.[12] In 1864, William L. Farlin staked the Asteroid Mine (later known as the Travona), and was followed by an influx of additional miners seeking gold and silver.[12] The mines attracted workers from Cornwall (United Kingdom),[13] Ireland, Wales, Lebanon, Canada, Finland, Austria, Italy, China, Montenegro, Mexico, and more.[14] In the ethnic neighborhoods, young men formed gangs to protect their territory and socialize into adult life, including the Irish of Dublin Gulch, the Eastern Europeans of the McQueen Addition, and the Italians of Meaderville.[15]

Butte courthouse and additional buildings, 1885.

Among the migrants, many Chinese workers moved in, and amongst them set up businesses that led to the creation of a Chinatown in Butte. The Chinese migrations stopped in 1882 with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. There was anti-Chinese sentiment in the 1870s and onwards due to racism on the part of the white settlers, exacerbated by economic depression, and in 1895, the chamber of commerce and labor unions started a boycott of Chinese owned businesses. The business owners fought back by suing the unions and winning. The history of the Chinese migrants in Butte is documented in the Mai Wah Museum.[16][17]

The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a wide-open town where any vice was obtainable. The city's famous saloon and red-light district, called the "Line" or "The Copper Block", was centered on Mercury Street, where the elegant bordellos included the famous Dumas Brothel. Behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called "cribs". The red-light district brought miners and other men from all over the region and was open until 1982 as one of the last such urban districts in the United States. Commercial breweries first opened in Butte in the 1870s, and were a large staple of the city's early economy; they were usually run by German immigrants, including Leopold Schmidt, Henry Mueller, and Henry Muntzer. The breweries were always staffed by union workers. Most ethnic groups in Butte, from Germans and Irish to Italians and various Eastern Europeans, including children, enjoyed the locally brewed lagers, bocks, and other types of beer.[18]

Industrial expansion

The Anselmo Mine, one of many in Butte, opened in 1887.

In the late nineteenth century, copper was in great demand because of new technologies such as electric power that required the use of copper. Three industrial magnates fought for control of Butte's mining wealth. These three "Copper Kings" were William A. Clark,[19]Marcus Daly, and F. Augustus Heinze.[12] Between 1884 and 1888, Clark constructed the Copper King Mansion in Butte, which became his second residence from his home in New York City. He also, in 1899, purchased the Columbia Gardens, a small park which he developed into a full amusement park, featuring a pavilion, rollercoaster, and a lake for swimming and canoeing. Clark's expansion of the park was intended to "provide a place where children and families could get away from the polluted air of the Butte mining industry."[20] The city's rapid expansion was noted in an 1889 frontier survey: "Butte, Montana, fifteen years ago a small placer-mining village clinging to the mountain side, has now risen to the rank of the first mining camp of the world... [It] is now the most populous city of Montana, numbering twenty-five thousand active, enterprising, prosperous inhabitants."[21] In 1888 alone, mining operations in Butte had generated an "almost inconceivable" output of $23 million (equivalent to $613,077,778 in 2016) worth of ore.[21]

Columbia Gardens, an amusement park in Butte, c. 1905.

Around the turn of the twentieth century, prosperous mining had generated considerable wealth in Butte, and at the time was the largest city between Chicago and San Francisco.[22] Copper ore mined from the Butte mining district in 1910 alone totaled 284,000,000 pounds (129,000,000 kg), making it the largest producer of copper in North America and second only to South Africa in world production of metals.[12] The same year, an excess of 10,000,000 ounces (280,000 kg) of silver and 37,000 ounces (1,000 kg) of gold were also discovered.[12] The amount of ore produced in the city earned it the nickname "The Richest Hill on Earth."[12] With its large workforce of miners performing in physically dangerous conditions, Butte was the site of active labor union movements, and came to be known as "the Gibraltar of Unionism."[23][24]

By 1885, there were about 1,800 dues-paying members of a general union in Butte. That year the union reorganized as the Butte Miners' Union (BMU), spinning off all non-miners to separate craft unions. Some of these joined the Knights of Labor, and by 1886 the separate organizations came together to form the Silver Bow Trades and Labor Assembly, with 34 separate unions representing nearly all of the 6,000 workers around Butte.[25] The BMU established branch unions in mining towns like Barker, Castle, Champion, Granite, and Neihart, and extended support to other mining camps hundreds of miles away. In 1892 there was a violent strike in Coeur d'Alene.[26] Although the BMU was experiencing relatively friendly relations with local management, the events in Idaho were disturbing. The BMU not only sent thousands of dollars to support the Idaho miners, they mortgaged their buildings to send more.[27]

There was a growing concern that local unions were vulnerable to the power of Mine Owners' Associations like the one in Coeur d'Alene. In May 1893, about forty delegates from northern hard-rock mining camps met in Butte and established the Western Federation of Miners (WFM), which sought to organize miners throughout the West.[28] The Butte Miners' Union became Local Number One of the new WFM.[29] The WFM won a strike in Cripple Creek, Colorado, the following year, but then in 1896-97 lost another violent strike in Leadville, Colorado, prompting the Montana State Trades and Labor Council to issue a proclamation to organize a new Western labor federation[30] along industrial lines.

Anaconda Copper and civil unrest

Frank Little, an IWW organizer who was lynched in Butte in 1917.

