Creative Visualization
Get Creative Visualization essential facts below. View Videos or join the Creative Visualization discussion. Add Creative Visualization to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Creative Visualization

Creative visualization is the cognitive process of purposefully generating visual mental imagery, with eyes open or closed,[1][2] simulating or recreating visual perception,[3][4] in order to maintain, inspect, and transform those images,[5] consequently modifying their associated emotions or feelings,[6][7][8] with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect, such as expediting the healing of wounds to the body,[9] minimizing physical pain,[10] alleviating psychological pain including anxiety, sadness, and low mood,[11] improving self-esteem or self-confidence,[12] and enhancing the capacity to cope when interacting with others.[13][14]

The mind's eye

The notion of a "mind's eye" goes back at least to Cicero's reference to mentis oculi during his discussion of the orator's appropriate use of simile.[15]

In this discussion, Cicero observed that allusions to "the Syrtis of his patrimony" and "the Charybdis of his possessions" involved similes that were "too far-fetched"; and he advised the orator to, instead, just speak of "the rock" and "the gulf" (respectively) -- on the grounds that, "The eyes of the mind are more easily directed to those objects which we have seen, than to those which we have only heard."[16]

The concept of "the mind's eye" first appeared in English in Chaucer's (c.1387) Man of Law's Tale in his Canterbury Tales, where he tells us that one of the three men dwelling in a castle was blind, and could only see with "the eyes of his mind"--namely, those eyes "with which all men see after they have become blind.".[17]

Visual and non-visual mental imagery

The brain is capable of creating other types of mental imagery, in addition to visual images, simulating or recreating perceptual experience across all sensory modalities,[18] including auditory imagery of sounds,[19] gustatory imagery of tastes,[20]olfactory imagery of smells,[21]motor imagery of movements,[22] and haptic imagery of touch, incorporating texture, temperature, and pressure.[23][24]

Notwithstanding the ability to generate mental images across sensory modalities,[25][26] the term "creative visualization" signifies the process by which a person generates and processes visual mental imagery specifically.

However, creative visualization is closely related to, and is often considered as one part of, guided imagery. In guided imagery, a trained practitioner or teacher helps a participant or patient to evoke and generate mental images[27] that simulate or re-create the sensory perception[28] of sights,[29][30] sounds,[31]tastes,[32] smells,[33]movements,[34] and touch,[35] as well as imaginative or mental content that the participating subject experiences as defying conventional sensory categories.[36]

Nonetheless, visual and auditory mental images are reported as being the most frequently experienced by people ordinarily, in controlled experiments, and when participating in guided imagery,[37][38] with visual images remaining the most extensively researched and documented in scientific literature.[39][40][41]

All mental imagery, including the visual images generated through creative visualization, can precipitate or be associated with strong emotions or feelings.[42][43][44]

Therapeutic application

The therapeutic application of creative visualization aims to educate the patient in altering mental imagery, which in turn contributes to emotional change. Specifically, the process facilitates the patient in replacing images that aggravate physical pain, exacerbate psychological pain, reaffirm debilitation, recollect and reconstruct distressing events, or intensify disturbing feelings such as hopelessness and anxiety, with imagery that emphasizes and precipitates physical comfort, cognitive clarity, and emotional equanimity. This process may be facilitated by a practitioner or teacher in person to an individual or a group. Alternatively, the participants or patients may follow guidance provided by a sound recording, video, or audiovisual media comprising spoken instruction that may be accompanied by music or sound.[45]

Whether provided in person, or delivered via media, the verbal instruction consists of words, often pre-scripted, intended to direct the participant's attention to intentionally generated visual mental images that precipitate a positive psychologic and physiologic response, incorporating increased mental and physical relaxation and decreased mental and physical stress.[46]

Stages

According to the computational theory of imagery,[47][48][49] which derives from experimental psychology, the process of creative visualization comprises four stages:[50]

Stage 1 is "Image Generation". This involves generating mental imagery, from memory, from fantasy, or a combination of both.[51]

Stage 2 is "Image Maintenance". This involves the intentional sustaining or maintaining of imagery, without which a mental image is subject to rapid decay, and does not remain for sufficient duration to proceed to the next stages.[52]

Stage 3 is "Image Inspection". In this stage, once generated and maintained, a mental image is inspected and explored, elaborated in detail, and interpreted in relation to the participant.[53] This often involves a scanning process, by which the participant directs attention across and around an image, simulating shifts in perceptual perspective.[54]

Stage 4 is "Image Transformation". In this stage, the participant transforms, modifies, or alters the content of generated mental imagery, in such a way as to substitute images that provoke negative feelings, are indicative of suffering and exacerbate psychological pain, or that reaffirm disability or debilitation, for those that elicit positive emotion, and are suggestive of autonomy, ability to cope, and an increased degree of mental aptitude and physical ability.[55]

