Character Property (Unicode)
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Character Property Unicode

The Unicode Standard assigns character properties to each code point.[1] These properties can be used to handle "characters" (code points) in processes, like in line-breaking, script direction right-to-left or applying controls. Slightly inconsequently, some "character properties" are also defined for code points that have no character assigned, and code points that are labeled like "<not a character>". The character properties are described in Standard Annex #44.[2]

Properties have levels of forcefulness: normative, informative, contributory, or provisional. For simplicity of specification, a character property can be assigned by specifying a continuous range of code points that have the same property.


A Unicode character is assigned a unique Name (na).[1] The name, in English, is composed of uppercase letters A-Z, digits 0-9, - (hyphen-minus) and <space>. Some sequences are excluded: names beginning with a space or hyphen, names ending with a space or hyphen, repeated spaces or hyphens, and space after hyphen are not allowed. The name is guaranteed to be unique within Unicode, and can be used to identify a code point and its character. Ideographic characters, of which there are tens of thousands, are named in the pattern "cjk unified ideograph-hhhh". For example, CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00. Formatting characters are named too:   NO-BREAK SPACE.

Starting from Unicode version 2.0, the published name for a code point will never change. In the event of a misspelling in a publication, a correct name will later be assigned to the code point as a Character Name Alias. Within the whole range of names, an alias is unique too.

Apart from these normative names, informal names can be assigned. These are usually other commonly used names for a character, used for illustration, but these informal names are not guaranteed to be unique.

These code points do not have a Name (na=""): Controls (General Category: Cc), Private use (Co), Surrogate (Cs), Non-characters (Cn) and Reserved (Cn). They may be referenced, informally, by a generic or specific meta-name, called "Code Point Labels": <control>, <control-0088>, <reserved>, <noncharacter-hhhh>, <private-use-hhhh>, <surrogate>. Since these labels contain <>-brackets, they can never appear as a Name, which prevents confusion.

Version 1.0 names

In version 2.0 of Unicode, many names were changed. From then on the rule "a name will never change" came into effect, including the strict (normative) use of alias names. Disused version 1.0-names were moved to the property Alias, to provide some backward compatibility.

General Category

Each code point is assigned a value for General Category. This is one of the character properties that are also defined for unassigned code points, and code points that are defined "not a character".

General Category (Unicode Character Property)[a]
Value Category Major, minor Basic type[b] Character assigned[b] Count Remarks
Lu Letter, uppercase Graphic Character 1,781
Ll Letter, lowercase Graphic Character 2,145
Lt Letter, titlecase Graphic Character 31 Ligatures containing uppercase followed by lowercase letters (e.g., ?, Lj, Nj, and Dz)
Lm Letter, modifier Graphic Character 250 a modifier letter
Lo Letter, other Graphic Character 121,212
Mn Mark, nonspacing Graphic Character 1,805
Mc Mark, spacing combining Graphic Character 415
Me Mark, enclosing Graphic Character 13
Nd Number, decimal digit Graphic Character 610 All these, and only these, have Numeric Type = De[c]
Nl Number, letter Graphic Character 236 Numerals composed of letters or letterlike symbols (e.g., Roman numerals)
No Number, other Graphic Character 807 E.g., vulgar fractions, superscript and subscript digits
Pc Punctuation, connector Graphic Character 10 Includes "_" underscore
Pd Punctuation, dash Graphic Character 24 Includes several hyphen characters
Ps Punctuation, open Graphic Character 75 Opening bracket characters
Pe Punctuation, close Graphic Character 73 Closing bracket characters
Pi Punctuation, initial quote Graphic Character 12 Opening quotation mark. Does not include the ASCII "neutral" quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Pf Punctuation, final quote Graphic Character 10 Closing quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Po Punctuation, other Graphic Character 584
Sm Symbol, math Graphic Character 948 Mathematical symbols (e.g., +, -, =, ×, ÷, ?, ?). Does not include parentheses and brackets, which are in categories Ps and Pe. Also does not include !, *, -, or /, which despite frequent use as mathematical operators, are primarily considered to be "punctuation".
Sc Symbol, currency Graphic Character 57 Currency symbols
Sk Symbol, modifier Graphic Character 121
So Symbol, other Graphic Character 5,984
Zs Separator, space Graphic Character 17 Includes the space, but not TAB, CR, or LF, which are Cc
Zl Separator, line Format Character 1 Only LINE SEPARATOR (LSEP)
Zp Separator, paragraph Format Character 1 Only PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR (PSEP)
Cc Other, control Control Character 65 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <control>
Cf Other, format Format Character 152 Includes the soft hyphen, joining control characters (zwnj and zwj), control characters to support bi-directional text, and language tag characters
Cs Other, surrogate Surrogate Not (but abstract) 2,048 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <surrogate>
Co Other, private use Private-use Not (but abstract) 137,468 total (will never change)[c] (, 131,068 ) No name,[d] <private-use>
Cn Other, not assigned Noncharacter Not 66 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <noncharacter>
Reserved Not 837,091 No name,[d] <reserved>
  1. ^ "Table 4-4: General Category" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. July 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Table 2-3: Types of code points" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. July 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies: Property Value Stability Stability policy: Some gc groups will never change. gc=Nd corresponds with Numeric Type=De (decimal).
  4. ^ a b c d e "Table 4-9: Construction of Code Point Labels" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. July 2018. A Code Point Label may be used to identify a nameless code point. E.g. <control-hhhh>, <control-0088>. The Name remains blank, which can prevent inadvertently replacing, in documentation, a Control Name with a true Control code. Unicode also uses <not a character> for <noncharacter>.


