Co%C8%9Bofeni Culture
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Co%C8%9Bofeni Culture
Co?ofeni/Kocofeni culture
Alternative namesUsatove culture
PeriodChalcolithic to Early Bronze Age, between c. 3500 and 2500 BC

The Co?ofeni culture (Serbian: Kocofeni) (also called the Usatovo culture) was an Early Bronze Age archaeological culture that existed between 3500 and 2500 BC in the mid-Danube area of south-eastern Central Europe.

The first report of a Co?ofeni find was made by Fr. Schuster[1] in 1865 from the Râpa Ro?ie site in Sebe? (present-day Alba County, Romania). Since then this culture has been studied by a number of people to varying degrees. Some of the more prominent contributors to the study of this culture include C. Gooss, K. Benk?, B. Orbán, G. Téglas, K. Herepey, S. Fenichel, Julius Teutsch, Cezar Bolliac, V. Christescu, Teohari Antonescu, and Cristian Popa.

Geographic area

The Co?ofeni culture area can be seen from two perspectives, as a fluctuation zone, or in its maximum area of extent. This covers present day Maramure?, some areas in S?tmar, the mountainous and hilly areas of Cri?ana, Transylvania,[2][3]Banat,[4]Oltenia,[5]Muntenia (not including the North-East), and across the Danube in present-day eastern Serbia and northwestern Bulgaria.[6]


Absolute chronology

Co?ofeni culture vessels, stone and bone tools, in display at the National Museum of the Union, Alba Iulia
Co?ofeni culture pottery at Aiud History Museum, Aiud, Romania.

Bronze Age in Romania Unfortunately, most of the Co?ofeni culture chronology is based on just three samples collected at three different Co?ofeni sites. Based on these radiocarbon dates, this culture can be placed between roughly 3500 and 2500 BC.[7]

Relative chronology

Cultural synchronisms have been established based on mutual trade relations (visible as imported items) as well as stratigraphic observations. There is an evident synchronicity between:

Co?ofeni I - Cernavoda III - Baden A - Spherical Amphorae;

Co?ofeni II - Baden B-C Kostolac;[8][9]

Co?ofeni III - Kostolac-Vu?edol A-B.

Relations with contemporary neighbouring cultures

During the evolution of the Co?ofeni culture, there were clearly relationships with other neighbouring cultures. The influence between the Co?ofeni and their neighbours the Baden, Kostolac,[10]Vu?edol, Globular Amphora culture as well as the Ochre Burial populations was reciprocal. The areas bordering these cultures show cultural traits that have mixed aspects, for example Co?ofeni-Baden[11][12] and Co?ofeni-Kostolac finds. These finds of mixed aspects suggest a cohabitation between related populations.[13] It also supports the idea of well established trade between cultures.

See also


  1. ^ Fr. W. Schuster, 1867, Ueber alte Begräbnißstätten bei Mühlbach, în Programm des evangelischen Untergymnasiums zu Mühlbach und die damit verbundenen Lehranstalten Mühlbachs, 1866-1867, p. 3-16.
  2. ^ H. Ciugudean, 1996, Perioada timpurie a epocii bronzului în centrul ?i sud-vestul Transilvaniei, Bibliotheca Thracologica, XIII, Bucharest, 1996.
  3. ^ Z. Kalmar, 1983, Descoperiri Co?ofeni în bazinul some?an (Some?uri, Crasna, Alma?), in ActaMP, VII, 1983, p. 61-68.
  4. ^ H. Ciugudean, 2000, Eneoliticul final în Transilvania ?i Banat: cultura Co?ofeni, Bibliotheca Historica et Archaeologica Banatica, Timi?oara, 2000.
  5. ^ D. Berciu, 1939, Arheologia preistoric? a Olteniei, Craiova, 1939.
  6. ^ S. Alexandrov, 1990, Cultura Co?ofeni în Bulgaria (Doctoral thesis, advisor. D. Berciu), Bucharest, 1990 (mss.).
  7. ^ P. Raczky, 1995, New data on the absolute chronology of the Copper Age in the Carpathian Basin, în Neure Daten zur Siedlungsgeschichte und Chronologie der Kupferzeit des Karpatenbeckens, Inventaria Praehistorica Hungarie, Budapest, 1995, p. 51-60.
  8. ^ P. I. Roman, 1977, No?iunea de "cultura Kostolac", in SCIVA, 28, 1977, 3, p. 419-429.
  9. ^ P. I. Roman, 1980, Der "Kostolac-Kultur"-Begriff nach 35 Jahren, in PZ, 55, 1980, 2, p. 220-227.
  10. ^ D. Nikoli?, 2000, Kostola?ka kultura na teritoriji Srbje, Centre for Archaeological Research, 19, Beograd, 2000.
  11. ^ I. Emödi, 1984, Descoperiri ale culturilor Co?ofeni ?i Baden în pe?terile Igri?a ?i Izbândi?, in ActaMN, XXI, 1984, p. 405-431.
  12. ^ S. Morintz, P. Roman, 1973, Über die Übergangsperiode vom Äneolithikum zur Bronzezeit in Rumänien, in Symposium Badener Kultur, Bratislava, 1973, p.259-295.
  13. ^ P. I. Roman, 1982, Constituirea noilor grupe etnoculturale de la începutul epocii bronzului, in Carpica, XIV, 1982, p. 39-49.


External links

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