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A court painting depicting Xuande Emperor of the Ming Dynasty playing chuiwan

Chuiwan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chuíwán; literally: "ball-hitting") was a game in ancient China. Its rules resemble modern golf.[]

The book Dongxuan lu (), written by Wei Tai (() fl. 1050-1100) of the Song Dynasty, describes how a southern Tang official teaches his daughter how to dig goals in the ground and drive a ball into them.[1] The game became popular by the Song Dynasty; and a work called Wan jing ( - literally "ball-treatise") of the Yuan Dynasty was specially devoted to it.[1] The latest documents about chuiwan in China are from the two paintings of the Ming Dynasty from the 15th century.[1] There is a colour image of the mural painting still preserved on the wall of a Water God Temple in Hongdong, Shanxi.[1] A Chinese scholar suggested the game was exported to Europe and then Scotland by Mongolian travellers in the late Middle Ages.

The rule for Chuiwan is remarkably similar to that of modern golf, in that players use a set of up to 10 clubs, balls are of difference sizes and made of wood, holes are spread on terrain of various difficulty, and marked by color flag; Tee off area are called Ji - which means base in Chinese; there's also strict etiquette and rule with regard to player honesty and cheating penalties.[2]

Popularity of this game of Chuiwan peaked in Song Dynasty, when Emperor Huizong was reported a dedicated player, it remained a favorite sport during Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, in Qing Dynasty game of Chuiwan steadily declined, when it became casual game for women and children.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d Ling Hongling (1991). "Verification of the Fact that Golf originated From Chuiwan" (PDF). The Australian Society for Sports History Bulletin (14). 
  2. ^ a b (2008). "Ancient Chuiwan Game". Pictorial Journal of Chinese Culture. 

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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