Columbia, Missouri
Columbia, MO Events Directory
 
About Columbia, MO
Columbia
City
City of Columbia
Jesse Hall and the columns on Francis Quadrangle at the University of Missouri
City flag
Flag
City seal
Seal
Nickname(s): "Athens of Missouri",[1] or CoMo[2]
Location in Boone County and the state of Missouri
Location in Boone County and the state of Missouri
Coordinates: 38°57?5?N 92°19?42?W / 38.95139°N 92.32833°W / 38.95139; -92.32833Coordinates: 38°57?5?N 92°19?42?W / 38.95139°N 92.32833°W / 38.95139; -92.32833
Country United States
State Missouri
County Boone
Settled 1816
Founded 1821
Incorporated 1826
Government
 o Type Council-manager government
 o Mayor Brian Treece[3]
 o City manager Mike Matthes
Area
 o City 63.5 sq mi (164 km2)
 o Land 63.08 sq mi (163.4 km2)
 o Water .42 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation[4] 758 ft (231 m)
Population (2010)[5]
 o City 108,500
 o Estimate (2016) 120,612
 o Rank US: 245th
MO: 4th
 o Density 1,700/sq mi (660/km2)
 o Urban 124,748 (US: 255th)
 o Metro 176,594 (US: 237th)
Demonym(s) Columbians
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 o Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP Codes 65201, 65202, 65203, 65211
Area code(s) 573
FIPS code 29-15670
GNIS feature ID 0716133
Website www.como.gov
[6][7]

Columbia is a city in the U.S. state of Missouri and the county seat of Boone County.[8] Founded in 1821, it is home to the University of Missouri and is the principal city of the Columbia metropolitan area. It is Missouri's fourth most-populous city, with an estimated population of 120,612 in 2016. As a midwestern college town, the city has a reputation for progressive politics, public art, and powerful journalism.[] The tripartite establishment of Stephens College (1833), the University of Missouri (1839), and Columbia College (1851) surround the city's central business district to the east, south, and north. At the center of Downtown is 8th Street, also known as the Avenue of the Columns, which connects Francis Quadrangle and Jesse Hall to the Boone County Courthouse and the City Hall. Never a major center of manufacturing, the city also depends on healthcare, insurance, and technology businesses. Several companies, such as Shelter Insurance, Carfax, and Slackers CDs and Games, were founded in the city. Cultural institutions include the State Historical Society of Missouri, the Museum of Art and Archaeology, and the annual True/False Film Festival. The Missouri Tigers, the state's only major college athletic program, play football at Faurot Field and basketball at Mizzou Arena as members of the Southeastern Conference (SEC).

The city is built upon the forested hills and rolling prairies of Mid-Missouri, near the Missouri River valley, where the Ozark Mountains begin to transform into plains and savanna. Limestone forms bluffs and glades while rain carves caves and springs which water the Hinkson, Roche Perche, and Bonne Femme creeks. Surrounding the city, Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Mark Twain National Forest, and Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge all form a greenbelt preserving sensitive and rare environments. The first humans, who entered the area at least twelve thousand years ago, were nomadic hunters. Later, woodland tribes lived in villages along waterways and built mounds in high places. The Osage and Missouria nations were expelled by the exploration of French traders and the rapid settlement of American pioneers. The latter arrived by the Boone's Lick Trail and hailed from the slave-owning culture of the Upland South, especially Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, giving Boonslick the name "Little Dixie" during the American Civil War. German, Irish, and other European immigrants soon joined. The modern populace is unusually diverse, over eight percent foreign-born. While White and Black remain the largest ethnicities, Asians are now the third-largest group. The city has been called the "Athens of Missouri" for its classic beauty and educational emphasis, but is more commonly called "CoMo".[2]

History

An aerial depiction of Columbia's downtown district in 1869. The large building on the right is University of Missouri Academic Hall.