Characters have separate properties to denote they are a punctuation character. The properties all have a Yes/No values: Dash, Diacritic, Quotation_Mark, STerm, Terminal_Punctuation, White_Space.


Whitespace is a commonly used concept for a typographic effect. Basically it covers invisible characters that have a spacing effect in rendered text. It includes spaces, tabs, and new line formatting controls. In Unicode, such a character has the property set "WSpace=yes". In version 11.0, there are 25 whitespace characters.

Unicode character property "WSpace=Y"[a]
Code point  Name  Decimal  within ◀▶   Wrap-
in IDN  Script   Block  General
U+0009 character tabulation 9 ◀ ▶ Yes No Common Basic Latin Other,
HT, Horizontal Tab. HTML/XML named entity: &Tab;, LaTeX: '\tab'
U+000A line feed 10 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
LF, Line feed. HTML/XML named entity: &NewLine;
U+000B line tabulation 11 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
VT, Vertical Tab
U+000C form feed 12 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
FF, Form feed
U+000D carriage return 13 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
CR, Carriage return
U+0020 space 32 ◀ ▶ Yes No Common Basic Latin Separator,
Most common (normal ASCII space)
U+0085 next line 133 Is a line-break Common Latin-1
NEL, Next line
U+00A0 no-break space 160 ◀ ▶ No No Common Latin-1
Non-breaking space: identical to U+0020, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &nbsp;, LaTeX:
U+1680 ogham space mark 5760 ◀ ▶ Yes Yes Ogham Ogham Separator,
Used for interword separation in Ogham text. Normally a vertical line in vertical text or a horizontal line in horizontal text, but may also be a blank space in "stemless" fonts. Requires an Ogham font.
U+2000 en quad 8192 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Width of one en. U+2002 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred.
U+2001 em quad 8193 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Also known as "mutton quad". Width of one em. U+2003 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred.
U+2002 en space 8194 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Also known as "nut". Width of one en. U+2000 En Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &ensp;, LaTeX: '\enspace'
U+2003 em space 8195 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Also known as "mutton". Width of one em. U+2001 Em Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp;, LaTeX: '\quad'
U+2004 three-per-em space 8196 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Also known as "thick space". One third of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp13;
U+2005 four-per-em space 8197 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Also known as "mid space". One fourth of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp14;
U+2006 six-per-em space 8198 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
One sixth of an em wide. In computer typography, sometimes equated to U+2009.
U+2007 figure space 8199 ◀ ▶ No Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Figure space. In fonts with monospaced digits, equal to the width of one digit. HTML/XML named entity: &numsp;
U+2008 punctuation space 8200 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
As wide as the narrow punctuation in a font, i.e. the advance width of the period or comma.[7] HTML/XML named entity: &puncsp;
U+2009 thin space 8201 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
One-fifth (sometimes one-sixth) of an em wide. Recommended for use as a thousands separator for measures made with SI units. Unlike U+2002 to U+2008, its width may get adjusted in typesetting.[8] HTML/XML named entity: &thinsp;; LaTeX: '\,'
U+200A hair space 8202 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Thinner than a thin space. HTML/XML named entity: &hairsp; (does not work in all browsers)
U+2028 line separator 8232 Is a line-break Common General
U+2029 paragraph separator 8233 Is a line-break Common General
U+202F narrow no-break space 8239 ◀ ▶ No Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
Narrow no-break space. Similar in function to U+00A0 No-Break Space. When used with Mongolian, its width is usually one third of the normal space; in other context, its width sometimes resembles that of the Thin Space (U+2009).
U+205F medium mathematical space 8287 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common General
MMSP. Used in mathematical formulae. Four-eighteenths of an em.[9] In mathematical typography, the widths of spaces are usually given in integral multiples of an eighteenth of an em, and 4/18 em may be used in several situations, for example between the a and the + and between the + and the b in the expression a + b.[10] HTML/XML named entity: &MediumSpace;
U+3000 ideographic space 12288 ◀ ▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] Common CJK Symbols
As wide as a CJK character cell (fullwidth). Used, for example, in tai tou.
Related whitespace characters without Unicode character property "WSpace=Y"
Code point  Name  Decimal  within ◀▶   Wrap-
 in IDN  Script   Block  General
U+180E mongolian vowel separator 6158 ◀᠎▶ Yes Yes Mongolian Mongolian Other,
MVS. A narrow space character, used in Mongolian to cause the final two characters of a word to take on different shapes.[11] It is no longer classified as space character (i.e. in Zs category) in Unicode 6.3.0, even though it was in previous versions of the standard.
U+200B zero width space 8203 ◀​▶ Yes Permitted, but displayed as Punycode in practice[b] ? General
ZWSP, zero-width space. Used to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing. It is similar to the soft hyphen, with the difference that the latter is used to indicate syllable boundaries, and should display a visible hyphen when the line breaks at it. HTML/XML named entity: &NegativeMediumSpace;
U+200C zero width non-joiner 8204 ◀‌▶ Yes Yes ? General
ZWNJ, zero-width non-joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively. HTML/XML named entity: &zwnj;
U+200D zero width joiner 8205 ◀‍▶ Yes Yes ? General
ZWJ, zero-width joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms. HTML/XML named entity: &zwj;
U+2060 word joiner 8288 ◀⁠▶ No Yes ? General
WJ, word joiner. Similar to U+200B, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &NoBreak;
U+FEFF zero width non-breaking
65279 ◀▶ No Yes ? Arabic
Zero-width non-breaking space. Used primarily as a Byte Order Mark. Use as an indication of non-breaking is deprecated as of Unicode 3.2; see U+2060 instead.
  1. ^ "Unicode 11.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2018-03-15. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o This character is blacklisted for domain names by browsers because it might be used for phishing.[12]

