Carnival Cruise Line
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Carnival Cruise Line
Carnival Cruise Line
Wholly Owned Subsidiary
Industry Hospitality, Travel, and Tourism
Founded March 11, 1972; 46 years ago (1972-03-11)
Founder Ted Arison
Headquarters Miami, Florida, U.S.
Area served
Key people
Christine Duffy, President
Products Cruises
Revenue IncreaseUS$10.9 billion (FY 2011)
Increase US$1.9 billion (FY 2011)
Increase US$35 billion (FY 2011)
Increase US$13.4 billion (FY 2011)
Number of employees
3,900 - Shoreside[1]
33,500 - Shipboard[1]
Parent Carnival Corporation & plc

Footnotes / references
Largest cruise line in the world, based on passengers carried annually, annual revenue, and total number of ships in fleet[1]

House flag of Carnival Cruise Line

Carnival Cruise Line is one of ten cruise line brands owned by the world's largest cruise ship operator the American-British Carnival Corporation & plc. In 2018 Carnival Cruise Line was estimated to hold a 8.9% share of cruise industry revenue and 22.0% of passengers.[2] It has the largest fleet in the Carnival group, with 26 vessels. The ships fly flags of convenience; 18 of the ships fly the Panama flag, 6 of the Bahamas and 2 of Malta. Its headquarters are in Miami, Florida, the United States. Executive control of the company is provided by the North American division of Carnival Corporation, headquartered in Doral, Florida.[3][4]

Carnival's format is to offer shorter, less expensive cruises. Its ships are known for their Las Vegas-style decor and entertainment. The line calls its ships "The Fun Ships", and there are a wide range of activities offered on board. Its trademark is the funnel, which is red, white and blue and shaped like a whale's tail. The mascot for Carnival is Fun Ship Freddy, a character in the shape of Carnival's distinctive funnel.


Carnival Cruise Line was founded in 1972 by Ted Arison. To finance the venture Arison turned to his friend Meshulam Riklis who owned Boston-based American International Travel Service (AITS). Arison and Riklis set up the new company as a subsidiary of AITS. AITS was to market and promote the new venture. In 1974, due to regulatory issues, Riklis sold AITS's interest in the company to Arison for $1, but subject to Arison taking over the substantial company debts.[5] The split enabled Arison to enter into new relationships with independent travel agents. He also promoted his cruises to fun-loving younger people. The format was very successful financially.[5] Until 1975, the line consisted of only one ship the Mardi Gras. In 1975 another ship was acquired Carnivale.[5]

In 1996 Carnival Destiny of 101,000 GT became the largest passenger ship in the world at the time and first to exceed 100,000 tons.

In 2001, Robert H. Dickinson, then President and CTC, participated in a BBC documentary, Back To The Floor. Dickinson went to work at the lowest crew levels on the Fun Ship MS Carnival Imagination in the Caribbean, where he shadowed a Romanian cleaner, Alina.[6]

In 2004, Carnival Corporation ordered for a development program for Carnival's new ships, the Pinnacle Project, calling for a 200,000 GT prototype, which would have been the world's largest cruise ship at the time. The ship was cancelled and after that they came up with a project called Next Generation.[7]

As of 2009, the latest and largest asset in the Carnival fleet was Carnival Dream, a new 128,000 GT ship. Carnival Dream entered service on 21 September 2009. After several voyages in the Mediterranean she was set to offer weekly Caribbean cruises from Port Canaveral from 5 December 2009. A sister ship, Carnival Magic, debuted on 1 May 2011. On 1 December 2009 it was announced that Carnival placed an order for a third Dream-class vessel.[8] It entered service in June 2012 and its homeport is now Galveston.[9] On May 10, 2010, Carnival selected a name for their new Dream-class vessel in 2012 - Carnival Breeze.[10]

On 26 October 2012, it was announced that Carnival had ordered a brand new ship for their Carnival Cruise Line brand. This ship, built by Fincantieri, was the largest ship they have ever built. It sailed its maiden voyage on May 1, 2016.[11] The new ship was named Carnival Vista.[12]

In January 2017, Michael Thamm was appointed CEO of Carnival Asia, to oversee operations in China and the region. Thamm's career spans more than three decades in the cruise and shipping industry. Thamm serves as CEO of Costa Group since July 1, 2012 and continues to work at Costa Group in addition to duties at Carnival Asia.[13]

The Carnival Horizon and Carnival Panorama are set to join the fleet in 2018 and 2019. Carnival Horizon's Godmother will be Queen Latifah.

