Castilleja sessiliflora is a species of flowering plant in the broomrape family known by the common names downy Indian paintbrush and downy paintedcup. It is native to the Great Plains of North America from southern Canada, through the central United States, to northern Mexico. It occurs as far west as the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
This perennial herb produces one or more stems up to 35 centimeters tall from a woody root crown. It is hemiparasitic, obtaining water and nutrients from other plants by tapping their roots. This Castilleja species has been observed parasitizing eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and oldfield juniper (J. communis var. depressa). It reproduces sexually and vegetatively by resprouting from its root crown.