Other general characteristics

Ideographic, alphabetic, noncharacter.

Display-related properties

Shaping, width.

Bidirectional writing

Six character properties pertain to bi-directional writing: Bidi_Class, Bidi_Control, Bidi_Mirrored, Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph, Bidi_Paired_Bracket and Bidi_Paired_Bracket_Type.

One of Unicode's major features is support of bi-directional (Bidi) text display right-to-left (R-to-L) and left-to-right (L-to-R). The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm UAX9[15] describes the process of presenting text with altering script directions. For example, it enables a Hebrew quote in an English text. The Bidi_Character_Type marks a character's behaviour in directional writing. To override a direction, Unicode has defined special formatting control characters (Bidi-Controls). These characters can enforce a direction, and by definition only affect bi-directional writing.

Each code point has a property called Bidi_Class. It defines its behaviour in a bidirectional text as interpreted by the algorithm:

Bidirectional character type (Unicode character property Bidi_Class)[1]
Type[2] Description Strength Directionality General scope Bidi_Control character[3]
L Left-to-Right Strong L-to-R Most alphabetic and syllabic characters, Han ideographs, non-European or non-Arabic digits, LRM character, ... U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK (LRM)
R Right-to-Left Strong R-to-L Adlam, Hebrew, Mandaic, Mende Kikakui, N'Ko, Samaritan, ancient scripts like Kharoshthi and Nabataean, RLM character, ... U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK (RLM)
AL Arabic Letter Strong R-to-L Arabic, Hanifi Rohingya, Sogdian, Syriac, and Thaana alphabets, and most punctuation specific to those scripts, ALM character, ... U+061C ARABIC LETTER MARK (ALM)
EN European Number Weak European digits, Eastern Arabic-Indic digits, Coptic epact numbers, ...
ES European Separator Weak plus sign, minus sign, ...
ET European Number Terminator Weak degree sign, currency symbols, ...
AN Arabic Number Weak Arabic-Indic digits, Arabic decimal and thousands separators, Rumi digits, Hanifi Rohingya digits, ...
CS Common Number Separator Weak colon, comma, full stop, no-break space, ...
NSM Nonspacing Mark Weak Characters in General Categories Mark, nonspacing, and Mark, enclosing (Mn, Me)
BN Boundary Neutral Weak Default ignorables, non-characters, control characters other than those explicitly given other types
B Paragraph Separator Neutral paragraph separator, appropriate Newline Functions, higher-level protocol paragraph determination
S Segment Separator Neutral Tabs
WS Whitespace Neutral space, figure space, line separator, form feed, General Punctuation block spaces (smaller set than the Unicode whitespace list)
ON Other Neutrals Neutral All other characters, including object replacement character
LRE Left-to-Right Embedding Explicit L-to-R LRE character only U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING (LRE)
LRO Left-to-Right Override Explicit L-to-R LRO character only U+202D LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE (LRO)
RLE Right-to-Left Embedding Explicit R-to-L RLE character only U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING (RLE)
RLO Right-to-Left Override Explicit R-to-L RLO character only U+202E RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE (RLO)
PDF Pop Directional Format Explicit PDF character only U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING (PDF)
LRI Left-to-Right Isolate Explicit L-to-R LRI character only U+2066 LEFT-TO-RIGHT ISOLATE (LRI)
RLI Right-to-Left Isolate Explicit R-to-L RLI character only U+2067 RIGHT-TO-LEFT ISOLATE (RLI)
FSI First Strong Isolate Explicit FSI character only U+2068 FIRST STRONG ISOLATE (FSI)
PDI Pop Directional Isolate Explicit PDI character only U+2069 POP DIRECTIONAL ISOLATE (PDI)
1.^ Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm (UAX#9), As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Possible Bidirectional character types for character property: Bidi_Class or 'type'
3.^ Bidi_Control characters: Twelve Bidi_Control formatting characters are defined. They are invisible, and have no effect apart from directionality. Nine of them have a unique, overruling BiDi-type that is used by the algorithm. Their type is also their acronym (e.g. character 'LRE' has BiDi type 'LRE').

