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-  City[1]  -
Pedestrian street in central of Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Location of Chelyabinsk in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°09?17?N 61°22?33?E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583Coordinates: 55°09?17?N 61°22?33?E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583
CoA of Chelyabinsk (2000).svg
Flag of Chelyabinsk.svg
Coat of arms
City Day September 13[]
Administrative status (as of September 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chelyabinsk Oblast
Administratively subordinated to City of Chelyabinsk[1]
Administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast,[1] City of Chelyabinsk[1]
Municipal status (as of September 2011)
Urban okrug Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Head[] Stanislav Mosharov[]
Representative body Council[]
Area 530 km2 (200 sq mi)[2]
Population (2010 Census) 1,130,132 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 9th
Population (2013 est.) 1,156,201 inhabitants[4]
Density 2,132/km2 (5,520/sq mi)[5]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[6]
Founded [7]
City status since 1787[7]
Postal code(s)[8] 454xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 351[9]
Chelyabinsk on Wikimedia Commons

Chelyabinsk (Russian: ?, IPA: [t'l?æbnsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.[10][11][12] Population: ;[3];[13].[14]


The fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was founded at the location of the Bashkir village of Chelyaby (Bashkir: , Siläbe) by colonel Alexey (Kutlu-Muhammed) Tevkelev in 1736[7] to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was eventually captured for several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty that was later reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a seat of a its own uyezd and finally was granted town status and its current name in 1787.

Tea-packing factory Kuznetsov (1898)
Trading house negotiant Valeyev (1911)

Until the late 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the Samara-Zlatoust Railway was completed which connected it with Moscow and the rest of European Russia. Also in 1892, construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Chelyabinsk started and in 1896 the city was linked to Ekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk became the hub for relocation to Siberia. For fifteen years more than fifteen million people - a tenth of Russia - passed through Chelyabinsk. Some of them remained in Chelyabinsk, which contributed to its rapid growth. In addition, in Chelyabinsk was organized custom office set "customs fracture" the bounding duty-free grain and tea to the European part of the country that led to the emergence in mills and set the tea-packing factory. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major trade center, its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897, 45,000 by 1913, and 70,000 by 1917. For rapid growth at the turn of the 20th century, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk called "Behind the Urals Chicago".[15]

During the first Five-Year Plans of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth. Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk. Facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk. During World War II, it produced 18,000 tanks, and 48,500 tank diesel engines as well as over 17 million units of ammunition. In the press of the time Chelyabinsk was informally called "Tankograd" or "Tank City". The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks; it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.

2013 meteor

Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour (34,000 mph) over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25-30 kilometers (16-19 mi).[16][dubious ]

In a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generating a shock wave that injured over a thousand people. Fragments fell in and around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident, mostly for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions. One woman suffered a broken spine.[17] Kolesnikov also said about 600 square meters (6,000 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press that there was a meteor shower; however, another ministry spokeswoman was quoted by the Interfax news agency as saying it was a single meteor.[18][19][20] The size has been estimated at 17 meters (56 ft) diameter with a mass of 10,000[21][22] or 11,000[23] metric tons. The power of the explosion was about 500 kilotons of TNT (about 1.8 PJ), which is 20-30 times more energy than was released from the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima. Luckily, thanks to the high altitude of the explosion the city managed to avoid large casualties and destruction.

Administrative and municipal status

The building of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast

Chelyabinsk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Chelyabinsk--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Chelyabinsk is incorporated as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[1] In June 2014, Chelyabinsk's seven city districts were granted municipal status.[24]

Geography and ?limate

Chelyabinsk is located east of the Ural Mountains, 199 km south of Yekaterinburg. Its elevation is 200-250 meters.

The city is bisected by the river Miass which is regarded as the border between the Urals and Siberia. This is reflected in the geology of the place, with low granite hills of the Urals on the western side and lower sedimentary rock of the West Siberian Plain on the eastern side.

The "Leningrad bridge" connects the two sides, so it is called the "bridge of the Urals to Siberia". Chelyabinsk itself is therefore also known as "The Gateway to Siberia".[25]

Like Rome, Constantinople, and Moscow, Chelyabinsk is said to be located on seven hills.[26]

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.9
Average high °C (°F) -10.5
Daily mean °C (°F) -14.9
Average low °C (°F) -19.0
Record low °C (°F) -49.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
Average rainy days 0.1 0.3 4 10 15 19 17 16 16 10 6 1 114
Average snowy days 18 16 15 6 1 0.3 0 0 1 6 15 19 97
Average relative humidity (%) 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Source #1:[27]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[28]


Chelyabinsk skyline with the river Miass in the center.