In 1899, Daly joined with William Rockefeller, Henry H. Rogers, and Thomas W. Lawson to organize the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company.[31] Not long after, the company changed its name to Anaconda Copper Mining Company (ACM). Over the years, Anaconda was owned by assorted larger corporations. In the 1920s, it had a virtual monopoly over the mines in and around Butte. Between approximately 1900 and 1917, Butte also had a strong streak of Socialist politics, even electing a Mayor on the Socialist ticket in 1914.[32]

It had also established itself as "one of the most solid union cities in America."[33] After 1905, Butte became a hotbed of Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, or the "Wobblies") organizing.[34] Rivalry between IWW supporters and the WFM locals culminated in the Butte, Montana labor riots of 1914, and resulted in the loss of union recognition by the mine owners.[35] After the dissolution of the Miners' Union, the Anaconda Company attempted to inaugurate programs aimed at enticing employees.[35] However, a number of clashes between laborers, labor organizers, and the Anaconda Company ensued, including the 1917 lynching of IWW executive board officer Frank Little.[36] In 1920, company mine guards gunned down strikers in the Anaconda Road Massacre. Seventeen were shot in the back as they tried to flee, and one man died.[37]

Sparked by a tragic accident more than 2,000 feet (600 m) below the ground on June 8, 1917, a fire in the Granite Mountain shaft spewed flames, smoke, and poisonous gas through the labyrinth of underground tunnels including the connected Speculator Mine.[38] A rescue effort commenced, but the carbon monoxide was stealing the air supply. A few men built man-made bulkheads to save their lives, but many others died in a panic to try to get out. Rescue workers set up a fan to prevent the fire from spreading. This worked for a short time, but when the rescuers tried to use water, the water evaporated, creating steam that burned people trying to escape. Once the fire was out, those waiting to hear the news on the surface could not identify the victims. They were too mutilated to recognize, leading many to assume the worst. Of the 168 bodies removed from the mine, most had died due to lack of oxygen and smoke inhalation as opposed to the actual fire itself. Due to the efforts of men such as Ernest Sullau, Manus Duggan, Con O'Neil, and J. D. Moore, some survived, but the event was the largest hard rock mining accident in the history.[39] The Granite Mountain Memorial was built to commemorate those who died in the accident. The disaster was also memorialized in the song, "Rox in the Box" on the album The King is Dead by the indie rock band, The Decemberists.

The loss of miners in the incident sparked additional strikes and protests, as well as the establishment of the Metal Mine Workers Union, which led 15,000 workers to abandon their jobs.[40] In 1917, copper production from the Butte mines peaked and steadily declined thereafter. By WWII, copper production from the ACM's holdings in Chuquicamata, Chile, far exceeded Butte's production. The historian Janet Finn has examined this "tale of two cities"--Butte and Chuquicamata as two ACM mining towns.

Open-pit mining era

Patrons at a matinee of The Phantom Foe at the American Theater, December 25, 1920.
1942 view of the city.

Disputes between miners' unions and companies continued through the 1920s and 1930s in Butte, with several strikes and protests, one of which lasted for ten months in 1921.[41] In 1923, protestors attempted to blow up the Hibernian Hall on Main Street with dynamite.[41] Between 1914 and 1920, the U.S. National Guard occupied Butte a total of six times to restore civility.[40]

Further industrial expansions included the arrival of the first mail plane in the city in 1928, and in 1937, the city's streetcar system was dismantled and replaced with bus lines.[41] The copper mines proved to be prosperous until the 1950s, when the declining grade of ore and competition from other mines led the Anaconda Company to switch its focus from the costly and dangerous practice of underground mining to open pit mining.[40]

Since the 1950s, five major developments in the city have occurred: the Anaconda's decision to begin open-pit mining in the mid-1950s; a series of fires in Butte's business district in the 1970s; a debate over whether to relocate the city's historic business district; a new civic leadership; and the end of copper mining in 1983. In response, Butte looked for ways to diversify the economy and provide employment. The legacy of over a century of environmental degradation has, for example, produced some jobs. Environmental cleanup in Butte, designated a Superfund site, has employed hundreds of people.[42]

Thousands of homes were destroyed in the Meaderville suburb and surrounding areas, McQueen and East Butte, to excavate the Berkeley Pit, which opened in 1954[41] by Anaconda Copper. At the time, it was the largest truck-operated open pit copper mine in the United States. The Berkeley Pit grew with time until it bordered the Columbia Gardens. After the Gardens caught fire and burned to the ground in November 1973, the Continental Pit was excavated on the former park site. In 1977 the ARCO (Atlantic Richfield Company) company purchased Anaconda, and only three years later started shutting down mines due to lower metal prices. In 1982, all mining in the Berkeley Pit was suspended. In 1983, an organization of low income and unemployed residents of Butte formed to fight for jobs and environmental justice; the Butte Community Union produced a detailed plan for community revitalization and won substantial benefits, including a Montana Supreme Court victory striking down as unconstitutional State elimination of welfare benefits.[43]

The Berkeley Pit in 1984.

Anaconda ceased mining at the Continental Pit in 1983. Montana Resources LLP bought the property and reopened the Continental Pit in 1986. The company stopped mining in 2000, but resumed in 2003 with higher metal prices, and continues at last report, employing 346 people. From 1880 through 2005, the mines of the Butte district have produced more than 9.6 million metric tons of copper, 2.1 million metric tons of zinc, 1.6 million metric tons of manganese, 381,000 metric tons of lead, 87,000 metric tons of molybdenum, 715 million troy ounces (22,200 metric tons) of silver, and 2.9 million ounces (90 metric tons) of gold.[44] When mining ceased at the Berkeley pit in 1982, water pumps in nearby mines were also shut down, which resulted in highly acidic water laced with toxic heavy metals filling up the pit.