In normal situations, the algorithm can determine the direction of a text by this character property. To control more complex Bidi situations, e.g. when an English text has a Hebrew quote, extra options are added to Unicode. Twelve characters have the property Bidi_Control=Yes: ALM, FSI, LRE, LRI, LRM, LRO, PDF, PDI, RLE, RLI, RLM and RLO as named in the table. These are invisible formatting control characters, only used by the algorithm and with no effect outside of bidirectional formatting.[15] Despite the name, they are formatting characters, not control characters, and have General category "Other, format (Cf)" in the Unicode definition.

Basically, the algorithm determines a sequence of characters with the same strong direction type (R-to-L or L-to-R), taking in account an overruling by the special Bidi-controls. Number strings (Weak types) are assigned a direction according to their strong environment, as are Neutral characters. Finally, the characters are displayed per a string's direction.

Two character properties are relevant to determining a mirror image of a glyph in bidirectional text: Bidi_Mirrored=Yes indicates that the glyph should be mirrored when written R-to-L. The property Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph=U+hhhh can then point to the mirrored character. For example, brackets "" are mirrored this way. Shaping cursive scripts such as Arabic, and mirroring glyphs that have a direction, is not part of the algorithm.


The Case value is Normative in Unicode. It pertains to those scripts with uppercase (aka capital, majuscule) and the lowercase (aka small, minuscule) letters. Case-difference occurs in Adlam, Armenian, Cherokee, Coptic, Cyrillic, Deseret, Glagolitic, Greek, Khutsuri and Mkhedruli Georgian, Latin, Medefaidrin, Old Hungarian, Osage and Warang Citi scripts.

(upper, lower, title, folding--both simple and full)

Numeric values and types


Characters are classified with a Numeric type.[1] Characters such as fractions, subscripts, superscripts, Roman numerals, currency numerators, encircled numbers, and script-specific digits are type Numeric. They have a numeric value that can be decimal, including zero and negatives, or a vulgar fraction. If there is not such a value, as with most of the characters, the numeric type is "None".

The characters that do have a numeric value are separated in three groups: Decimal (De), Digit (Di) and Numeric (Nu, i.e. all other). "Decimal" means the character is a straight decimal digit. Only characters that are part of a contiguous encoded range 0..9 have numeric type Decimal. Other digits, like superscripts, have numeric type Digit. All numeric characters like fractions and Roman numerals end up with the type "Numeric". The intended effect is that a simple parser can use these decimal numeric values, without being distracted by say a numeric superscript or a fraction. Seventy-three CJK Ideographs that represent a number, including those used for accounting, are typed Numeric.

On the other hand, characters that could have a numeric value as a second meaning are still marked Numeric type "None", and have no numeric value (""). E.g. Latin letters can be used in paragraph numbering like "II.A.1.b", but the letters "I", "A" and "b" are not numeric (type "None") and have no numeric value.

Hexadecimal digits

Hexadecimal characters are those in the series with hexadecimal values 0...9ABCDEF (sixteen characters, decimal value 0-15). The character property Hex_Digit is set to Yes when a character is in such a series:

Characters in Unicode marked Hex_Digit=Yes[a]
0123456789ABCDEF Basic Latin, capitals Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789abcdef Basic Latin, small letters Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789ABCDEF Fullwidth forms, capitals
0123456789abcdef Fullwidth forms, small letters
a. ^ "Unicode 11.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2018-03-15. Retrieved .

Forty-four characters are marked as Hex_Digit. The ones in the Basic Latin block are also marked as ASCII_Hex_Digit.

Unicode has no separate characters for hexadecimal values. A consequence is, that when using regular characters it is not possible to determine whether hexadecimal value is intended, or even whether a value is intended at all. That should be determined at a higher level, e.g. by prepending "0x" to a hexadecimal number or by context. The only feature is that Unicode can note that a sequence can or can not be a hexadecimal value.


A block is a uniquely named, contiguous range of code points. It is identified by its first and last code point. Blocks do not overlap. A block may contain code points that are reserved, not-assigned etc. Each character that is assigned, has a single "block name" value from the 291 names assigned as of Unicode version 11.0. Unassigned code points outside of an existing block, have the default value "No_block".


Each assigned character can have a single value for its "Script" property, signifying to which script it belongs.[24] The value is a four-letter code in the range Aaaa-Zzzz, as available in ISO 15924, which is mapped to a writing system. Apart from when describing the background and usage of a script, Unicode does not use a connection between a script and languages that use that script. So "Hebrew" refers to the Hebrew script, not to the Hebrew language.

The special code Zyyy for "Common" allows a single value for a character that is used in multiple scripts. The code Zinh "Inherited script", used for combining characters and certain other special-purpose code points, indicates that a character "inherits" its script identity from the character with which it is combined. (Unicode formerly used the private code Qaai for this purpose.) The code Zzzz "Unknown" is used for all characters that do not belong to a script (i.e. the default value), such as symbols and formatting characters. Overall, characters of a single script can be scattered over multiple blocks, like Latin characters. And the other way around too: multiple scripts can be present is a single block, e.g. block Letterlike Symbols contains characters from the Latin, Greek and Common scripts.