Absorption and attention

For the participant to benefit from this staged process of creative visualization, he or she must be capable of or susceptible to absorption, which is an "openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences".[56][57]

Furthermore, the process of processing visual images places demands upon cognitive attentional resources, including working memory.[58][59]

Consequently, in clinical practice, creative visualization is often provided as part of a multi-modal strategy that integrates other interventions, most commonly guided meditation or some form of meditative praxis, relaxation techniques, and meditation music or receptive music therapy, because those methods can increase the participant's or patient's capacity for or susceptibility to absorption, enhance control of attention, and replenish requisite cognitive resources, thereby increasing the potential efficacy of creative visualization.[60][61]

Individuals with ADHD often exhibit a greater creative potential, and an increased ability to produce and visualize unique verbal and nonverbal ideas.[62] However, they also show a weaker ability to generate creative solutions when given restrictive criteria, such as procedure, practicality, and time. This weakness is due to cognitive rigidity,[63] which frequently co-morbid with ADHD. The weaknesses in attention, focus, and motivation are exacerbated by frustration from rigidity, making creative conceptualization substantially harder when guidelines are given.[64] However, increased mind-wandering, lateral thinking, and persistence from ADHD allows for more out of the box thinking. As a result, while affected individuals are able to visualize more creative and original abstractions,[65] they fall short on creating and finalizing ideas when given specific criteria.[66][67]

Guided imagery

Although, visual and auditory mental images are reported as being the most frequently experienced by people[68][69] and even with visual images remaining the most extensively researched and documented in scientific literature,[70][71][72] the term "creative visualization" is far less frequently used in scientific, peer-reviewed, and scholarly publications than the term guided imagery, which research authors commonly use to indicate the generation, maintenance, inspection, and transformation of mental imagery across all modalities, and to refer exclusively and specifically to the processing of visual imagery. Also, some authors use the term "creative visualization" interchangeably with "guided imagery". Meanwhile, others refer to guided imagery in a way to indicate that it includes creative visualization.[73][74][75]

Furthermore, investigative, clinical, scientific, and academic authors frequently measure, analyze, and discuss the effects of creative visualization and guided imagery, collectively and inseparably from other mind-body interventions they are commonly combined with--including meditation music or receptive music therapy, relaxation, guided meditation or meditative praxis, and self-reflective diary-keeping or journaling. This often makes it difficult to attribute positive or negative outcomes to any one of the specific techniques.[76][77][78][79]

Effectiveness

Creative visualization might help people with cancer feel more positive, but there "is no compelling evidence to suggest positive effects on physical symptoms such as nausea and vomiting."[80]