In February 2018, the company's officials unveiled a major port development project in Ensenada, Mexico.[14]

Hurricane Katrina charters

Carnival Ecstasy docked in New Orleans

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, three of the Carnival cruise ships were chartered by the United States government for six months to serve as temporary housing until the houses can be rebuilt. After being chartered for six months, their planned voyages were cancelled, and passengers were refunded. Holiday was originally docked in Mobile, Alabama, and later Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Ecstasy and Sensation were docked at New Orleans, Louisiana. The six-month contract cost $236 million. The contract was widely criticized, because the vessels were never fully utilized, and Carnival received more money than it would have earned by using the ships in their normal rotation.[15]


The company has reportedly been paying wages under $1.50 per hour to employees with low-to-nonexistent benefits, such as holidays or minimal vacations.[16] Monthly salaries of the high paid workers are around $1,300. The crew wages are supplemented by gratuities, and one former Carnival crew member cited that crew receive up to 95% of their income from tips.[17] Employees report strenuous working conditions such as 14-hour shifts with no days off. As of October 2013 retirement benefits were revoked.[18]

Carnival Cruise Line headquarters in Doral, Florida

Accidents and incidents

See also Costa Crociere Accidents and incidents for incidents associated with the parent company's other cruise operations.

On September 19, 1999, Carnival Tropicale's engine room caught fire en route from Cozumel to Tampa. While disabled in the Gulf of Mexico, the ship was struck by Tropical Storm Harvey. No crew or guests were injured during the two days Carnival Tropicale spent without propulsion.[19] The ship was later sold and renamed Ocean Dream.

On November 8, 2010, a fire broke out in the generator room of Carnival Splendor and the ship lost most power. The ship was adrift off the west coast of Mexico. The ship was towed to San Diego.[20]

On February 10, 2013, Carnival Triumph, with 3,143 passengers aboard, suffered an engine room fire, leaving the ship adrift for four days in the Gulf of Mexico.[21]. The engine fire led to a power outage on the ship which in turn, cause raw sewage to back up. This led to the media to dub the ordeal "The Poop Cruise"[22]. The ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama, docking on the evening of February 14.[23][24] In subsequent litigation, Carnival documents were uncovered that revealed multiple generator maintenance problems creating a "disaster waiting to happen." In response, Carnival's court filing takes the position that the contract that passengers agree to when they buy a ticket "makes absolutely no guarantee for safe passage, a seaworthy vessel, adequate and wholesome food, and sanitary and safe living conditions."[25]

On March 14, 2013, Carnival Dream experienced an emergency generator failure while docked in port at Philipsburg, Sint Maarten. The ship was scheduled to leave port around 5 p.m. ET the day before. The United States Coast Guard said they were notified by Carnival that Carnival Dream was experiencing emergency generator problems. Carnival announced that the passengers would be flown back to Florida rather than completing their scheduled voyage.[26]

On the morning of March 15, 2013, Carnival Legend suffered a mechanical problem with one propulsion pod while at sea. The cruise line cancelled Carnival Legend's scheduled stops in Belize and Grand Cayman, and the ship returned to Tampa, Florida at a reduced speed of 19 knots (22 mph) (Legend has a regular cruising speed of 24 knots).[27][28][29]

On December 27, 2015, an electrician who had been working on one of Carnival Ecstasy passenger elevators was killed in an accident.[30]

On May 3, 2018 a pipe burst in the Carnival Dream's fire suppression system flooding 50 staterooms.[31]


Current fleet

Ship Class Sailed for
Gross Tonnage Guest


Home Port Flag Notes Image
Carnival Horizon Vista 2018-present 133,500 GT 3,960 New York City, New York
Until September 17th, 2018
Miami, Florida
Beginning September 20th, 2018
 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri for Carnival Cruise Line. [32]
Carnival Vista Vista 2016-present 133,500 GT 3,934 Miami, Florida