When the Script is "" (blank), according to Unicode the character does not belong to a script. This pertains to symbols, because the existing ISO script codes "Zmth" (Mathematical notation), "Zsym" (Symbol), and "Zsye" (Symbol, emoji variant) are not used in Unicode. The "Script" property is also blank for code points that are not a typographic character like controls, substitutes, and private use code points.

If there is a specific script alias name in ISO 15924, it is used in the character name: A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A, and א HEBREW LETTER ALEF.

ISO 15924 Script in Unicode[e]
Code No. Name Alias[f] Direc­tion Ver­sion Char­acters Remark
Adlm 166 Adlam Adlam R-to-L 9.0 87
Afak 439 Afaka Varies Not in Unicode, proposal under review by the Unicode Technical Committee[25][26]
Aghb 239 Caucasian Albanian Caucasian Albanian L-to-R 7.0 53 Ancient/historic
Ahom 338 Ahom, Tai Ahom Ahom L-to-R 8.0 58 Ancient/historic
Arab 160 Arabic Arabic R-to-L 1.0 1,281
Aran 161 Arabic (Nastaliq variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Arabic
Armi 124 Imperial Aramaic Imperial Aramaic R-to-L 5.2 31 Ancient/historic
Armn 230 Armenian Armenian L-to-R 1.0 95
Avst 134 Avestan Avestan R-to-L 5.2 61 Ancient/historic
Bali 360 Balinese Balinese L-to-R 5.0 121
Bamu 435 Bamum Bamum L-to-R 5.2 657
Bass 259 Bassa Vah Bassa Vah L-to-R 7.0 36 Ancient/historic
Batk 365 Batak Batak L-to-R 6.0 56
Beng 325 Bengali (Bangla) Bengali L-to-R 1.0 96
Bhks 334 Bhaiksuki Bhaiksuki L-to-R 9.0 97 Ancient/historic
Blis 550 Blissymbols Varies Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Bopo 285 Bopomofo Bopomofo L-to-R 1.0 72
Brah 300 Brahmi Brahmi L-to-R 6.0 109 Ancient/historic
Brai 570 Braille Braille L-to-R 3.0 256
Bugi 367 Buginese Buginese L-to-R 4.1 30
Buhd 372 Buhid Buhid L-to-R 3.2 20
Cakm 349 Chakma Chakma L-to-R 6.1 70
Cans 440 Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics Canadian Aboriginal L-to-R 3.0 710
Cari 201 Carian Carian L-to-R 5.1 49 Ancient/historic
Cham 358 Cham Cham L-to-R 5.1 83
Cher 445 Cherokee Cherokee L-to-R 3.0 172
Cirt 291 Cirth Varies Not in Unicode
Copt 204 Coptic Coptic L-to-R 1.0 137 Ancient/historic, Disunified from Greek in 4.1
Cpmn 402 Cypro-Minoan L-to-R Not in Unicode
Cprt 403 Cypriot syllabary Cypriot R-to-L 4.0 55 Ancient/historic
Cyrl 220 Cyrillic Cyrillic L-to-R 1.0 443
Cyrs 221 Cyrillic (Old Church Slavonic variant) Varies Ancient/historic, typographic variant of Cyrillic
Deva 315 Devanagari (Nagari) Devanagari L-to-R 1.0 156
Dogr 328 Dogra Dogra L-to-R 11.0 60 Ancient/historic
Dsrt 250 Deseret (Mormon) Deseret L-to-R 3.1 80
Dupl 755 Duployan shorthand, Duployan stenography Duployan L-to-R 7.0 143
Egyd 070 Egyptian demotic R-to-L Not in Unicode
Egyh 060 Egyptian hieratic R-to-L Not in Unicode
Egyp 050 Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 5.2 1,071 Ancient/historic
Elba 226 Elbasan Elbasan L-to-R 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Elym 128 Elymaic R-to-L Not in Unicode, proposal under review by the Unicode Technical Committee[25][26]
Ethi 430 Ethiopic (Ge?ez) Ethiopic L-to-R 3.0 495
Geok 241 Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri) Georgian Varies Unicode groups Geok and Geor together as "Georgian"
Geor 240 Georgian (Mkhedruli and Mtavruli) Georgian L-to-R 1.0 173 For Unicode, see also Geok
Glag 225 Glagolitic Glagolitic L-to-R 4.1 132 Ancient/historic
Gong 312 Gunjala Gondi Gunjala Gondi L-to-R 11.0 63
Gonm 313 Masaram Gondi Masaram Gondi L-to-R 10.0 75
Goth 206 Gothic Gothic L-to-R 3.1 27 Ancient/historic
Gran 343 Grantha Grantha L-to-R 7.0 85 Ancient/historic
Grek 200 Greek Greek L-to-R 1.0 518 Sometimes expressed as boustrophedon (mirroring of alternate lines rather than purely left-to-right)
Gujr 320 Gujarati Gujarati L-to-R 1.0 91
Guru 310 Gurmukhi Gurmukhi L-to-R 1.0 80
Hanb 503 Han with Bopomofo (alias for Han + Bopomofo) Varies See Hani, Bopo
Hang 286 Hangul (Hang?l, Hangeul) Hangul L-to-R 1.0 11,739 Hangul syllables relocated in 2.0
Hani 500 Han (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja) Han L-to-R 1.0 89,233
Hano 371 Hanunoo (Hanunóo) Hanunoo L-to-R 3.2 21
Hans 501 Han (Simplified variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hant 502 Han (Traditional variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hatr 127 Hatran Hatran R-to-L 8.0 26 Ancient/historic
Hebr 125 Hebrew Hebrew R-to-L 1.0 134
Hira 410 Hiragana Hiragana L-to-R 1.0 376