The architecture of Chelyabinsk has been shaped through its history by the change of historical eras in the development of Russia. Before the revolution of 1917 the city was a trading centre, with numerous merchant buildings in the eclectic and modern styles with elements of Russian Revival architecture, some of which are preserved on Kirovka St., a street reserved for pedestrians.

Residential building on Revolution square (1938)

Industrialization started in the late 1920s. The construction of large plants was accompanied by the construction of a brand new residential and public buildings in the constructivist style. Entire constructivist neighborhoods can be seen in the area of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ).[29]

In the late 1930s a new era began in the city, came associated with construction of monumental buildings in Stalinist style. The city center and central avenue are constructed in substantially this style.[30]

The next 60 years saw intensive construction of housing tower blocks as the city's population rose to about one million; note on the map the large residential area calle "Severo-Zapad" (English: North-West).

Square Aloe pole (Scarlet field)

With the market reforms of the '90s the city began intensive construction of office buildings for business and major shopping malls in postmodern and high-tech styles.

Parks and gardens

Chelyabinsk has 17 public parks. The largest of them is one of the best in Russia - Chelyabinsk Central Park, named after Gagarin.[31] Its territory is saved in the urban forest, where, among pine trees and granite rocks there are several picturesque ex-quarries now flooded with water.


South Ural State University

There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The oldest, Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy, was founded in 1930. It was followed by the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University in 1934. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University, and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. After World War II, Chelyabinsk became the main center of vocational education of the entire Ural region.[32]


Chelyabinsk-City Office Center. Tallest building in Chelyabinsk.
Radisson Blu Hotel

Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK) belongs to the company "Mechel", Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) included in the "Big Eight" pipe producers in Russia, produces large-diameter pipes for pipelines, and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ) manufacturer of parts for various machines. Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant, owned by the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company, produces about 2% of the world and over 60% of Russian zinc. Chelyabinsk Mechanical Plant produces automotive and industrial cranes trademark "Chelyabinets". Chelyabinsk road machinery plant name Kolyuschenko produces road construction machinery and dump trucks Terex.[33]

Chelyabinsk Watch Factory "Molnija" produces pocket, souvenir watches and technical watches for aircraft and ships. In 1980, the clock "Molnija" were given as gifts to participants of the Moscow Olympics Games.[34]

Agro-industrial company "Makfa", Russia's largest producer of pasta, one of the five largest world producers of pasta. "Unichel" shoe firm is the largest manufacturer of footwear in Russia. Agricultural firm "Ariant" - leader in the production of meat products in the Urals Federal District of Russia, produces alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. American multinational corporation Emerson buying up shares of local businesses "Metran" organized in Chelyabinsk engineering center, building a factory for the production of industrial devices and equipment.[35]

Sinegorye shopping mall
Tram and trolleybus in Chelyabinsk

In recent years, Chelyabinsk significant role in the economy of the early play services, banking and insurance activities, logistics centers, tourism. The city is the central offices of major regional banks as "Chelindbank" and "Chelyabinvestbank".

There are several large shopping malls. The largest of them are Gorky (English: Hills) (2007), with an area of 55,000 meters2, and Rodnik (English:Spring) (2011), 135,000 meters2. At least two more are under construction: Almaz (English: Diamond) (2015), 220,000 meters2, and Cloud (2018), 350,000 meters2.


Planned metro network

Public transport of Chelyabinsk is represented by a bus lines network (since 1925), tram (1932) and trolleybus (1942) systems, as well as private marshrutka (routed cab) services. The city has several taxi companies.

In 2014 in Chelyabinsk began to run electric buses (hybrid trolleybus and electric car).[36]

Beeline and Chelyabinsk city electric transport in 2011 signed an agreement to provide passengers free internet. Currently Wi-Fi is available in some public trams and trolleybuses in Chelyabinsk.

Chelyabinsk started construction of a three-line subway network in 1992.[37]

The city is served by the Chelyabinsk Airport.


Traktor Arena

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Traktor Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1947 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Traktor Arena
Chelmet Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1948 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yunost Sports Palace
Belye Medvedi Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2009 Junior Hockey League Jr. 1st Traktor Arena
Mechel Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2011 Junior Hockey League Division B Jr. 2nd Mechel Ice Palace
FC Chelyabinsk Football 1977 Russian Second Division 3rd Central Stadium
Sintur Chelyabinsk Futsal 1997 Futsal Supreme League 2nd USURT Sports Complex
Metar Chelyabinsk Volleyball 1976 Women's Volleyball Superleague 1st Metar-Sport Sports Palace
Torpedo Chelyabinsk Volleyball ? Men's Volleyball Supreme League 2nd Metar-Sport Sports Palace
Dynamo Chelyabinsk Basketball ? Men's Basketball Superleague - B 3rd DPSh im.Krupskoy

In 2012, for the first time in Russia, Chelyabinsk hosted the European Judo Championship (Euro 2012). In 2014 the World Championship in Judo were held and in 2015 the European Speed Skating Championships as well as the World Taekwondo Championships held. IIHF World U18 Championship will be held in 2018 (along with Magnitogorsk).


Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library

The city has several libraries, including Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library, with more than 2 million books, including more than 12,000 rare books and monuments (17th to 19th centuries), is the largest public library in the Chelyabinsk oblast.

Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov

Chelyabinsk is home to several popular theaters: Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov, Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka, Chelyabinsk State Chamber Theater Drama, Chelyabinsk State Puppet Theater, Chelyabinsk State Youth Theatre, Theater "Mannequin", Chelyabinsk New Arts Theatre, Chelyabinsk Contemporary Dance Theatre.

Concert Hall Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka
Chelyabinsk regional museum

There are nine museums in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk regional museum was founded in 1913, and holds about 300 thousand exhibits. There are expositions of the ancient settlement Arkaim age 3rd to 2nd millennium BC relating to the "Land of Cities", the largest fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteor, weighing 570 kg, famous decorated edged weapons of the 19th and 20th centuries, made by Zlatoust arms factory, exhibits Kasli artistic cast iron and much more. Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery has more than 11,000 works. Meeting up collections of art in Europe and the East (International Art), the national art of the Middle Ages, modern and contemporary, modern art. The peculiarity of the meeting are collections of icons (16th to 20th centuries), early printed books and manuscripts. The museum of railway equipment of the South Ural railway presented more than 30 exhibits of vehicles used on the rail after it in Chelyabinsk in 1892.

Museum of military equipment in the garden of Victory
Sika deer in the Chelyabinsk Zoo
Holy Trinity Church (1914)

Museum of military equipment in the garden of Victory was founded in 2007. It is 16 eksponantov, including T-34, IS-3 tanks and multiple rocket launchers "Katyusha" issued in Chelyabinsk during World War II.

In addition, the city has the Chelyabinsk regional geological museum, museum of military glory of labor and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, Museum postal service Chelyabinsk region, entertaining science museum "Eksperimentus".

Chelyabinsk Zoo - Zoological Park, located in the central region of Chelyabinsk. On an area of 30 hectares there are more than 110 species, of which more than 80 listed in the Red List. Zoo participates in international programs for the conservation of endangered species, including Amur (Siberian) tigers, Far Eastern leopards and Polar bears. The zoo regular sightseeing tours, lectures, exhibitions and celebrations.

City also has a circus building.

In Chelyabinsk has Concert Hall. Prokofiev Hall of organ and chamber music with organ-known German company "Hermann Eule". The tool consists of 2504 pipes, 37 registers, three manuals and pedal keyboard. His sound is a rare gentleness and generosity sound basic votes. Chelyabinsk body many artists considered to be one of the best in Russia and Europe.

In the city of Chelyabinsk are several churches built in the 19th to 21st centuries.

Notable people

  • Ariel, Soviet pop rock band
  • Lera Auerbach (born 1973), composer and musician, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Svyatoslav Belza (1942-2014), musical scholar, critic and essayist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Zhan Bush (born 1993), figure skater
  • Yekaterina Gamova (born 1980), Olympic volleyball player, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Makhmut Gareev (born 1923), historian and military scientist, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Viktor Khristenko (born 1957), politician, Russian Minister of Industry, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Igor Kurnosov (1985-2013), chess grandmaster, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Oleg Mityaev (born 1956), singer-songwriter and actor, born, grew up, and came into prominence in Chelyabinsk
  • Vadim Muntagirov (born 1990), ballet dancer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Georgy Ratner (1923-2001), surgeon, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Nelli Rokita (born 1957), Polish politician, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Eugene Roshal, software developer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Mariya Savinova, Olympic athlete, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Galina Starovoytova (1946-1998), politician and human rights activist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Maksim Surayev (born 1972), cosmonaut, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Evgeny Sveshnikov (born 1950), chess grandmaster and writer, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Anna Trebunskaya (born 1980), ballroom and Latin dancer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Ivan Ukhov (born 1986), Olympic high jumper, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Mikhail Yurevich (born 1969), businessman, politician, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Roman Valerevich Abalin (also known as NFKRZ) (born 1998), YouTube celebrity and aspiring rapper (known as Lil Vodka), born in Chelyabinsk

