Chemesthesis

Chemesthesis is defined as the chemical sensibility of the skin and mucous membranes. Chemesthetic sensations arise when chemical compounds activate receptors associated with other senses that mediate pain, touch, and thermal perception. These chemical-induced reactions do not fit into the traditional sense categories of taste and smell. Examples of chemesthetic sensations include the burn-like irritation from capsaicin and related compounds in foods like chili peppers; the coolness of menthol in mouthwashes and topical analgesic creams; the stinging or tingling of carbonated beverages in the nose and mouth; the tear-induction of cut onions;[1] and the pungent, cough-inducing sensation in the back of the throat elicited by the oleocanthal in high-quality extra virgin olive oil.[2] Some of these sensations may be referred to as spiciness, pungency, or piquancy.

Chemesthetic sensations sometimes arise by direct chemical activation of ion channels on sensory nerve fibers, for example of transient receptor potential channels including those of the TRPV, TRPA or TRPM subtypes. Alternatively, irritant chemicals may activate cells of the epithelium to release substances that indirectly activate the nerve fibers. The respiratory passages, including the nose and trachea, possess specialized cells called solitary chemosensory cells[3] which release acetylcholine[4] or other activators to excite nearby nerve fibers.

Because chemoresponsive nerve fibers are present in all types of skin, chemesthetic sensations can be aroused from anywhere on the body's surface as well as from mucosal surfaces in the nose, mouth, eyes, etc. Mucus membranes are generally more sensitive to chemesthetic stimuli because they lack the barrier function of cornified skin.

Much of the chemesthetic flavor sensations are mediated by the trigeminal nerves, which are relatively large and important nerves. Flavors that stimulate the trigeminal nerves are therefore important - for example, carbon dioxide is the trigeminal stimulant in carbonated beverages.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b H. Lawless & H. Heymann (2010). Sensory Evaluation of Food. Chemical Senses, Vol. 2 , Principles and Practices (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Science. p. 41. 
  2. ^ Peyrot des Gachons C, Uchida K, Bryant B, Shima A, Sperry JB, Dankulich-Nagrudny L, Tominaga M, Smith AB 3rd, Beauchamp GK, Breslin PA (19 January 2011). "Unusual pungency from extra-virgin olive oil is attributable to restricted spatial expression of the receptor of oleocanthal". J Neurosci. 31 (3): 999-1009. PMID 21248124. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1374-10.2011. Retrieved 2017. 
  3. ^ Finger TE, Böttger B, Hansen A, et al. (2003). "Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100 (15): 8981-6. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.8981F. PMC 166424 Freely accessible. PMID 12857948. doi:10.1073/pnas.1531172100. 
  4. ^ Krasteva G, Canning BJ, Hartmann P, et al. (2011). "Cholinergic chemosensory cells in the trachea regulate breathing". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108 (23): 9478-83. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.9478K. PMC 3111311 Freely accessible. PMID 21606356. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019418108. 

Further reading

  • Green, B.G.; Mason, J.R.; Kare, M.R., eds. (1990). Irritation. Chemical Senses, Vol. 2. New York: Marcel-Dekker. p. iv. 
  • Green BG, Alvarez-Reeves M, George P (2005). "Chemesthesis and taste: Evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity". Physiology and Behavior. 86 (4): 526-537. PMID 16199067. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.08.038. 

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Chemesthesis



 

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