Hluw 080 Anatolian Hieroglyphs (Luwian Hieroglyphs, Hittite Hieroglyphs) Anatolian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 8.0 583 Ancient/historic
Hmng 450 Pahawh Hmong Pahawh Hmong L-to-R 7.0 127
Hmnp 451 Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong L-to-R Not in Unicode
Hrkt 412 Japanese syllabaries (alias for Hiragana + Katakana) Katakana or Hiragana Varies See Hira, Kana
Hung 176 Old Hungarian (Hungarian Runic) Old Hungarian R-to-L 8.0 108 Ancient/historic
Inds 610 Indus (Harappan) R-to-L Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Ital 210 Old Italic (Etruscan, Oscan, etc.) Old Italic L-to-R 3.1 39 Ancient/historic
Jamo 284 Jamo (alias for Jamo subset of Hangul) Varies Subset Hang
Java 361 Javanese Javanese L-to-R 5.2 90
Jpan 413 Japanese (alias for Han + Hiragana + Katakana) Varies See Hani, Hira and Kana
Jurc 510 Jurchen L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kali 357 Kayah Li Kayah Li L-to-R 5.1 47
Kana 411 Katakana Katakana L-to-R 1.0 300
Khar 305 Kharoshthi Kharoshthi R-to-L 4.1 68 Ancient/historic
Khmr 355 Khmer Khmer L-to-R 3.0 146
Khoj 322 Khojki Khojki L-to-R 7.0 62 Ancient/historic
Kitl 505 Khitan large script L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kits 288 Khitan small script T-to-B Not in Unicode
Knda 345 Kannada Kannada L-to-R 1.0 89
Kore 287 Korean (alias for Hangul + Han) L-to-R See Hani and Hang
Kpel 436 Kpelle L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Kthi 317 Kaithi Kaithi L-to-R 5.2 67 Ancient/historic
Lana 351 Tai Tham (Lanna) Tai Tham L-to-R 5.2 127
Laoo 356 Lao Lao L-to-R 1.0 67
Latf 217 Latin (Fraktur variant) Varies Typographic variant of Latin
Latg 216 Latin (Gaelic variant) L-to-R Typographic variant of Latin
Latn 215 Latin Latin L-to-R 1.0 1,353 See Latin script in Unicode
Leke 364 Leke L-to-R Not in Unicode
Lepc 335 Lepcha (Róng) Lepcha L-to-R 5.1 74
Limb 336 Limbu Limbu L-to-R 4.0 68
Lina 400 Linear A Linear A L-to-R 7.0 341 Ancient/historic
Linb 401 Linear B Linear B L-to-R 4.0 211 Ancient/historic
Lisu 399 Lisu (Fraser) Lisu L-to-R 5.2 48
Loma 437 Loma L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Lyci 202 Lycian Lycian L-to-R 5.1 29 Ancient/historic
Lydi 116 Lydian Lydian R-to-L 5.1 27 Ancient/historic
Mahj 314 Mahajani Mahajani L-to-R 7.0 39 Ancient/historic
Maka 366 Makasar Makasar L-to-R 11.0 25 Ancient/historic
Mand 140 Mandaic, Mandaean Mandaic R-to-L 6.0 29
Mani 139 Manichaean Manichaean R-to-L 7.0 51 Ancient/historic
Marc 332 Marchen Marchen L-to-R 9.0 68 Ancient/historic
Maya 090 Mayan hieroglyphs Not in Unicode
Medf 265 Medefaidrin (Oberi Okaime, Oberi ?kaim?) Medefaidrin L-to-R 11.0 91
Mend 438 Mende Kikakui Mende Kikakui R-to-L 7.0 213
Merc 101 Meroitic Cursive Meroitic Cursive R-to-L 6.1 90 Ancient/historic
Mero 100 Meroitic Hieroglyphs Meroitic Hieroglyphs R-to-L 6.1 32 Ancient/historic
Mlym 347 Malayalam Malayalam L-to-R 1.0 117
Modi 324 Modi, Mo Modi L-to-R 7.0 79 Ancient/historic
Mong 145 Mongolian Mongolian T-to-B 3.0 167 Includes Clear, Manchu scripts
Moon 218 Moon (Moon code, Moon script, Moon type) Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Mroo 264 Mro, Mru Mro L-to-R 7.0 43
Mtei 337 Meitei Mayek (Meithei, Meetei) Meetei Mayek L-to-R 5.2 79
Mult 323 Multani Multani L-to-R 8.0 38 Ancient/historic
Mymr 350 Myanmar (Burmese) Myanmar L-to-R 3.0 223
Nand 311 Nandinagari L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal under review by the Unicode Technical Committee[25][26]
Narb 106 Old North Arabian (Ancient North Arabian) Old North Arabian R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Nbat 159 Nabataean Nabataean R-to-L 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Newa 333 Newa, Newar, Newari, Nep?la lipi Newa L-to-R 9.0 93
Nkdb 085 Naxi Dongba (na²¹?i³³ to³³ba²¹, Nakhi Tomba) L-to-R Not in Unicode
Nkgb 420 Nakhi Geba (na²¹?i³³ g?²¹ba²¹, 'Na-'Khi ²Gg?-¹baw, Nakhi Geba) L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Nkoo 165 N'Ko NKo R-to-L 5.0 62
Nshu 499 Nüshu Nushu L-to-R 10.0 397
Ogam 212 Ogham Ogham 3.0 29 Ancient/historic
Olck 261 Ol Chiki (Ol Cemet', Ol, Santali) Ol Chiki L-to-R 5.1 48
Orkh 175 Old Turkic, Orkhon Runic Old Turkic R-to-L 5.2 73 Ancient/historic
Orya 327 Oriya (Odia) Oriya L-to-R 1.0 90
Osge 219 Osage Osage L-to-R 9.0 72
Osma 260 Osmanya Osmanya L-to-R 4.0 40
Palm 126 Palmyrene Palmyrene R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Pauc 263 Pau Cin Hau Pau Cin Hau L-to-R 7.0 57
Perm 227 Old Permic Old Permic L-to-R 7.0 43 Ancient/historic