Post-millennium

Around twenty of the headframes still stand over the mine shafts, and the city still contains thousands of historic commercial and residential buildings from the boom times, which, especially in the Uptown section, give it a very old-fashioned appearance, with many commercial buildings not fully occupied. As with many industrial cities, tourism and services, especially health care[45] (Butte's St. James Hospital has Southwest Montana's only major trauma center), are rising as primary employers, as well as industrial-sector private companies.[45] Many areas of the city, especially the areas near the old mines, show signs of urban blight but a recent influx of investors and an aggressive campaign to remedy blight has led to a renewed interest in restoring property in Uptown Butte's historic district,[46] which was expanded in 2006 to include parts of Anaconda and is now the largest National Historic Landmark District in the United States with nearly 6,000 contributing properties.[47]

A century after the era of intensive mining and smelting, the area around the city remains an environmental issue. Arsenic and heavy metals such as lead are found in high concentrations in some spots affected by old mining, and for a period of time in the 1990s the tap water was unsafe to drink due to poor filtration and decades-old wooden supply pipes. Efforts to improve the water supply have taken place in the past few years, with millions of dollars being invested to upgrade water lines and repair infrastructure. Environmental research and clean-up efforts have contributed to the diversification of the local economy, and signs of vitality remain, including a multimillion-dollar polysilicon manufacturing plant locating nearby in the 1990s and the city's recognition and designation in the late 1990s as an All-America City and also as one of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Dozen Distinctive Destinations in 2002.[48]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 716.8 sq mi (1,856.5 km2), of which 716.1 sq mi (1,854.7 km2) is land and 0.66 sq mi (1.7 km2) (0.09%) is water.[1] Butte is also home to one of the largest deposits of bornite. Of all United States communities situated on the Continental Divide, Butte is the most populous. Every highway exiting Butte (except westbound I-90) crosses the Divide (eastbound I-90 via Homestake Pass; eastbound MT 2 via Pipestone Pass; northbound I-15 via Elk Park Pass and southbound I-15 via Deer Lodge Pass).

The city was named for a nearby landform, Big Butte, by the early miners.[49][50] Butte's urban landscape is notable for including mining operations set within residential areas, making the environmental consequences of the extraction economy all the more apparent.

Cityscapes

View of Butte from south, 1908.
View from west side, as seen from the Montana Tech campus, 2012.
View from uptown Butte facing south on Idaho Street, 2017.

Neighborhoods

Uptown Butte, 2006.

The concentration of wealth in Butte due to its mining history resulted in unique and ornate architectural features[51] amongst its homes and buildings, particularly throughout the uptown section of Butte.[52] Uptown, named after its steep streets,[53] is located on a hillside on the northwestern edge of the town and is characterized by its abundance of lavish Victorian homes and Queen Anne style cottages built in the late-nineteenth century.[52] Several of Butte's "painted ladies"-homes were featured in the 1987 book Daughters of Painted Ladies by Elizabeth Pomada.[52][54] Butte-Silver Bow County has an established Urban Revitalization Agency which works to improve building façades to "enhance and promote the architectural resources of historic uptown Butte."[52] In 2017, a television pilot titled Butteification aired on HGTV, which focused on a couple restoring a Victorian home in Butte.[55]

Butte's South district, situated at a lower elevation below the hillside that comprises northern Butte, has historically been home to working-class neighborhoods.[56] Gold mines originally populated south Butte before it was platted for the Union Pacific Railroad in 1881.[56]

The expansion of the Anaconda Company in the 1960s and 1970s eradicated some of Butte's historic neighborhoods, including the East Side, Dublin Gulch, Meaderville, and Chinatown.[57] The St. Mary's section of Butte, which borders uptown to the east, comprised the Dublin Gulch (an enclave for Irish immigrants) and Corktown neighborhoods.[58] It takes its name from the eponymous Roman Catholic parish located within it,[59] which was historically known as the "miner's church," scheduling masses around miners' shifting schedules.[58] Historically, the St. Mary's section of Butte had a prominent population of Slavic and Finnish immigrants in addition to Irish prior to the mid-twentieth century.[58]

Climate

Butte has a very exaggerated semi-arid climate (BSk) under the Köppen Climate Classification, though short of being a humid continental climate (Dfb). Winters are long and cold, January averaging at 18 °F or -7.8 °C, with 35.9 nights falling below 0 °F or -17.8 °C and 58.3 days failing to top freezing.[60] Summers are short, with very warm days and chilly nights: July averages 63 °F or 17.2 °C. Like most areas in this part of North America, annual precipitation is low and largely concentrated in the spring months: the wettest month since precipitation records began in 1894 has been June 1913 with 8.86 inches or 225.0 millimetres, whilst no precipitation fell in September 1904.[61] The wettest calendar year has been 1909 with 20.55 inches or 522.0 millimetres and the two driest 1935 with 6.89 inches or 175.0 millimetres and 1895 with 6.98 inches or 177.3 millimetres. Snowfall is somewhat limited by dryness: the most in one month being 32.5 inches or 0.83 metres in October 1911 and the greatest depth on the ground 27 inches or 0.69 metres on 28 and 29 December 1996.[61]

The coldest month has been January 1937 with a daily mean temperature of -5.5 °F (-20.8 °C), whilst the coldest complete winter was 1948/49 with a three-month mean of 6.69 °F (-14.06 °C) and the mildest 1925/1926 which averaged 29.21 °F (-1.55 °C). July 2007 has been easily the hottest month, with a mean maximum of 88.8 °F (31.6 °C), although the hottest day, reaching 100 °F or 37.8 °C, occurred on July 22, 1931 and June 30, 2000.