Until September 20, 2018

Galveston, Texas

Beginning September 23, 2018

 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Horizon TRIESTE NAVI (26741045166) (cropped).jpg
Carnival Breeze Dream 2012-Present 128,000 GT[33] 3,690 Galveston, Texas

Until September 16, 2018

Port Canaveral, Florida

Beginning September 30, 2018

 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Vista Carnival Breeze (ship, 2011) 001 (cropped).jpg
Carnival Magic Dream 2011-Present 128,000 GT[34] 3,690
Port Canaveral, Florida

Until September 29, 2018

Miami, Florida

Beginning September 30, 2018

Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Beginning May 5, 2019

 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Breeze Carnival Magic in Venedig.JPG
Carnival Dream Dream 2009-Present 128,000 GT[35] 3,646 New Orleans, Louisiana

Until May 12, 2019

Galveston, Texas

Beginning May 13, 2019

 Panama The largest ship ever built by Fincantieri until Carnival Magic Carnival Dream Bow.png
Carnival Splendor Splendor 2008-Present 113,300 GT[35] 3,012

Long Beach, California
Until October 5th, 2019
Sydney, Australia
Beginning December 11, 2019

 Panama Referred to as a Splendor-class ship, was originally designed for Costa Cruises as Costa Splendor, but the Carnival Splendor was transferred to Carnival Cruise Line during construction and is essentially a modified version of the Concordia-class ships. Carnival Splendor 2009.jpg
Carnival Freedom Conquest 2007-Present 110,000 GT 2,980 Galveston, Texas  Panama George Town - Carnival Freedom (5756470231).jpg
Carnival Liberty Conquest 2005-Present 110,000 GT 2,980

Port Canaveral, Florida

 Panama Carnival Liberty George Town, Grand Cayman (4401394568).jpg
Carnival Valor Conquest 2004-Present 110,000 GT 2,980

Galveston, Texas

Until May 10, 2019

New Orleans, Louisiana

Beginning May 11, 2019

 Panama Carnival Valor Cruise Ship (3) (21009123989).jpg
Carnival Glory Conquest 2003-Present 110,000 GT 2,980 Miami, Florida

Until February 28, 2019

New Orleans, Louisiana

Beginning March 2, 2019

 Panama Carnival Glory in Belize, 12-2014 (recropped).JPG
Carnival Conquest Conquest 2002-Present 110,000 GT 2,980 Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Until May 5, 2019

Miami, Florida

Beginning May 5, 2019

 Panama Carnival Conquest 3.jpg
Carnival Miracle Spirit 2004-Present 88,500 GT 2,124

Tampa, Florida
Until September 29, 2019
Long Beach, California
Beginning October 12, 2019

 Panama Built to Panamax form factor Carnival miracle 2.jpg
Carnival Legend Spirit 2002-Present 88,500 GT 2,124 (April-September)
Seattle, Washington ; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ; Honolulu, Hawaii
Sydney, Australia
Melbourne, Australia[36]

Tampa, Florida
Beginning October 27, 2019

 Malta Built to Panamax form factor CarnivalLegendCoz.JPG
Carnival Pride Spirit 2002-Present 88,500 GT 2,124 Baltimore, Maryland[37]  Panama Built to Panamax form factor, Former Flagship for Carnival US-port-canav-carnival-pride (recropped).jpg
Carnival Spirit Spirit 2001-Present 88,500 GT 2,124 Sydney, Australia
 Malta Built to Panamax form factor Carnivalspiritketchikan.jpg
Carnival Victory Destiny/Triumph 2000-Present 101,509 GT 2,754 Miami, Florida  Panama Modified Destiny-class Carnival Victory2.jpg
Carnival Triumph Destiny/Triumph 1999-Present 101,509 GT 2,754 New Orleans, Louisiana
Until March 1, 2019

New York City, New York ; Norfolk, Virginia & Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Beginning April 15, 2019