Phag 331 Phags-pa Phags-pa T-to-B 5.0 56 Ancient/historic
Phli 131 Inscriptional Pahlavi Inscriptional Pahlavi R-to-L 5.2 27 Ancient/historic
Phlp 132 Psalter Pahlavi Psalter Pahlavi R-to-L 7.0 29 Ancient/historic
Phlv 133 Book Pahlavi R-to-L Not in Unicode
Phnx 115 Phoenician Phoenician R-to-L 5.0 29 Ancient/historic
Piqd 293 Klingon (KLI pIqaD) L-to-R Rejected for inclusion in the Unicode Standard[27][28]
Plrd 282 Miao (Pollard) Miao L-to-R 6.1 133
Prti 130 Inscriptional Parthian Inscriptional Parthian R-to-L 5.2 30 Ancient/historic
Qaaa 900 Reserved for private use (start) Not in Unicode
Qaai 908 (Private use) Not in Unicode (Before version 5.2, this was used instead of Zinh)
Qabx 949 Reserved for private use (end) Not in Unicode
Rjng 363 Rejang (Redjang, Kaganga) Rejang L-to-R 5.1 37
Rohg 167 Hanifi Rohingya Hanifi Rohingya R-to-L 11.0 50
Roro 620 Rongorongo Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Runr 211 Runic Runic L-to-R 3.0 86 Ancient/historic
Samr 123 Samaritan Samaritan R-to-L 5.2 61
Sara 292 Sarati Not in Unicode
Sarb 105 Old South Arabian Old South Arabian R-to-L 5.2 32 Ancient/historic
Saur 344 Saurashtra Saurashtra L-to-R 5.1 82
Sgnw 095 SignWriting SignWriting T-to-B 8.0 672
Shaw 281 Shavian (Shaw) Shavian L-to-R 4.0 48
Shrd 319 Sharada, rad? Sharada L-to-R 6.1 94
Shui 530 Shuishu L-to-R Not in Unicode
Sidd 302 Siddham, Siddha?, Siddham?t?k? Siddham L-to-R 7.0 92 Ancient/historic
Sind 318 Khudawadi, Sindhi Khudawadi L-to-R 7.0 69
Sinh 348 Sinhala Sinhala L-to-R 3.0 110
Sogd 141 Sogdian Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 42 Ancient/historic
Sogo 142 Old Sogdian Old Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 40 Ancient/historic
Sora 398 Sora Sompeng Sora Sompeng L-to-R 6.1 35
Soyo 329 Soyombo Soyombo L-to-R 10.0 81 Ancient/historic
Sund 362 Sundanese Sundanese L-to-R 5.1 72
Sylo 316 Syloti Nagri Syloti Nagri L-to-R 4.1 44
Syrc 135 Syriac Syriac R-to-L 3.0 88
Syre 138 Syriac (Estrangelo variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrj 137 Syriac (Western variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrn 136 Syriac (Eastern variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Tagb 373 Tagbanwa Tagbanwa L-to-R 3.2 18
Takr 321 Takri, kr?, kr? Takri L-to-R 6.1 66
Tale 353 Tai Le Tai Le L-to-R 4.0 35
Talu 354 New Tai Lue New Tai Lue L-to-R 4.1 83
Taml 346 Tamil Tamil L-to-R 1.0 72
Tang 520 Tangut Tangut L-to-R 9.0 6,886 Ancient/historic
Tavt 359 Tai Viet Tai Viet L-to-R 5.2 72
Telu 340 Telugu Telugu L-to-R 1.0 97
Teng 290 Tengwar L-to-R Not in Unicode
Tfng 120 Tifinagh (Berber) Tifinagh L-to-R 4.1 59
Tglg 370 Tagalog (Baybayin, Alibata) Tagalog L-to-R 3.2 20
Thaa 170 Thaana Thaana R-to-L 3.0 50
Thai 352 Thai Thai L-to-R 1.0 86
Tibt 330 Tibetan Tibetan L-to-R 2.0 207 Added in 1.0, removed in 1.1 and reintroduced in 2.0
Tirh 326 Tirhuta Tirhuta L-to-R 7.0 82
Ugar 040 Ugaritic Ugaritic L-to-R 4.0 31 Ancient/historic
Vaii 470 Vai Vai L-to-R 5.1 300
Visp 280 Visible Speech L-to-R Not in Unicode
Wara 262 Warang Citi (Varang Kshiti) Warang Citi L-to-R 7.0 84
Wcho 283 Wancho L-to-R Not in Unicode
Wole 480 Woleai R-to-L Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[25]
Xpeo 030 Old Persian Old Persian L-to-R 4.1 50 Ancient/historic
Xsux 020 Cuneiform, Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform L-to-R 5.0 1,234 Ancient/historic
Yiii 460 Yi Yi L-to-R 3.0 1,220
Zanb 339 Zanabazar Square (Zanabazarin Dörböljin Useg, Xewtee Dörböljin Bicig, Horizontal Square Script) Zanabazar Square L-to-R 10.0 72 Ancient/historic
Zinh 994 Code for inherited script Inherited Inherited 569
Zmth 995 Mathematical notation L-to-R Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsym 996 Symbols Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsye 993 Symbols (emoji variant) Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zxxx 997 Code for unwritten documents Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zyyy 998 Code for undetermined script Common 7,591
Zzzz 999 Code for uncoded script Unknown 976,673 All other code points
  1. ^ ISO 15924 publications As of 26 August 2018
  2. ^ ISO 15924 Normative text file As of 26 August 2018
  3. ^ ISO 15924 Changes (including Aliases for Unicode; as of 26 August 2018)
  4. ^ Unicode version 11.0
  5. ^ Unicode charts
  6. ^ Unicode uses the "Property Value Alias" (Alias) as the script-name. These Alias names are part of Unicode and are published informatively next to ISO 15924