The Columbia area was once part of the Mississippian culture and home to the Mound Builders. When European explorers arrived, the area was populated by the Osage and Missouri Indians.[6] In 1678, La Salle claimed all of Missouri for France. The Lewis and Clark Expedition passed by the area on the Missouri River in early June 1804. In 1806, two sons of Daniel Boone established a salt lick northwest of Columbia. giving the area its early name: Boonslick. The Boone's Lick Trail wound from St. Charles to the lick in present-day Howard County. In 1818, a group of settlers, incorporated under the Smithton Land Company, purchased over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) and established the village of Smithton less than a mile from current day downtown Columbia.[9] In 1821, the settlers moved because of lack of water across the Flat Branch to the plateau between the Flat Branch and Hinkson creeks in what is now the downtown district. They renamed the settlement Columbia--a poetic personification of the United States.[6]

The roots of Columbia's three economic foundations--education, medicine, and insurance--can be traced back to incorporation in 1821.[9][10] Original plans for the town set aside land for a state university. In 1833, Columbia Baptist Female College opened, which later became Stephens College. Columbia College, distinct from today's and later to become the University of Missouri, was founded in 1839. When the state legislature decided to establish a state university, Columbia raised three times as much money as any other competing city[11] and James S. Rollins donated the land that is today the Francis Quadrangle.[11] Soon other educational institutions were founded in Columbia such as Christian Female College, the first college for women west of the Mississippi, which later became the current Columbia College. The city benefited from being a stagecoach stop of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and later from the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. In 1822, the first hospital was set up by William Jewell. In 1830, the first newspaper began; in 1832, the first theater in the state was opened; and in 1835, the state's first agricultural fair was held. By 1839, the population of 13,000 and wealth of Boone County was exceeded in Missouri only by that of St. Louis County, which, at that time, included the City of St. Louis.[12]

Columbia's infrastructure was relatively untouched by the Civil War. Missouri, as a slave state, had Southern sympathies, but remained in the Union. The majority of the city was pro-Union,[9] however, the surrounding agricultural areas of Boone County and the rest of central Missouri were decidedly pro-Confederate. Because of this, the University of Missouri became a base from which Union troops operated. No battles were fought within the city because the presence of Union troops dissuaded Confederate guerrillas from attacking, though several major battles occurred at nearby Boonville and Centralia. After the Civil War, race relations in Columbia followed the Southern pattern; George Burke, a black man, was lynched in 1889.[13]

In 1963, Columbia become home to the headquarters of both the University of Missouri System[14] and the Columbia College system.[15] The insurance industry also became important to the local economy as several companies established headquarters in Columbia, including Shelter Insurance, Missouri Employers Mutual, and Columbia Insurance Group. State Farm Insurance has a regional office in Columbia. In addition, the now defunct Silvey Insurance was once a large local employer. Columbia became a transportation crossroads when U.S. Route 63 and U.S. Route 40 (which became present-day Interstate 70) were routed through the city. Soon after, the city opened the Columbia Regional Airport. By 2000, the city's population was nearly 85,000.[7]

A Solar eclipse totality from Columbia.
Totality as seen from Columbia.

In 2017, Columbia was in the path of totality for the Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The city was expecting upwards of 400,000 tourists coming to the city to view the eclipse.[16]

Geography

Columbia, located in northern mid-Missouri, is 120 miles (190 km) away from both St. Louis and Kansas City, and 29 miles (47 km) north of the state capital of Jefferson City.[17] The city is near the Missouri River, between the Ozark Plateau and the Northern Plains.[18][19]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 63.5 square miles (164.46 km2) of which 63.08 square miles (163.38 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.09 km2) is water.[20]

Topography

The city generally slopes from the highest point in the Northeast to the lowest point in the Southwest towards the Missouri River. Prominent tributaries of the river are Perche Creek, Hinkson Creek, and Flat Branch Creek. Along these and other creeks in the area can be found large valleys, cliffs, and cave systems such as that in Rock Bridge State Park just south of the city. These creeks are largely responsible for numerous stream valleys giving Columbia hilly terrain similar to the Ozarks while also having prairie flatland typical of northern Missouri. Columbia also operates several greenbelts with trails and parks throughout town.

Animal life

Large mammals found in the city includes urbanized coyotes[21] and numerous whitetail deer.[22]Eastern gray squirrel, and other rodents are abundant, as well as cottontail rabbits and the nocturnal opossum and raccoon.[23][24] Large bird species are abundant in parks and include the Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Turkeys are also common in wooded areas and can occasionally be seen on the MKT recreation trail. Populations of bald eagles are found by the Missouri River. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern U.S. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. Columbia has large areas of forested and open land and many of these areas are home to wildlife.