Climate data for Butte Mooney Airport, MT (1971-2000; records 1894-2001)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 58
(14)
61
(16)
69
(21)
83
(28)
90
(32)
97
(36)
100
(38)
99
(37)
93
(34)
85
(29)
69
(21)
66
(19)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 29.7
(-1.3)
34.7
(1.5)
42.1
(5.6)
51.6
(10.9)
60.8
(16)
70.7
(21.5)
79.8
(26.6)
79.0
(26.1)
67.0
(19.4)
55.5
(13.1)
38.9
(3.8)
29.9
(-1.2)
53.4
(11.9)
Average low °F (°C) 5.4
(-14.8)
9.6
(-12.4)
18.5
(-7.5)
26.4
(-3.1)
34.3
(1.3)
41.4
(5.2)
45.5
(7.5)
44.1
(6.7)
35.3
(1.8)
26.2
(-3.2)
15.3
(-9.3)
5.7
(-14.6)
25.6
(-3.6)
Record low °F (°C) -48
(-44)
-52
(-47)
-36
(-38)
-16
(-27)
9
(-13)
22
(-6)
28
(-2)
23
(-5)
3
(-16)
-23
(-31)
-42
(-41)
-52
(-47)
-52
(-47)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.53
(13.5)
0.47
(11.9)
0.83
(21.1)
1.02
(25.9)
2.02
(51.3)
2.07
(52.6)
1.47
(37.3)
1.36
(34.5)
1.09
(27.7)
0.79
(20.1)
0.60
(15.2)
0.53
(13.5)
12.78
(324.6)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.4
(21.3)
7.6
(19.3)
10.7
(27.2)
8.6
(21.8)
3.3
(8.4)
0.2
(0.5)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
1.1
(2.8)
4.5
(11.4)
7.4
(18.8)
8.3
(21.1)
60.4
(153.4)
Average precipitation days 7.9 6.0 7.6 8.1 9.4 9.0 6.1 5.1 6.1 6.7 6.7 7.6 86.3
Average snowy days 7.8 7.6 9.6 6.6 2.7 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.8 3.2 7.2 8.5 54.5
Source: NOAA[60]

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 33,892 people, 14,135 households, and 8,735 families residing in the city. The population density was 47.3 people per square mile (18.3/km²). There were 15,833 housing units at an average density of 22.1 per square mile (8.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.38% White, 0.16% African American, 1.99% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, and 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.74% of the population. Of ethnic groups in Butte, the Irish make up a significant portion, with over one-quarter of the city's population claiming Irish descent, exceeding the percentage of Irish Americans in Boston.[7] Per capita, Butte has the highest percentage of Irish Americans of any city in the United States.[7]

There were 14,135 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.2% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,516, and the median income for a family was $40,186. Males had a median income of $31,409 versus $21,626 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,068. About 10.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

While some sources state that Butte has a peak population of nearly 100,000 around 1920, there is no documentation to corroborate this,[24] though it has been reasoned by local journalists based on city directory data.[a]

Economy

As a mining boomtown, Butte's economy has historically been powered by its copious mining operations which were economical driving forces from the late-nineteenth century into the late-twentieth century. Silver and gold were initially the primary metals mined in Butte, but the abundance of copper in the area would further invigorate the local economy with the advent of electricity, which created a soaring demand for the metal.[12] After World War I, Butte's mining economy experienced a downward trend that continued throughout the twentieth century, until mining operations ceased in 1985 with the closure of the Berkeley Pit.[12] Over the course of its history, the city's mining operations generated over $48 billion worth of ore, making it for a time the richest city in the world.[67]

Much of the city's economy post-millennium has been focused in energy companies (such as the Renewable Energy Corporation and NorthWestern Energy) and healthcare.[45] In 2014, NorthWestern Energy constructed a $25-million facility in uptown Butte.[68]

Transportation

The city is served by the Butte Bus system, which operates within Butte as well as to the Montana Tech campus and nearby Walkerville.[69]Bert Mooney Airport has commercial flights on Delta Connection Airlines and Horizon Air.[70] Butte can be accessed via Interstate 15 from north-south, and Interstate 90 from east-west; the two intersect in Butte, making it the only city in Montana situated at a juncture of two interstate highways.[66] The city can also be accessed from the south via Montana Highway 2 (Old U.S. Route 10).[71]

Government and politics

In 1977, Butte consolidated with Silver Bow County, becoming a consolidated city-county and thus operating under a city-county government.[1]

Politically, Butte has been a historically Democratic-majority city, and Silver Bow County one of the greatest Democratic-majority counties in Montana.[72][73] In 1996, Haley Beaudry became the first Republican from Butte elected to the city legislature since 1950.[72] In 2010, Max Yates was the next Butte Republican elected to the legislature; however, neither Beaudry or Yates were re-elected.[72] In 2014, Butte became the third city in Montana to pass an anti-discrimination ordinance protecting LGBT residents and visitors from discrimination in employment, housing and public accommodations.[74]

2012 General Presidential election results of Butte-Silver Bow (November 6, 2012)[75]
Candidate party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic (Barack Obama) 10,857 64.8%
Republican (Mitt Romney) 5,430 32.4%
Libertarian (Gary Johnson) 469 2.8%
Total 16,756 100%

Culture

Historical sites and museums

Copper King Mansion, built between 1884 and 1888 for magnate William A. Clark.

Butte is home to numerous museums and other educational institutions chronicling the city's history. In 2002, Butte was one of only twelve towns in America to be named a Distinctive Destination by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.[48][76] The Butte Silver Bow Public Library, located at 226 W. Broadway in uptown Butte (BSB Library has two branches, one in the mall (South Branch) and a part-time branch in the town of Melrose) is dedicated to preserving the town's history.[77] The Butte library was created in 1894 as "an antidote to the miners' proclivity for drinking, whoring, and gambling," designed to promote middle-class values and to promote an image of Butte as a cultivated city.[78][79] Additionally, the Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives stores and provides public access to documents and artifacts from Butte's past.[80]

Digenite-pyrite specimen from the old Leonard Mine, display at MBMG Mineral Museum.