Normalization properties

Decompositions, decomposition type, canonical combining class, composition exclusions, and more.


Age is the version of the Standard in which the code point was first designated. The version number is shortened to the numbering major.minor, although there more detailed version numbers are used: versions 4.0.0 and 4.0.1 both are named 4.0 as Age. Given the releases, Age can be from the range: 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0.[29] The long values for Age begin in a V and use an underscore instead of a dot: V1_1, for example.[2] Codepoints without a specifically assigned age value have the value "NA", with the long form "Unassigned".


Once a character has been defined, it will not be withdrawn or changed in defining properties (code point, name). But it can be declared deprecated: A coded character whose use is strongly discouraged.[30] As of Unicode version 10.0, fifteen characters are deprecated:

  • U+0149 LATIN SMALL LETTER N PRECEDED BY APOSTROPHE: use the sequence '0020 006E (' n) instead
  • U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW: use the sequence 0627 065F () instead
  • U+0F77 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR: use the sequence 0FB2 0F81 () instead
  • U+0F79 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL: use the sequence 0FB3 0F81 () instead
  • U+17A4 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAA: use the sequence 17A2 17B6 () instead

The format characters U+206A through U+206F and U+E0001 should not be used at all, but for the other deprecated characters there are recommended alternatives, as shown above.


The Unicode Standard specifies the following boundary-related properties:

  • Grapheme cluster
  • Word
  • Line
  • Sentence


  1. ^ a b c "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 4: Character Properties" (PDF). Unicode, Inc. June 2018. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #44: Unicode Character Database". The Unicode Standard. 2017-06-14.
  3. ^ "Character design standards - space characters". Character design standards. Microsoft. 1998-1999. Archived from the original on August 23, 2000. Retrieved .
  4. ^ The Unicode Standard 5.0, printed edition, p.205
  5. ^ "General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard 5.1. Unicode Inc. 1991-2008. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Sargent, Murray III (2006-08-29). "Unicode Nearly Plain Text Encoding of Mathematics (Version 2)". Unicode Technical Note #28. Unicode Inc. pp. 19-20. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Gillam, Richard (2002). Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-70052-2.
  8. ^ "Network.IDN.blacklist chars". MozillaZine. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #9: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm". The Unicode Standard. 2017-05-14.
  10. ^ "Unicode Standard Annex #24: Unicode Script Property". The Unicode Standard. 2015-06-01.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Proposed New Scripts". Unicode Consortium. 2018-05-25. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b c "Roadmap to the SMP". Unicode Consortium. 2018-08-08. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Michael Everson (1997-09-18). "Proposal to encode Klingon in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2".
  14. ^ The Unicode Consortium (2001-08-14). "Approved Minutes of the UTC 87 / L2 184 Joint Meeting".
  15. ^ "UCD: Derived Age". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2018-01-31.
  16. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 3.4 Characters and Encoding, D13: Deprecated character" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. June 2018.

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