 Bahamas Modified Destiny-class.
On February 14, 2013 the ship was towed to Mobile, Alabama for repairs after an engine room fire and resumed service on June 13, 2013, almost 4 months after being out of service. After Dry Dock she became the leader of the two member Triumph Class.[]
Carnival Triumph Half Moon Cay.jpg
Carnival Sunshine Destiny/Sunshine 2013-Present 1996-2013 as Carnival Destiny 102,853 GT 3,002 Port Canaveral, Florida
Until May 17, 2019

Charleston, South Carolina

Beginning May 18, 2019[39]

 Bahamas Originally sailed as Carnival Destiny from 1996 to 2013.
World's largest passenger ship (measured by gross tonnage), when built.
First cruise ship over 100,000 GT. Carnival now identifies the Sunshine as the only member of Sunshine Class. The first ship in the fleet to receive all Funship 2.0 amenities.
Carnival Sunshine 02.JPG
Carnival Paradise Fantasy 1998-Present 70,367 GT 2,124 Tampa, Florida  Panama Originally, Paradise Carnival Paradise docked in Havana, Cuba (cropped).jpg
Carnival Elation Fantasy 1998-Present 71,909 GT 2,130 Jacksonville, Florida
Until May 11, 2019

Port Canaveral, Florida

Beginning May 12, 2019

 Panama Originally, Elation Carnival Elation In Jacksonville 2.jpg
Carnival Inspiration Fantasy 1996-Present 70,367 GT 2,056 Long Beach, California  Bahamas Originally, Inspiration Carnival Inspiration 01 (recropped).jpg
Carnival Imagination Fantasy 1995-Present 70,367 GT 2,056 Long Beach, California  Bahamas Originally, Imagination Post0103 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library (cropped) (2).jpg
Carnival Fascination Fantasy 1994-Present 70,367 GT 2,056 San Juan, Puerto Rico ; Barbados
 Bahamas Originally, Fascination Carnival Fascination.JPG
Carnival Sensation Fantasy 1993-Present 70,367 GT 2,056 Miami, Florida  Bahamas Originally, Sensation Carnival Sensation Nassau 12-23-11.jpg
Carnival Ecstasy Fantasy 1991-Present 70,367 GT 2,056 Charleston, South Carolina
Until May 15, 2019

Jacksonville, Florida
Beginning May 16, 2019

 Panama originally, Ecstasy Carnival Ecstasy docked in Port Canaveral, Florida.jpg
Carnival Fantasy Fantasy 1990-present 70,367 GT 2,056 Mobile, Alabama  Panama Originally, Fantasy 'Carnival Fantasy' Docked at Charleston (SC) July 2012.jpg


  • Two more Destiny-class ships sail for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises, Costa Fortuna and Costa Magica.
  • Carnival Triumph and Carnival Victory are Modified-Destiny-class cruise ship because they were built with two more decks than the rest of the Destiny-class ships.
  • Two more Spirit-class ships sail for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises, Costa Atlantica and Costa Mediterranea.
  • One more Dream-class ship sails for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises, Costa Diadema.
  • Conquest-class is based on the overall design of the Destiny-class, but are longer. Because of the additional length, the Conquest class has expanded facilities compared to the Destiny class. Not all ships have a reservations-only restaurant. Carnival Conquest, Carnival Glory, Carnival Valor, Carnival Liberty and Carnival Freedom, slightly differ from the rest of the fleet because they have Carnival's Seaside Theater installed by the main pool on the lido deck. The Destiny-class ships, Carnival Destiny, Carnival Triumph and Carnival Victory also have one installed. Carnival Splendor and the Dream-class ships, Carnival Dream, Carnival Magic and Carnival Breeze, as well as Carnival Vista, were built with the Seaside Theater.
  • Carnival Splendor offers facilities other ships do not have. This is because the ship was originally designed and built for Carnival's sister company Costa Cruises. Costa Cruises had five sister ships to Carnival Splendor: Costa Concordia, Costa Serena, Costa Pacifica, Costa Favolosa and Costa Fascinosa,[] until the Costa Concordia was grounded and wrecked in January 2012. The inaugural voyage for Carnival Splendor was on 2 July 2008 from Genoa, Italy to Dover, England.