Several museums and attractions are dedicated to the city's mining history, including the MBMG Mineral Museum (located at the University of Montana's Montana Tech campus), and the World Museum of Mining located at the Orphan Girl mine in uptown Butte, which features "Hell Roarin' Gulch," a mockup of a frontier mining town.[81] The Berkeley Pit, a gigantic former open pit copper mine, is also open to the public for viewing.[82] Other museums are dedicated to preserving cultural elements of Butte: The Dumas Brothel museum, a former brothel located in Venus Alley, Butte's former historical red-light district,[83] was the longest-running house of prostitution in the United States.[84] Another notable site is the Rookwood Speakeasy, a prohibition-era speakeasy which features an underground city,[85] and the Mai Wah Museum, dedicated to preserving Asian heritage in the Rocky Mountains.[86]

The 34-room Copper King Mansion in uptown Butte was constructed in 1884 by William A. Clark, one of the city's three Copper Kings.[53] The mansion functions as a bed-and-breakfast and local museum, and is often reported to be a haunted site.[87] The Art Chateau, at one time home to Clark's son, Charles, was designed in the image of a French château, and contemporarily houses the Butte-Silver Bow Arts Foundation.[88]

Located above Butte on the northeast edge of the city is the Our Lady of the Rockies statue, a 90-foot (27 m) statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary, dedicated to women and mothers everywhere, situated on top of the Continental Divide.[89] The statue was air-liftedto the site on December 17, 1985, after six years of construction.[90] Butte is also home to the U.S. High Altitude Speed Skating Center, an outdoor speed-skating rink used as a training location for World Cup skaters.[91]

Throughout uptown and western Butte are over ten underground mine headframes that are remnants from the town's mining industry. These include the Anselmo, the Steward, the Original, the Travona, the Belmont, the Kelly, the Mountain Con, the Lexington, the Bell/Diamond, the Granite Mountain, and the Badger. As part of a community project started around 2004, several headframes were repainted and outlined with LED lights which are illuminated at night.[92]

Events and traditions

St. Patrick's Day festival in Butte; the city is home to the largest number of Irish Americans per capita of any city in the United States.[7]

Butte's longstanding Irish Catholic community (which is the highest per capita of any city in the United States)[7] has been celebrated annually on St. Patrick's Day since 1882. Each year, about 30,000 revelers converge on Butte's historic Uptown district to enjoy the parade led by the Ancient Order of Hibernians.[7]

A larger annual celebration is Evel Knievel Days, held on the last weekend of July. This event draws over 50,000 motor sport enthusiasts and fans of Evel Knievel (a Butte native) from around the world.[93] The weekend-long event, held in Uptown Butte, features various stunt performances, sporting competitions, fundraisers, and live music.[93]

Butte is perhaps becoming most renowned for the regional Montana Folk Festival[6] held on the second weekend in July. In 2013, this event attracted 170,000 attendees for the three-day celebration of traditional music, art, dance and cuisine. This event began its run in Butte as the National Folk Festival[6] from 2008 to 2010 and in 2011 made the transition to the largest free-of-admission music festival in Montana.[94] Also held in the summer is Butte's Fourth of July Parade and Fireworks show, which is the largest in the state. In 2008, Barack Obama spent his last Fourth of July before his Presidency campaigning in Butte, taking in the parade with his family, and celebrating his daughter Malia Obama's 10th birthday.[95]

The legacy of the immigrants in Butte lives on in the form of various local cuisine, including the Cornish pasty which was popularized by mine workers who needed something easy to eat in the mines, the povitica--a Slavic nut bread pastry which is a holiday favorite sold in many supermarkets and bakeries in Butte[96]--and the boneless porkchop sandwich.[97] These, along with huckleberry products and Scandinavian lefse have arguably become Montana's symbolic foods, known and enjoyed throughout Montana.[6]

Environmental concerns

Berkeley Pit

Because its water contains high concentrations of metals such as copper and zinc, the Berkeley Pit is listed as a federal Superfund site.

After the closure of the Berkeley Pit mining operations in 1982, pipes which pumped groundwater out of the pit were turned off, resulting in the pit slowly filling with groundwater, creating an artificial lake.[82] Only two years later the pit was classified as a Superfund site and an environmental hazard site. The water in the pit is contaminated with various hard metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, and zinc.[82]

It was not until the 1990s that serious efforts to clean up the Berkeley Pit began. The situation gained even more attention after as many as 342 migrating geese chose the pit lake as a resting place, resulting in their deaths.[82] Steps have since been taken to prevent a recurrence, including but not limited to loudspeakers broadcasting sounds to scare off waterfowl. However, in November 2003 the Horseshoe Bend treatment facility went online and began treating and diverting much of the water that would have flowed into the pit.[98] The Berkeley Pit is both a Superfund site and tourist attraction, viewable from an observation deck.[82] Per a 2014 report, scientists believe the Berkeley Pit may reach the critical water level--potentially contaminating Silver Bow Creek--by the year 2023.[98] Beginning in 2019, the Montana Resources and Atlantic Richfield Co. are ordered by the Environmental Protection Agency to begin treating water from the pit, which is to then be discharged into Silver Bow Creek at a rate of 7,000,000 US gallons (26,000,000 l) per day.[98] Nikia Greene, EPA project manager for mine flooding, assured in 2014: "The pit is a giant bathtub. There's a hydraulic gradient into the pit. We will never let the water reach the critical level."[98]

Upper Clark Fork River

The Upper Clark Fork River, with Butte at the headwaters, is America's largest Superfund site, spanning 100 miles (160 km).[99] This area takes in the cities of Butte, Anaconda, and Missoula. The mining and smelting activity in Butte resulted in significant contamination of the Butte Hill as well as downstream and downwind areas. The contaminated land extends along a corridor of 120 miles (190 km) that reaches to Milltown near Missoula and takes in adjacent areas such as the Anaconda smelter site. The mining and smelting operations of the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation were the primary cause of this pollution at the headwaters of the Clark Fork River.