Climate

Columbia has a climate marked by sharp seasonal contrasts in temperature, falling between a humid continental and humid subtropical climate (Köppen Dfa/Cfa, respectively), and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6a.[25] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 29.7 °F (-1.3 °C) in January to 77.3 °F (25.2 °C) in July, while the high reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of 32 days per year, 100 °F (38 °C) on two days, while four nights of sub-0 °F (-18 °C) lows can be expected.[26] Precipitation tends to be greatest and most frequent in the latter half of spring, when severe weather is also most common. Snow averages 18.0 inches (46 cm) per season, mostly from December to March, with occasional November accumulation and falls in April being rarer; historically seasonal snow accumulation has ranged from 3.4 in (8.6 cm) in 2005-06 to 54.9 in (139 cm) in 1977-78.[26] Extreme temperatures have ranged from -26 °F (-32 °C) on February 12, 1899 to 113 °F (45 °C) on July 12 and 14, 1954. Readings of -10 °F (-23 °C) or 105 °F (41 °C) are uncommon, the last occurrences being January 7, 2014 and July 31, 2012.[26]

Cityscape

Downtown Columbia

Columbia's most commonly recognizable architectural attributes reside downtown and within the university campuses. Widely used icons of the city are the University of Missouri's Jesse Hall and the neo-gothic Memorial Union. The David R. Francis Quadrangle is an example of Thomas Jefferson's academic village concept. There are four historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places within the city: Downtown Columbia, the East Campus Neighborhood, Francis Quadrangle, and the North Ninth Street Historic District.[30] The downtown skyline is relatively low and is dominated by the 10-story Tiger Hotel and the 15-story Paquin Tower.

Downtown Columbia is an area of approximately one square mile surrounded by the University of Missouri on the south, Stephens College to the east and Columbia College on the north. The area serves as Columbia's financial and business district.[31]

Downtown apartment and mixed-use development next to the Missouri United Methodist Church in June 2017

Recent years have seen a large number of high-rise apartment complexes built in downtown Columbia. Many of these buildings also offer mixed-use business and retail space on the lower levels. These developments have not been without criticism, with some expressing concern the buildings hurt the historic feel of the area, or that the city does not yet have the infrastructure to support them. [32]

The city's historic residential core lies in a ring around downtown, extending especially to the west along Broadway, and south into the East Campus Neighborhood. The city government recognizes 63 neighborhood associations.[33] The city's most dense commercial areas are primarily located along Interstate 70, U.S. Route 63, Stadium Boulevard, Grindstone Parkway, and Downtown.

Demographics

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 108,500 people, 43,065 households, and 21,418 families residing in the city.[5] The population density was 1,720.0 inhabitants per square mile (664.1/km2). There were 46,758 housing units at an average density of 741.2 per square mile (286.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 11.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population.

There were 43,065 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 50.3% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% of residents under the age of 18; 27.3% between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.7% from 25 to 44; 18.6% from 45 to 64; and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 26.8 years. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 84,531 people, 33,689 households, and 17,282 families residing in the city.[36] The population density was 1,592.8 people per square mile (615.0/km²). There were 35,916 housing units at an average density of 676.8 per square mile (261.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.54% White, 10.85% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 4.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population.[36]

There were 33,689 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.92.[36]

In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 16.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.[36]

The median income for a household in the city was $33,729, and the median income for a family was $52,288. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $26,694 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,507. About 9.4% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.[36]

Economy

Columbia's economy is historically dominated by education, healthcare, and the insurance industry.[9] Jobs in government are also common, either in Columbia or a half-hour south in Jefferson City.[37] Commutes into the city are also common and, in 2000, the city had a day time population of 106,487--a 26% increase over the census population of the same year.[38] The Columbia Regional Airport and the Missouri River Port of Rocheport connect the region with trade and transportation.