Ice hockey players

Twin towns and sister cities

Chelyabinsk is twinned with:

Diplomatic and consular missions and visa centers

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #161
  2. ^ " ? - ". ? ?. ?. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2012. 
  4. ^ ? ? 1 2013 ?. -- ?.? ? ?, 2013. -- 528 ?. (?. 33. ?, ? ?, ? , ? ?, ? ?)
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ ? ? .   No107-  3 ? 2011 ?. « ? ?», ? . No271-  03 ? 2016 ?. «? ? " ? ?"». ? ? ?  ? ? (6 ? 2011 ?.). : "? ", No120, 6 ? 2011 ?. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c "Chelyabinsk - Russia". Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ "Information about central postal office" (in Russian). 
  9. ^ "Russian Federation Cities dialing codes" (ZIP 34.4KB) (in Russian). [permanent dead link]
  10. ^ "Investing in Chelyabinsk city". Invest in Russia. Retrieved 2013. 
  11. ^ "Murzina" (PDF). 
  12. ^ "Invest in Ural". Invest in Ural. Retrieved 2013. 
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved 2014. 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved 2014. 
  15. ^ ": ? ? ". ?. 
  16. ^ Campbell-Brown, Margaret. "What Do We Know about the Russian Meteor? Meteor researcher Margaret Campbell-Brown recaps the latest research into the cause of this morning's fireball over Chelyabinsk". Scientific American (Interview). Interview with John Matson. Retrieved 2017. [Interviewer:] Where was most of the energy released as this object made its way through the atmosphere? [Subject:]In this case the final destination, which seems to have been the largest deposit of energy, was somewhere around 15 to 20 kilometers altitude. The actual fireball probably started significantly higher than that, maybe 50 kilometers, but most of the energy was apparently deposited during that last explosion lower in the atmosphere. 
  17. ^ "Meteorite hits Russian Urals: Fireball explosion wreaks havoc, up to 1,200 injured (PHOTOS, VIDEO)". RT. February 15, 2013. 
  18. ^ Plait, Phil (February 15, 2013). "Breaking: Huge Meteor Blazes Across Sky Over Russia; Sonic Boom Shatters Windows [UPDATED]". Slate. Retrieved 2013. 
  19. ^ "Meteor strikes Earth in Russia's Urals". Pravda. Retrieved 2013. 
  20. ^ "400 Injured by Meteorite Falls in Russian Urals". Associated Press. Retrieved 2013. 
  21. ^ Agle, D. C. (February 13, 2013). "Russia Meteor not Linked to Asteroid Flyby". NASA news. NASA. Retrieved 2013. 
  22. ^ Sreeja, VN (March 4, 2013). "New Asteroid '2013 EC' Similar To Russian Meteor To Pass Earth At A Distance Less Than Moon's Orbit". International Business Times. Retrieved 2013. 
  23. ^ Yeomans, Don; Chodas, Paul (March 1, 2013). "Additional Details on the Large Fireball Event over Russia on Feb. 15, 2013". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Retrieved 2013. 
  24. ^ Law #706-ZO
  25. ^ ? ? - ? (in Russian). ?. 
  26. ^ " ?". ? ? 
  27. ^ "Weather and Climate ( ? - ?)" (in Russian). Retrieved 2012. 
  28. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Cheljabinsk". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2012. 
  29. ^ " ? ?" (in Russian). 
  30. ^ "? ". 
  31. ^ "? ? ? ? -5 ? ". 
  32. ^ " ". 
  33. ^ "? ? 100- ?". 
  34. ^ "? """. Archived from the original on July 11, 2014. 
  35. ^ "?- Emerson Process Management ? : "? ? ? ? «"". 
  36. ^ "? ? ?". 
  37. ^ "Chelyabinsk". Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved 2014. 
  38. ^ "Sister cities". Archived from the original on September 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  39. ^ "? - Visa Management Service". Retrieved 2017. 
  40. ^ "La rete consolare". Retrieved 2017. 


  • ?. ? No161  25 2006 ?. « ? ? (- ) ? ? ? ?, ? », ? . ? No2255  23 ? 2014 ?. «? ? ? (- ) ? ? ? ?, ? ». ? ? ?  ?. : "? ", No111-112, 14 ? 2006 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #2255 of October 23, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • ?.  No706-  10 ? 2014 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ?  ?. : "? ", No87 (? No24), 14 ? 2014 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Law #706-ZO of June 10, 2014 On the Status and Borders of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug and the City Districts It Comprises. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Anne Garrels, Putin Country: A Journey Into The Real Russia (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd: The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s-1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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