Between the upstream city of Butte and the downstream city of Missoula lies the Deer Lodge Valley. By the 1970s, local citizens and agency personnel were increasingly concerned over the toxic effects of arsenic and heavy metals on environment and human health. Most of the waste was created by the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation (ACM), which merged with the Atlantic Richfield Corporation (ARCO) in 1977. Shortly thereafter, in 1983, ARCO ceased mining and smelting operations in the Butte-Anaconda area.

For more than a century, the Anaconda Copper Mining company mined ore from Butte and smelted it in Butte (prior to c. 1920) and in nearby Anaconda. During this time, the Anaconda smelter released up to 40 short tons (36 t) per day of arsenic, 1,700 short tons (1,540 t) per day of sulfur, and great quantities of lead and other heavy metals into the air (MacMillan). In Butte, mine tailings were dumped directly into Silver Bow Creek, creating a 150 miles (240 km) plume of pollution extending down the valley to Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River just upstream of Missoula. Air and water borne pollution poisoned livestock and agricultural soils throughout the Deer Lodge Valley. Modern environmental clean-up efforts continue to this day.

Sports

Sports teams from Butte

Education

Entrance of Montana Tech. A statue of Marcus Daly by Augustus Saint-Gaudens sits at the entrance.

Public education is provided by Butte Public Schools which runs Butte High School, which enrolls around 1,300 students.[101] In correspondence with the Butte Public Schools system, the Butte Education Foundation was established in 2006, which aims to revitalize the public schools in an effort to attract new businesses and residents.[102] In the foundation's mission statement, it is noted that there is a "need to demonstrate a genuine and ongoing commitment to public education. Schools are often the first thing visitors ask about when looking at Butte as a potential new home."[102]

There are several private schools in Butte: The Butte Central Catholic High School operates under the Diocese of Helena,[103] which also operates Butte Central Elementary, a Catholic elementary school.[104] Other private elementary schools include the Silver Bow Montessori School.[105]

The first institute of higher education in Butte was the Montana School of Mines, which was established in 1889, the year of Montana's statehood.[106] The university changed its name to Montana Tech in the mid-twentieth century, and in 1994 became affiliated with the University of Montana.[107] The university specializes in engineering as well as geologic and hydrogeologic research, and has been nationally recognized among the top 10% of engineering universities in the United States.[106] It was ranked no. 4 by the U.S. News & World Report in 2017 for "Best Regional Colleges in the West."[107] Montana Tech is also home to Highlands College, a two-year-college that grants associate's and trade degrees.[108]

Media

Radio and television

Major AM stations in Butte are KBOW AM 550 (country), KANA 580 (oldies), and KXTL 1370 (oldies and talk radio).[109]FM stations include KAPC 91.3 Montana Public Radio (via the University of Montana); KAAR 92.5 (country); KOPR 94.1 (classic rock), KMBR 95.5 (mainstream rock), KQRV 96.9 (country), KGLM 97.7 (contemporary), KMSM 103.9 (variety), and KBMF 102.5 community radio (classical; via Montana State University).[109]

Butte shares its Neilsen market with nearby Bozeman, with which it forms the 194th largest TV market in the United States. Butte has the distinction of being near the dividing line in terms of Pro-Sports markets, so the city receives both Seattle and Denver teams games on local cable TV channels.

Local television stations include: KXLF (Channel 4), a CBS/CW affiliate, and the oldest broadcast television station in the state of Montana; KTVM (Channel 6), an NBC affiliate with additional programming from nearby KECI-TV in Missoula; KUSM (Channel 9), a PBS affiliate broadcasting out of Montana State University in Bozeman; and KWYB (Channel 19), an ABC/FOX affiliate and last of the "Big Three" networks to come into the market (1992). Prior to this Butte's ABC feeds came from KUSA-TV in Denver, Colorado and FOX from now-defunct Butte station KBTZ.

Newspapers

Butte has one local daily, a weekly paper, as well as several papers from around the state of Montana. The Montana Standard is Butte's daily paper. It was founded in 1928 and is the result of The Butte Miner and the Anaconda Standard merging into one daily paper.[110] Prior to 1928, the newspaper had been known as The Butte Miner.[110] The Standard is owned by Lee Enterprises. The Butte Weekly is another local paper.

In popular culture

Film and television

Butte has appeared in numerous films. The first film to notably feature Butte was Evel Knievel (1971), a biopic of Evel Knievel, a Butte native.[111] The 1976 thriller The Killer Inside Me, starring Stacy Keach and Susan Tyrrell and set in small-town Montana, was also partially shot in Butte in September 1974.[112] The city was featured in the period pieces Runaway Train (1985), which was shot in-part on the Butte, Anaconda and Pacific Railway,[113] and the miniseries Return to Lonesome Dove (1993).[114] Other films shot in Butte include F.T.W. (1994),[115]

The animated film Beavis and Butt-head Do America (1996) depicts Butte.[116] In 2004, the Wim Wenders film Don't Come Knocking was set and shot in Butte.[117] In 2015, the SyFy-produced horror film Dead 7 was shot at the city's Anselmo Mine yards.[118]

The city has been subject of several documentary films, including Die Vergessene Stadt: Butte, Montana (1992), a German documentary by Thomas Schadt,[119] and Butte, America (2008), narrated by Gabriel Byrne.[120]