The economy of Columbia's metro area is slightly larger than that of the Bahamas.[39] With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $5.84 billion in 2004, Columbia's economy makes up 2.9% of the Gross State Product of Missouri.[40] Insurance corporations headquartered in Columbia include Shelter Insurance, and the Columbia Insurance Group. Other organizations include MFA Incorporated, the Missouri State High School Activities Association, and MFA Oil. Companies such as Socket, Datastorm Technologies, Inc. (no longer existent), Slackers CDs and Games, Carfax,[41] and MBS Textbook Exchange were founded in Columbia.

Top employers

According to Columbia's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[42][43] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 University of Missouri 8,608
2 University of Missouri Health Care 4,468
3 Columbia Public Schools 2,117
4 Boone Hospital Center 1,655
5 City of Columbia 1,332
6 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital 1,278
7 MBS Textbook Exchange 1,239
8 Shelter Insurance 1,078
9 State Farm 1,063
10 Joe Machens 630

Culture

The Blue Note, a rock and pop venue downtown.

The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts and Jesse Auditorium are Columbia's largest fine arts venues. Ragtag Cinema annually hosts the True/False Film Festival. In 2008, filmmaker Todd Sklar completed Box Elder, which was filmed entirely in and around Columbia and the University of Missouri. The University of Missouri's Museum of Art and Archaeology displays 14,000 works of art and archaeological objects in five galleries for no charge to the public.[44] Libraries include the Columbia Public Library, the University of Missouri Libraries, with over three million volumes in Ellis Library, and the State Historical Society of Missouri. One of the last remaining traditional arcades in the country, Gunther's Games, is a popular destination for gamers.[45]

Music

The "We Always Swing" Jazz Series[46] and the Roots N Blues N BBQ Festival[47] is held in Columbia. "9th Street Summerfest" closes part of that street several nights each summer to hold outdoor performances and has featured Willie Nelson (2009),[48]Snoop Dogg (2010),[49]The Flaming Lips (2010),[49]Weird Al Yankovic (2013),[50] and others. The "University Concert Series" regularly includes musicians and dancers from various genres, typically in Jesse Hall. Other musical venues in town include the Missouri Theatre, the University's multipurpose Hearnes Center, The Blue Note, and Rose Music Hall. Shelter Gardens, a park on the campus of Shelter Insurance headquarters, also hosts outdoor performances during the summer.[51]

Sports

The University of Missouri's sports teams, the Missouri Tigers, play a significant role in the city's sports culture. Faurot Field at Memorial Stadium, which has a capacity of 71,168, hosts home football games. The Hearnes Center and Mizzou Arena are two other large sport and event venues, the latter being the home arena for Mizzou's basketball team. Taylor Stadium is host to their baseball team and was the regional host for the 2007 NCAA Baseball Championship.[52]Columbia College has several men and women collegiate sports teams as well. In 2007, Columbia hosted the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Volleyball National Championship, which the Lady Cougars participated in.[53]

Columbia also hosts the Show-Me State Games, a non-profit program of the Missouri Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health. They are the largest state games in the United States.[54][55]

Situated midway between St. Louis and Kansas City, Columbians will often have allegiances to the professional sports teams housed there, such as the St. Louis Cardinals, the Kansas City Royals, the Kansas City Chiefs, the St. Louis Blues and Sporting Kansas City.[56]

Media

The Columbia Missourian headquarters

The city has two daily newspapers: the Columbia Missourian and the Columbia Daily Tribune, both morning deliveries. The Missourian is directed by professional editors and staffed by Missouri School of Journalism students who do reporting, design, copy editing, information graphics, photography and multimedia. The Missourian publishes the weekly city magazine, Vox.[57] With a daily circulation of nearly 20,000, the Daily Tribune is the most widely read newspaper in central Missouri. The University of Missouri has the independent but official student newspaper called The Maneater, which is printed bi-weekly. The now-defunct Prysms Weekly was also published in Columbia. In Fall 2009, KCOU News launched full operations out of KCOU 88.1 FM on the MU Campus. The entirely student-run news organization airs a daily newscast, "The Pulse", weekdays from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m.

