Civil Rights Act of 1875 (18 Stat. 335-337), sometimes called  Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service. The bill was passed by the 43rd United States Congress and signed into law by U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875. The law was generally opposed by public opinion, but blacks did favor it. It was not effectively enforced and historian William Gillette says the passage of the law was an "insignificant victory." Eight years later, the  Supreme Court ruled in (1883) that the public accommodation sections of the act were unconstitutional, saying Congress was not afforded control over private persons or corporations.
Civil Rights Cases
The drafting of the bill was performed early in 1870 by
Senator Charles Sumner, a dominant Radical Republican in the Senate, with the assistance of John Mercer Langston, a prominent African American who established the law department at Howard University. The bill was proposed by Senator Sumner and co-sponsored by  Representative Benjamin F. Butler, both Republicans from Massachusetts, in the 41st Congress of the United States in 1870. Congress removed the coverage of public schools that Sumner had included. The act was passed by the 43rd Congress in February 1875 as a memorial to honor Sumner, who had just died. It was signed into law by  U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875. 
President Grant had wanted an entirely different law to help him suppress election-related violence against blacks and Republicans in the South. Congress did not give him that, but instead wrote a law for equal rights to public accommodations that was passed as a memorial to Grant's bitterest enemy, the late Senator Charles Sumner.
Grant never commented on the 1875 law, and did nothing to enforce it says historian  John Hope Franklin. Grant's Justice Department ignored it and did not send copies to US attorneys, says Franklin, while many federal judges called it unconstitutional before the Supreme Court shut it down. Franklin concludes regarding Grant and Hayes administrations, "The Civil Rights Act was never effectively enforced."  Public opinion was opposed, with the black community in support.  Historian Rayford Logan looking at newspaper editorials finds the press was overwhelmingly opposed.  
The Supreme Court, in an 8-1 decision, declared sections of the act unconstitutional in the
Civil Rights Cases on October 15, 1883. Justice John Marshall Harlan provided the lone dissent. The Court held the Equal Protection Clause within the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits discrimination by the state and local government, but it does not give the federal government the power to prohibit discrimination by private individuals and organizations. The Court also held that the  Thirteenth Amendment was meant to eliminate "the badge of slavery," but not to prohibit racial discrimination in public accommodations. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last federal civil rights bill signed into law until the Civil Rights Act of 1957, enacted during the Civil Rights Movement.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 is notable as the last major piece of legislation related to Reconstruction that was passed by Congress during the
Reconstruction Era. These include the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the four Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and 1868, the three Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871, and the three Constitutional Amendments adopted between 1865 and 1870. 
Provisions contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1875 were later readopted by Congress during the Civil Rights Movement as part of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968. The 1964 and 1968 acts relied upon the Commerce Clause contained in Article One of the Constitution of the United States rather than the Equal Protection Clause within the Fourteenth Amendment.
" Civil Rights Bill of 1875, Legislative Interests, The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood, Black Americans in Congress series" . Retrieved 2012.
"U.S. Statutes at Large, 43rd Congress, Session II, chapter 114, pp. 335-37" (PDF) . Retrieved 2012.
William Gillette (1982). . LSU Press. p. 259. Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869--1879
" John Mercer Langston, Representative, 1890-1891, Republican from Virginia, Black Americans in Congress series" . Retrieved 2012.
Williamjames Hull Hoffer (2010). . JHU Press. p. 121. The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War
" Civil Rights Bill of 1875, Legislative Interests, The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood, Black Americans in Congress series" . Retrieved 2009.
^ Jean Edward Smith,
Grant (2002) pp 566-68.
^ John Hope Franklin, "The Enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1875"
Prologue (1974) 6:225-35.
^ Franklin, "The Enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1875" p 235.
^ William Gillette,
Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869--1879 (1982). p 201
^ Rayford W. Logan,
The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson (2nd ed. 1965) p 178.
Gerber, Richard; Friedlander, Alan (2008). "The Civil Rights Act of 1875: A Reexamination" . Retrieved .
"Summary of Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights Acts passed by Congress" . Retrieved 2012.
Gillette, William (1982). "Insignificant Victory: The Civil Rights Act of 1875". . LSU Press. pp. 259-279. Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869--1879 ISBN 9780807110065.
Higginbotham, A. Leon Jr. (1998). "The Supreme Court's Sanction of Racial Hatred: The 1883 Civil Rights Cases". . Oxford University Press. pp. 94-107. Shades of Freedom: Racial Politics and Presumptions of the American Legal Process ISBN 9780198028673.