Literary depictions

One of the earliest literary depictions of Butte was by Mary MacLane, a diarist who wrote of her life growing up in the town at the turn of the twentieth century. Her diaries are published under the title I Await the Devil's Coming, and have been credited as a progenitor of confessional writing.[121] The city also figures in the noir novel Red Harvest by Dashiell Hammett, which is set in Butte and whose plot is partly based on the 1920 Anaconda Road Massacre.[122] The 1980 novel The Butte Polka by Donald McCaig also incorporates the city's mining history into its plot, featuring a character who goes missing from his post at a Butte copper mine.[123]

More contemporary literary depictions of Butte can be found in 1998's Buster Midnight's Cafe by Sandra Dallas,[124] as well as the historical fiction novel Go By Go by Jon A. Jackson, which depicts the 1917 Speculator Mine disaster.[125]Ivan Doig's 2010 novel Work Song is set in Butte in 1919 after World War I.[126]

Notable people

Sister cities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the U.S. Census data shows a population of around 60,000 in 1920, a city directory from 1917 notes Butte's population as being 91,000, while the 1918 directory estimates 93,000. The variance between 1918 and the 1920 census is reflected in the city directories, which fall to 60,000 after 1920.[65] The variance in population reports has been attributed to the city's near-constant fluctuation of visitors, immigrants, and temporary boarders during this time.[66]

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  121. ^ Reese, Hope (March 19, 2013). "The Forgotten Story of Mary MacLane, 1902's Racy, Angsty Teenage Diarist". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017. 
  122. ^ Crowley, Jack (2008). "Red Harvest and Dashiell Hammett's Butte". The Montana Professor. Montana Tech at the University of Montana. 18 (2). Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. 
  123. ^ "The Butte Polka by Donald McCaig". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved 2017. 
  124. ^ Hodgman, George (May 4, 1990). "Buster Midnight's Cafe". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2017. 
  125. ^ Jackson, Jon A. (1998). Go by Go. Dennis McMillan Publications. ISBN 978-0-939-76731-1. 
  126. ^ Rutten, Tim (July 15, 2010). "Book review: 'Work Song' by Ivan Doig". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2017. 
  127. ^ Gevock, Nick (November 1, 2010). "A cultural experience: German students attend Butte High in exchange program". The Montana Standard. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved 2016.  (Archive link requires scroll down).
  128. ^ Stauffer, Roberta Forsell (May 18, 2001). "Butte officials off to Poland to meet sister city". The Montana Standard. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved 2017.  (Archive link requires scroll down).

Works cited

  • Calvert, Jerry (1988). The Gibraltar: Socialism and Labor in Butte, Montana. Montana Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-917-29814-1. 
  • Emmons, David (1989). The Butte Irish: Class and Ethnicity in an American Mining Town, 1875-1925. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06155-4. 
  • Everett, George (2007). Butte Trivia. Riverbend Publishing Co. ISBN 978-1-931-83285-4. 
  • Finn, Janet L. (2012). Mining Childhood: Growing Up in Butte, 1900-1960. Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-980-12925-0. 
  • Finn, Janet L. (1998). Tracing the Veins: Of Copper, Culture, and Community from Butte to Chuquicamata. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92007-1. 
  • Gammons, Christopher H.; Metesh, John J.; Duaime, Terence E. (2006). "An overview of the mining history and geology of Butte, Montana". Mine Water and the Environment. 25 (2): 70-5. 
  • Glasscock, C. B. (1935). The War of the Copper Kings: The Builders of Butte and the Wolves of Wall Street. Grosset and Dunlap. 
  • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). Leaves of Knowledge. Shaw & Borden Co. 
  • MacMillan, Donald (2000). Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1924. Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-917-29865-3. 
  • Malone, Michael P. (2006) [1981]. The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-80219-0. 
  • Malone, Michael (1985). "The Close of the Copper Century". Montana: The Magazine of Western History. 35: 69-72. 
  • McCarthy, Bob J. (1988). "Re-Claiming Butte: The Doctrine of Subjacent Support". Montana Law Review. 267 (49). 
  • Murphy, Mary (1997). Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-41. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06569-9. 
  • Nash, June (1993) [1979]. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-08051-4. 
  • Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul, eds. (2013) [1996]. The Americas: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-25930-4. 
  • Shovers, B.; Fiege, M; Martin, F.; Quivik, F (1991). Butte and Anaconda Revisited: An Overview of Early-Day Mining and Smelting in Montana. Butte Historical Society; Klepetko Chapter, Society for Industrial Archeology. 
  • Wyckoff, William (1995). "Postindustrial Butte". The Geographical Review. 85 (4): 478-97 - via JSTOR. 