Future fleet

Ship Year
Will sail for
Gross Tonnage Home Port Flag Notes Image
Carnival Panorama 2019 2019 133,500 GT Long Beach, California[40]  Panama Sister to the Carnival Vista and Carnival Horizon. Originally planned to sail for P&O Cruises Australia.[41]
TBA 2020 2020 180,000 GT TBA  Panama Will be the first LNG powered and the largest ship ever built for Carnival Cruise Line.[42]
TBA 2022 2022 180,000 GT TBA  Panama Build by Meyer Turku, Finland[43]

On July 29, 2016, Carnival announced that the second Vista Class Ship would be named Carnival Horizon that is scheduled to be delivered March 2018.

Former fleet

Ship Class Year
Sailed for
Gross Tonnage Flag Notes Image
Mardi Gras Empress 1961 1972-1993 27,284 GT
registered as 18,261 GT
 Panama Also known as Empress of Canada, Olympic, Star of Texas, Lucky Star, Apollo, and Apollon. Scrapped in 2003. MV Mardi Gras - Montreal, 1979.jpg
Carnivale Empress 1956 1975-1993 31,500 GT  Panama Also known as Empress of Britain, Queen Anna Maria, Fiesta Marina, Olympic, and The Topaz. Sold for scrap in 2008. "Carnivale" - Miami, 1984.jpg
Festivale Festivale 1962 1977-1996 32,697 GT  Panama Also known as Transvaal Castle, S.A. Vaal, Island Breeze, and Big Red Boat III. Sold for scrap in 2003. SS Festivale in Barbados - 1987-02-26.jpg
Tropicale Tropicale 1982 1982-2001 36,674 GT  Liberia Was Carnival's first purpose-built ship. Also known as Costa Tropicale, and Pacific Star. Now known as Ocean Dream in May 2008. Ocean Dream in Grand Harbour, Valletta, Malta in Pullmantur livery.jpg
Holiday Holiday 1985 1985-2009 46,051 GT Madeira,  Portugal In 2009, Holiday became the Grand Holiday for Iberocruceros. Now sails with Cruise & Maritime Voyages as the Magellan. Carnival Holiday docked in Cozumel 03-2004.jpg
Jubilee Holiday 1986 1986-2004 47,262 GT  Liberia In 2004 Jubilee became the Pacific Sun for P&O Cruises Australia and the Henna in 2013. Sold for scrap in 2017. CarnivalJubilee.jpg
Celebration Holiday 1987 1987-2008 47,262 GT Madeira,  Portugal In 2008 Celebration became the Grand Celebration for Iberocruceros, now sails for Bahamas Paradise Cruise Line. Carnival Celebration, Nassau (cropped).jpg


Restaurants on board Carnival ships include Ji Ji Asian Kitchen, Carnival Steakhouses, Cucina Del Capitano, Mongolian Wok, Guy's Burger Joint, Pizza Stations, Tandoor Kitchen, Taste Bar, Chef's Kitchen, Dining Rooms, Red Frog Pub, BlueIguana Cantina, Carnival Deli, Java Blue, Shake Spot, Pig and Anchor, and Fish and Chips