Howard, John R. (1999). . New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 66-68. The Shifting Wind: The Supreme Court and Civil Rights from Reconstruction to Brown ISBN 9780791440896.
Sandoval-Strausz, A. K. (2007). "Accommodating Jim Crow: The Law of Hospitality and the Struggle for Civil Rights". . Yale University Press. pp. 284-311. Hotel: An American History ISBN 9780300106169.
Tsesis, Alexander (2010). ". "Badges and Incidents of Slavery" In the Supreme Court" . Columbia University Press. pp. 172-181. The Promises of Liberty: The History and Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment ISBN 9780231141444.
Wilson, Kirt H. (2002). The Reconstruction Desegregation Debate: The Politics of Equality and the Rhetoric of Place, 1870-1875. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 9780870136177. Wynn, Linda T. (2009). "Civil Rights Act of 1875". In Jessie Carney Smith, Linda T. Wynn. . Visible Ink Press. pp. 165-167. Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience ISBN 9781578592609.
Dissertations and theses
Avins, Alfred (May 1966). "The Civil Rights Act of 1875: Some Reflected Light on the Fourteenth Amendment and Public Accommodations". Columbia Law Review. 66: 873-915. doi: 10.2307/1121057.
Franklin, John Hope (Winter 1974). "The Enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1875". . Prologue Magazine 6 (4): 225-235.
Gudridge, Patrick O. (April 1989). "Privileges and Permissions: The Civil Rights Act of 1875". Law and Philosophy. 8 (1): 83-130. doi: 10.2307/3504632.
Jager, Ronald B. (September 1969). "Charles Sumner, the Constitution, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875". The New England Quarterly. 42 (3): 350-372. doi: 10.2307/363614.
Kaczorowski, Robert J. (February 1987). "To Begin the Nation Anew: Congress, Citizenship, and Civil Rights after the Civil War". The American Historical Review. 92 (1): 45-68. doi: 10.2307/1862782.
McPherson, James M. (December 1965). "Abolitionists and the Civil Rights Act of 1875". Journal of American History. 52 (3): 493-510. doi: 10.2307/1890844.
Murphy, L.E. (April 1927). "The Civil Rights Law of 1875". Journal of Negro History. 12 (2): 110-127. doi: 10.2307/2714050.
Spackman, S. G. F. (December 1976). "American Federalism and the Civil Rights Act of 1875". Journal of American Studies. 10 (3): 313-328. doi: 10.1017/s0021875800003182.
Weaver, Valeria W. (October 1969). "The Failure of Civil Rights 1875-1883 and its Repercussions". Journal of Negro History. 54 (4): 368-382. doi: 10.2307/2716730. Wyatt-Brown, Bertram (December 1965). "The Civil Rights Act of 1875". Western Political Quarterly. 18 (4): 763-765. doi: 10.1177/106591296501800403.
Benjamin F. Butler, "Civil Rights: Speech of Hon. Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, in the House of Representatives, January 7, 1874," From the Digital Archive Collections of the Mount St. Mary's University. Retrieved October 15, 2014
Provides a detailed description of the history of the bill from 1870 until its passage by Congress in 1875. Retrieved November 18, 2012 "Civil Rights Bill of 1875", The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood: Legislative Interests
Provides a short biographical account of Sen. Charles Sumner including details surrounding his efforts to pass the Civil Rights bill in Congress. Includes images of Sumner, personal documents, and bill S. 1 that would later lead to the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Retrieved November 18, 2012 History Crush: Charles Sumner, Prologue: Pieces of History, The National Archives.gov
Summary of Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights Acts passed by Congress Part of the series. Provided by the Office of History and Preservation under the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved November 18, 2012 Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007
"The Trouble has Commenced - A Tale of Anxiety" by Thomas Nast in . From Harper's Weekly "On This Day" series. Recounts the events on the floor of the House in the United States Congress involving the Civil Rights Bill on February 27, 1875. Retrieved March 16, 2013 The New York Times
"How Some People Regard the Passage of the Civil Rights Bill" Published in the on March 3, 1875. From the Daily Graphic Old Fulton website. Presents a detractors view on the outcome of the Civil Right Bill. Retrieved July 5, 2014
Digitized image of Charles Sumners' senate bill S. 1 as introduced during the 43rd United States Congress. From the Records of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015 "Some Memories of A Long Life" An excerpt from the memoir of Malvina Shanklin Harlan, the wife of Justice John Marshall Harlan. The excerpt chronicles the effort that Justice Harlan placed into writing an opinion for the Civil Rights Cases (1883). From the Library of Congress. Retrieved May 18, 2015