Further reading

Pollution and toxic cleanup

Bibliographic materials

  • Barnett, Harold C. Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma (University of North Carolina Press, 1994)
  • Barry, Bridget R. "Toxic Tourism: Promoting the Berkeley Pit and Industrial Heritage in Butte, Montana." (2012). online
  • Bookspan, Shelley. "Junk It, or Junket?" Public Historian (2001) 23#2 pp. 5-8 in JSTOR
  • Capek, Stella M. 1992. Environmental Justice, Regulation, and the Local Community." International Journal of Health Services 22(4):729-746.
  • Chess, C. and Purcell, K. 1999. Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works? Environmental Science and Technology 33(16): 2685-2692.
  • Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 1993. Cleaning up the Mess: Implementation Strategies in Superfund (Washington: The Brookings Institution).
  • Covello VT and Mumpower J. 1985 "Risk Analysis and Risk Management: A Historical Perspective," Risk Analysis 5(2): 103-120.
  • Dobb, Edwin. 1999. "Mining the Past." High Country News 31 (11): 1-10.
  • Dobb, Edwin. 1996. "Pennies from Hell: In Montana, the Bill for America's Copper Comes Due." Harper's Magazine (293): 39-54.
  • Langewiesche, William. 2001. "The Profits of Doom--One of the Most Polluted Cities in America Learns to Capitalize on Its Contamination" The Atlantic Monthly (April 2001): 56-62.
  • Levine, Mark. 1996. "As the Snake Did Away with the Geese." Outside Magazine 21 (September 1996): 74-84.
  • Edelstein, Michael R. 2003. Contaminated Communities: Coping with Residential Toxic Exposure Westview Press.
  • Folk, Ellison. "Public Participation in the Superfund Cleanup Process," Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991), 173-221.
  • Hird, J. A. 1993. "Environmental Policy and Equity: the case of Superfund." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12: 323-343.
  • Munday, Pat. 2002. "'A millionaire couldn't buy a piece of water as good:' George Grant and the Conservation of the Big Hole River Watershed." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 52 (2): 20-37.
  • Okrusch, Chad Michael. "Pragmatism and environmental problem-solving: A systematic moral analysis of democratic decision-making in Butte, Montana" (PhD. Diss. University of Oregon, 2010) online
  • Punke, Michael. 2006. Fire and Brimstone The North Butte Mining Disaster of 1917 (New York: Hyperion Books).
  • Quivik, Fredric. 2004. "Of Tailings, Superfund Litigation, and Historians as Experts: U.S. v. Asarco, et al. (the Bunker Hill Case in Idaho)." The Public Historian 26 (1): 81-104.
  • Probst, K. et al. 2002. "Superfund's Future: What Will It Cost?" Environmental Forum, 19 (2 ): 32-41.
  • Tesh, Sylvia. 1999. "Citizen experts in environmental risk." Policy Studies 32 (1): 39-58.
  • Teske, N. 2000. "A tale of two TAGs: Dialogue and democracy in the superfund program." American Behavioral Scientist. 44 (4): 664-678.

Web resources

  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2005a. Region 8 - Superfund: Citizen's Guide to Superfund. Updated 27 December 2005. www.epa.gov/ Accessed 27Dec.05.
  • ______. 2005b. "EPA Region 8--Environmental Justice (EJ) Program." Updated 24 March 2005). www.epa.gov/region8/ej/ Accessed 05.Jan.06.
  • ______. 2004a. Superfund Cleanup Proposal, Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit of the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site, epa.gov, accessed 20.Dec.2004.
  • ______. 2004b. "Clark Fork River Record of Decision," available at epa.gov
  • ______. 2002a. Superfund Community Involvement Toolkit. EPA 540-K-01-004.*
  • ______. 2002b. "Butte Benefits from a $78 Million Cleanup Agreement." Available at epa.gov
  • ______. 1998. Superfund Community Involvement Handbook and Toolkit. Washington, DC: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
  • ______. 1996. "EPA Superfund Record of Decision R08-96/112." Available at epa.gov
  • ______. 1992. "Environmental Equity: Reducing Risk for All Communities." EPA A230-R-92-008; two volumes (June 1992).
  • Society for Applied Anthropology. 2005. "SFAA Project Townsend, Case Study Three, The Clark Fork Superfund Sites in Western Montana." sfaa.net, accessed ovember 23, 2005
  • Montana Environmental Information Center. 2005. "Federal Superfund: EPA's Plan for Butte Priority Soils." Available at meic.org
  • Murray, C. and D.R. Marmorek. 2004. "Adaptive Management: A science-based approach to managing ecosystems in the face of uncertainty." Prepared for presentation at the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas: Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Victoria, British Columbia, May 11-16, 2003. ESSA Technologies, BC, Canada.
  • National Academy of Sciences. 2005. The National Academy of Sciences Report on Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin. Available at epa.gov
  • Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility. 2005. "Cut and Run: EPA Betrays Another Montana Town--A Tale of Butte, the Largest Superfund Site in the United States." News release (August 18, 2005), peer.org, accessed September 15, 2005
  • Southland, Elizabeth. 2003. "Megasites: Presentation for the NACEPT--Superfund Subcommittee." www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/naceptdocs/megasites.pdf, accessed April 22, 2005.

Academic resources

  • Center for Public Environmental Oversight. 2002. "Roundtable on Long-term Management in the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites." Report from a roundtable held in Washington, DC, 28 June 2002, cpeo.org, accessed December 19, 2005.
  • Case, Bridgette Dawn. "The women's protective union: Union women activists in a union town, 1890-1929" (PhD Dissertation. Montana State University-Bozeman, 2004) online
  • Curran, Mary E. 1996. "The Contested Terrain of Butte, Montana: Social Landscapes of Risk and Resiliency." Master's thesis, University of Montana.
  • LeCain, Timothy. 1998. "Moving Mountains: Technology and Environment in Western Copper Mining." PhD Dissertation, University of Delaware.
  • Quivik, Frederic. 1998. "Smoke and Tailings: An Environmental History of Copper Smelting Technologies in Montana, 1880-1930." PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Other

  • Mercier, Laurie. 2001. Anaconda: Labor, Community, and Culture in Montana's Smelter City (University of Illinois Press).
  • Parrett, Aaron (2015). Literary Butte: A History in Novels & Film. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-626-19836-4. 
  • St. Clair, Jeffrey. 2003. "Something About Butte." Counterpunch, an online magazine www.counterpunch.org, accessed October 3, 2005.
  • Toole, K. Ross. 1954. "A History of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company: A Study in the Relationships between a State and its People and a Corporation, 1880-1950." PhD Dissertation, University of California-Los Angeles.

Primary sources

External links

Local resources

Photographs and media

Coordinates: 46°0?23?N 112°31?47?W / 46.00639°N 112.52972°W / 46.00639; -112.52972


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Butte,_Montana
 



 

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