|Alternative names||Usatove culture|
|Period||Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age, between c. 3500 and 2500 BC|
The Co?ofeni culture (Serbian: Kocofeni) (also called the Usatovo culture) was an Early Bronze Age archaeological culture that existed between 3500 and 2500 BC in the mid-Danube area of south-eastern Central Europe.
The first report of a Co?ofeni find was made by Fr. Schuster in 1865 from the Râpa Ro?ie site in Sebe? (present-day Alba County, Romania). Since then this culture has been studied by a number of people to varying degrees. Some of the more prominent contributors to the study of this culture include C. Gooss, K. Benk?, B. Orbán, G. Téglas, K. Herepey, S. Fenichel, Julius Teutsch, Cezar Bolliac, V. Christescu, Teohari Antonescu, and Cristian Popa.
The Co?ofeni culture area can be seen from two perspectives, as a fluctuation zone, or in its maximum area of extent. This covers present day Maramure?, some areas in S?tmar, the mountainous and hilly areas of Cri?ana, Transylvania,Banat,Oltenia,Muntenia (not including the North-East), and across the Danube in present-day eastern Serbia and northwestern Bulgaria.
Bronze Age in Romania Unfortunately, most of the Co?ofeni culture chronology is based on just three samples collected at three different Co?ofeni sites. Based on these radiocarbon dates, this culture can be placed between roughly 3500 and 2500 BC.
Cultural synchronisms have been established based on mutual trade relations (visible as imported items) as well as stratigraphic observations. There is an evident synchronicity between:
Co?ofeni III - Kostolac-Vu?edol A-B.
During the evolution of the Co?ofeni culture, there were clearly relationships with other neighbouring cultures. The influence between the Co?ofeni and their neighbours the Baden, Kostolac,Vu?edol, Globular Amphora culture as well as the Ochre Burial populations was reciprocal. The areas bordering these cultures show cultural traits that have mixed aspects, for example Co?ofeni-Baden and Co?ofeni-Kostolac finds. These finds of mixed aspects suggest a cohabitation between related populations. It also supports the idea of well established trade between cultures.