See also


  1. ^ a b c Carnival Cruise Lines Fact Sheet. Carnival Cruise Lines. Retrieved 31 May 2010
  2. ^ "2018 World Wide Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. 2018-01-05. 
  3. ^ "Corporate Address." Carnival Cruise Line. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  4. ^ "Map of the City of Doral Archived 2011-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.." City of Doral. Retrieved on January 9, 2010
  5. ^ a b c The Cruise Ship Phenomenon in North America (2001), by Brian J. Cudahy, ISBN 9780870335297, page 44ff.
  6. ^ "BBC - Adam Curtis - We're all in the same boat -- aren't we?". 31 January 2012. Retrieved 2014. 
  7. ^ Fincantieri signs a five ship, 2.6 billion dollar agreement with Carnival Group. Press Release. Fincantiei. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2010
  8. ^ "Wärtsilä to power new cruise vessel of Carnival Corporation". 
  9. ^ "New 128,000-ton Cruise Ship Ordered for Carnival Corporation & plc's Carnival Cruise Line Unit". Retrieved . 
  10. ^ "Carnival Cruise Lines' new 128,000-ton ship to be named Carnival Breeze". Cruise Industry News. May 10, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  11. ^ "Carnival Cruise Lines and Holland America Line Order New Ships - Cruise Industry News | Cruise News". Cruise Industry News. 2012-10-26. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Sloan, Gene (July 20, 2013). "Next Carnival ship to be called Carnival Vista". USA Today. Retrieved 2013. 
  13. ^ Tore, Ozgur. "New CEO of Carnival Asia". FTNnews. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ Staff, CIN (2018-02-10). "Carnival to Develop New Port in Ensenada". Retrieved . 
  15. ^ $236 Million Cruise Ship Deal Criticized -- The Washington Post, September 28, 2005
  16. ^ "P&O cruise ship staff paid basic salary of 75p an hour". The Guardian. September 29, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Q&A: Cruise Confidential Author on the Life of a Crewmember". Cruise Critic. December 22, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Carnival Cruises Lines Terminates Crew Member Retirement Benefits". Cruise Law News. October 23, 2013. 
  19. ^ Danielson, Richard (February 23, 2000). "Cruise captain feared panic". St. Petersburg Times. 
  20. ^ "Rescue Under Way for Disabled Carnival Splendor". CBS News. November 10, 2010. 
  21. ^ Martin, Hugo (February 12, 2013). "Carnival Triumph cruise ship adrift; long lines for toilets, food". Los Angeles Times. 
  22. ^ "DISASTER TIMELINE: How Carnival Went From 'Fun Ship' To 'Poop Cruise'". Business Insider. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "Feces, water reported on floor of disabled Carnival cruise ship in Gulf of Mexico". Fox News. February 12, 2013. 
  24. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (February 14, 2013). "Carnival Triumph, crippled cruise ship, finally reaches port". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013. 
  25. ^ Griffin, Drew; Bronstein, Scott (December 17, 2013). "Documents show Carnival knew of fire danger before ill-fated cruise". CNN. 
  26. ^ Lateef Mungin (15 March 2013). "Carnival nightmare: Another cruise ship reports trouble at sea". CNN. Retrieved 2013. 
  27. ^ "Another problem cruise: Second Carnival ship in less than a week experiences trouble at sea". Fox News. March 15, 2013. 
  28. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (March 15, 2013). "Coast Guard Investigating Carnival Legend". Los Angeles Times. 
  29. ^ Carpenter, Jake; et al. (March 17, 2013). "Carnival Legend back in Florida after week of troubled cruise voyages". CNN. 
  30. ^ Mullen, Jethro (December 31, 2015), "Couple witnesses horrific cruise ship death", CNN, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., retrieved 2015 
  31. ^ Osborne, Mark (May 5, 2018), "Water line break floods 50 rooms on Carnival cruise ship", ABC, Disney-ABC Television Group, retrieved 2018 
  32. ^ "Carnival Horizon Cruise Ship: Review & Photos on Cruise Critic". Retrieved . 
  33. ^ "Carnival Breeze". Fincantieri. Retrieved 2013. 
  34. ^ "Carnival Magic". Fincantieri. Retrieved 2013. 
  35. ^ a b "Carnival Dream". Fincantieri. Retrieved 2013. 
  36. ^ "Carnival Legend to be Based in Melbourne in Summer 2018". Cruise Critic. Retrieved . 
  37. ^ Kevin Rector (2014-01-30). "Carnival reverses plan to depart Baltimore port". Retrieved . 
  38. ^ "Carnival Spirit to Offer Winter Season in Shanghai for Carnival's First China Cruises". Cruise Critic. Retrieved . 
  39. ^
  40. ^ Staff, CIN (2018-02-10). "New Carnival Panorama to be Based on West Coast". Retrieved . 
  41. ^ "Surprise! Another giant new Carnival ship on the way for 2019". USA TODAY. Retrieved . 
  42. ^ Tribou, Richard. "Carnival Cruise Line to build two new giant ships". Retrieved . 
  43. ^ "Two giant new ships on the way for Carnival Cruise Line". USA TODAY. Retrieved . 

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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