The city has 14 radio stations and 4 television channels.[58] Columbia's Public Access channel, Columbia Access Television, is commonly referred to by its acronym, CAT, or CAT-TV. The Education Access channel in Columbia, CPSTV, is managed by Columbia Public Schools as a function of the Columbia Public Schools Community Relations Department. The city's Government Access channel broadcast City Council, Planning and Zoning Commission and Board of Adjustment meetings

Cuisine

Columbia has many bars and restaurants that provide diverse styles of cuisine, which is in part due to it being a college town with three colleges.[59] One such establishment is the historic Booches bar, restaurant and pool hall, which was established in 1884 and is frequented by college students, as well as others from all walks of life.[60]

Government and politics

The Boone County Courthouse within the Boone County Government Center

The City of Columbia's current government was established by a home rule charter adopted by voters on November 11, 1974, which established a Council-manager government that invested power in the City Council. The City Council is made up of seven members - six elected by each of Columbia's six wards, plus an at-large council member, the Mayor, who is elected by all city voters. The Mayor currently receives a $9,000 annual stipend and the six remaining council members receive a $6,000 annual stipend. They are elected to staggered three-year terms. The Mayor, in addition to being a voting member of the City Council, is recognized as the head of city government for ceremonial purposes. Chief executive authority is invested in a city manager, who oversees the day-to-day operations of government.[61]

Columbia is the county seat of Boone County, and houses the county court and government center. The city is located in Missouri's 4th congressional district. The 19th Missouri State Senate district covers all of Boone County. There are five Missouri House of Representatives districts (9, 21, 23, 24, 25) in the city. The principal law enforcement agency is the Columbia Police Department, with the Columbia Fire Department providing fire protection. The University of Missouri Police Department patrols areas on and around the MU campus and has jurisdiction throughout the city and Boone County. The Public Service Joint Communications Center coordinates efforts between the two organizations as well as the Boone County Fire Protection District which operates Urban Search and Rescue Missouri Task Force 1.

The Daniel Boone Building houses Columbia's City Hall.

The population generally supports progressive causes such as the extensive city recycling programs and the decriminalization of cannabis[62][63] both for medical and recreational use at the municipal level (though the scope of latter of the two cannabis ordinances has since been restricted).[64] The city is also one of only four in the state to offer medical benefits to same-sex partners of city employees.[65] The new health plan also extends health benefits to unmarried heterosexual domestic partners of city employees. On October 10, 2006, the City Council approved an ordinance to prohibit smoking in public places, including restaurants and bars. The ordinance was passed with protest, and several amendments to the ordinance reflect this.[66] Over half of citizens possess at least a bachelor's degree,[67] while over a quarter hold a graduate degree,[68] making it the thirteenth most highly educated municipality in the United States.[68]

Education

Columbia and much of the surrounding area lies within the Columbia Public School District. The district enrolls over 17,000 students[69] and had a revenue of nearly $200 million for the 2007-2008 school year.[70][needs update] It is above the state average in attendance percentage and in graduation rate.[71] The city operates four public high schools which cover grades 9-12: David H. Hickman High School, Rock Bridge High School, Muriel Battle High School, and Frederick Douglass High School. Rock Bridge is one of two Missouri high schools to receive a silver medal by U.S. News & World Report, putting it in the top 3% of all high schools in the nation.[72] Hickman has been on Newsweek magazine's list of top 1,300 schools in the country for the past three years and has more named presidential scholars than any other public high school in the United States.[72] There are also several private high schools including Christian Fellowship School, Columbia Independent School, Heritage Academy, Christian Chapel Academy, and Father Augustine Tolton Regional Catholic High School.[73]

The city has three institutions of higher education: the University of Missouri, Stephens College, and Columbia College, all of which surround Downtown Columbia. The city is the headquarters of the University of Missouri System, which also operates campuses in St. Louis, Kansas City, and Rolla.

Infrastructure

Transportation

The Columbia Transit provides public bus and para-transit service, and is owned and operated by the city. In 2008, 1,414,400 passengers boarded along the system's six fixed routes and nine University of Missouri shuttle routes, and 27,000 boarded the Para-transit service.[74] The system is constantly experiencing growth in service and technology. A $3.5 million project to renovate and expand the Wabash Station, a rail depot built in 1910 and converted into the city's transit center in the mid-1980s, was completed in summer of 2007.[75][76] In 2007, a Transit Master Plan was created to address the future transit needs of the city and county with a comprehensive plan to add infrastructure in three key phases.[77] The five to 15-year plan intends to add service along the southwest, southeast and northeast sections of Columbia and develop alternative transportation models for Boone County.

Columbia is also known for its MKT Trail, a spur of the Katy Trail State Park, which allows foot and bike traffic across the city, and, conceivably, the state. It consists of a soft gravel surface for running and biking. Columbia also is preparing to embark on construction of several new bike paths and street bike lanes thanks to a $25 million grant from the federal government.[78] The city is also served by American Airlines at the Columbia Regional Airport, the only commercial airport in mid-Missouri.

I-70 (concurrent with US 40) and US 63 are the two main freeways used for travel to and from Columbia. Within the city, there are also three state highways: Routes 763 (Rangeline St & College Ave), 163 (Providence Rd), and 740 (Stadium Blvd).

Rail service is provided by the city-owned Columbia Terminal (COLT) Railroad, which runs from the north side of Columbia to Centralia and a connection to the Norfolk Southern Railway.

Health systems

The University of Missouri Hospital is the largest hospital in Columbia.

Health care is a big part of Columbia's economy, with nearly one in six people working in a health-care related profession[79][80] and a physician density that is about three times the United States average.[81][82] Columbia's hospitals and supporting facilities are a large referral center for the state, and medical related trips to the city are common.[83] There are three hospital systems within the city and five hospitals with a total of 1,105 beds.[79][82]

Boone Hospital Center is the second largest hospital in Columbia and is the largest private hospital in Boone County.

The University of Missouri Health Care operates three hospitals in Columbia: the University of Missouri Hospital, the University of Missouri Women's and Children's Hospital (formerly Columbia Regional Hospital), and the Ellis Fischel Cancer Center. Boone Hospital Center is administered by BJC Healthcare and operates several clinics as well as outpatient locations. The Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, located next to University Hospital, is administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

There are also a large number of medical-related industries in Columbia. The University of Missouri School of Medicine uses university-owned facilities as teaching hospitals. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the largest research reactor in the United States and produces radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine.[84] The center serves as the sole supplier of the active ingredients in two U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved radiopharmaceuticals and produces Fluorine-18 used in PET imaging with its cyclotron.[85]

Sister cities

In accordance with the Columbia Sister Cities Program, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International, Columbia has been paired with five international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:[86]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Columbia kept at downtown from August 1889 to December 1947, Columbia Municipal Airport from January 1948 to October 1969 and at Columbia Regional Airport since November 1969.[27]

References

  1. ^ Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 220-221. 
  2. ^ a b "How CoMO does Halloween". The Maneater. Retrieved 2008. 
  3. ^ "Mayor Brian Treece - City Council". 
  4. ^ "Columbia, Missouri". city-data.com. Retrieved 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "About Columbia". City of Columbia, Missouri. Retrieved 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "City of Columbia, Missouri Demographic Statistics" (PDF). City of Columbia, Missouri. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ a b c d "History of Columbia". Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  10. ^ "Columbia Kudos" (PDF). Columbia Regional Economic Development (REDI). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  11. ^ a b Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 300-310. 
  12. ^ Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 325-327. 
  13. ^ NAACP (1919). Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. NAACP. p. 80. 
  14. ^ "History of the University". University of Missouri System. Retrieved 2008. 
  15. ^ "Welcome to Columbia College". Columbia College. Retrieved 2008. 
  16. ^ "Solar Eclipse 2017: Here's what you need to know". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved 2017. 
  17. ^ "About Columbia". MU internal Medicine and Child Health. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  18. ^ "Maps". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  19. ^ "Early Settlement Rural...Ozark Frontier". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008. 
  20. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012. 
  21. ^ "Coyote". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008. 
  22. ^ "Whitetale deer". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008. 
  23. ^ "Eastern Gray Squirrel". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008. 
  24. ^ "Mammals (In Missouri)". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  25. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". planthardiness.ars.usda.gov. Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. 2012. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  26. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved . 
  27. ^ ThreadEx
  28. ^ "Station Name: MO COLUMBIA RGNL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved . 
  29. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for COLUMBIA/REGIONAL ARPT MO 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved . 
  30. ^ "Recent Listings". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008. 
  31. ^ "Discover The District". The District. Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
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