References

  1. ^ Isaac, A. R., and Marks, D. F. (1994). Individual differences in mental imagery experience: Developmental changes and specialization. British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 85, 1994, pp479-500.
  2. ^ McKelvie, S. J. (1995). The VVIQ as a psychometric test of individual differences in visual imagery vividness: A critical quantitative review and plea for direction. Journal of Mental Imagery, Vol. 19, Nos. 3-4,1995, pp1-106.
  3. ^ McAvinue, L. P., and Robertson, I. H., Measuring visual imagery ability: A review. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2007, pp191-211.
  4. ^ Cocude, M., and Denis, M., Measuring the temporal characteristics of visual images. Journal of Mental Imagery, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1988, pp89-101.
  5. ^
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Image and mind. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    • Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres--A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1987, pp148-175.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
    • Marr, D. C., Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. New York: Freeman, 1982.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres--A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1987, pp148-175.
    • Cichy, R. M., Heinzle, J., and Haynes, J. -D., Imagery and perception share cortical representations of content and location. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380.
    • Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and visual mental imagery recruit common control and sensory regions of the brain. Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp14-20.
  6. ^ Lang, P. J., Levin, D. N., Miller, G. A., and Kozak, M. J., Fear behavior, fear imagery, and the psychophysiology of emotion: The problem of affective response integration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 92, No. 3,1983, pp276-306.
  7. ^ Holmes, E. A., Coughtrey, A. E., and Connor, A., Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses? Imagery perspective and positive mood. Emotion, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2008, pp875-879.
  8. ^ Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2010, pp349-362.
  9. ^ Wientjes, K. A., Mind-body techniques in wound healing. Ostomy/wound management, Vol 48, 11, 2002, pp62-67.
  10. ^
    • Baird, C. L., and Sands, L., A pilot study of the effectiveness of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation to reduce chronic pain and mobility difficulties of osteoarthritis. Pain Management Nursing, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2004, pp97-104.
    • Schaffer, S. D., and Yucha, C. B., Relaxation and Pain Management: The relaxation response can play a role in managing chronic and acute pain. American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 104, No. 8, 2004, pp75-82.
    • Syrjala, K. L., Donaldson, G. W., Davis, M. W., Kippes, M. E., and Carr, J. E., Relaxation and imagery and cognitive-behavioral training reduce pain during cancer treatment: a controlled clinical trial. Pain, Vol. 63, No. 2, 1995, pp189-198.
    • Turner, J. A., and Jensen, M. P., Efficacy of cognitive therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain, Vol. 52, No. 2, 1993, pp169-177.
    • Manyande, A., Berg, S., Gettins, D., Stanford, S. C., Mazhero, S., Marks, D. F., and Salmon, P., Preoperative rehearsal of active coping imagery influences subjective and hormonal responses to abdominal surgery. Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1995, pp177-182.
    • Eller, L. S., Guided imagery interventions for symptom management. Annual Review of Nursing Research, Vol.17, No.1, 1999, pp57-84.
  11. ^ Margolin, I., Pierce, J., and Wiley, A. (2011). Wellness Through a Creative Lens: Mediation and Visualization. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 2011, Vol 30, No. 3, pp234-252.
  12. ^ Rees, B. L., An exploratory study of the effectiveness of a relaxation with guided imagery protocol. Journal of Holistic Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1993, pp271-276.
  13. ^ the Hirsch, C. R., Clark, D. M., and Mathews, A., Imagery and interpretations in social phobia: Support for the combined cognitive biases hypothesis. Behavior Therapy, Vol. 37, 2006, No. 3, pp223-236.
  14. ^ Libby, L. K., Valenti, G., Pfent, A., and Eibach, R. P., Seeing failure in your life: Imagery perspective determines whether self-esteem shapes reactions to recalled and imagined failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 101, No. 6, 2011, pp1157- 1173.
  15. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, Liber III: XLI: 163.
  16. ^ J.S. (trans. and ed.), Cicero on Oratory and Orators, Harper & Brothers, (New York), 1875: Book III, C.XLI, p.239.
  17. ^ The Man of Laws Tale, lines 550-553.
  18. ^
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., and Thompson, W. L., Neural foundations of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2001, pp635-642.
    • Pearson, D. G., Mental imagery and creative thought. Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 147, 2007, pp187-212.
  19. ^
    • Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., and Bouffard, M., Mental reversal of imagined melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2010, pp775-789.
    • Arntz, A., Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, Vol. 3, 2012, pp121-126.
    • Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., and Bouffard, M., Mental reversal of imagined melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2010, pp775-789.
    • Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., and Bouffard, M., Mental reversal of imagined melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2010, pp775-789.
  20. ^
    • Tiggemann, M., and Kemps, E., The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp305-313.
    • Tiggemann, M., and Kemps, E., The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp305-313.
  21. ^ Stevenson, R. J., and Case, T. I., Olfactory imagery: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2005, pp244-264.
  22. ^
    • Holmes, P., and Calmels, C., A neuroscientific review of imagery and observation use in sport. Journal of Motor Behavior, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2008, pp433-445.
    • Olsson, C. J., and Nyberg, L., Motor imagery: If you can't do it, you won't think it. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2010, pp711-715.
    • McAvinue, L. P., and Robertson, I. H., Measuring motor imagery ability: A review. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2008, pp232-251.
    • McAvinue, L. P., and Robertson, I. H., Measuring motor imagery ability: A review. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2008, pp232-251.
  23. ^ Miquée, A., Xerri, C., Rainville, C., Anton, J. L., Nazarian, B., Roth, M., and Zennou-Azogui, Y., Neuronal substrates of haptic shape encoding and matching: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience, Vol. 152, No. 1,2008, pp29-39.
  24. ^ Juttner, M., and Rentschler, I., Imagery in multi-modal object learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2002, pp197-198.
  25. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., and Thompson, W. L., Neural foundations of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2001, pp635-642.
  26. ^ Pearson, D. G., Mental imagery and creative thought. Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 147, 2007, pp187-212.
  27. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  28. ^ Kosslyn S. M., Ganis G., and Thompson W. L., Neural foundations of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2001, pp635-642.
  29. ^ McAvinue, L. P., and Robertson, I. H., Measuring visual imagery ability: A review. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2007, pp191-211.
  30. ^ Cocude, M., and Denis, M., Measuring the temporal characteristics of visual images. Journal of Mental Imagery, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1988, pp89-101.
  31. ^ Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., and Bouffard, M., Mental reversal of imagined melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2010, pp775-789.
  32. ^ Tiggemann, M., and Kemps, E., The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp305-313.
  33. ^ Stevenson, R. J., and Case, T. I., Olfactory imagery: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2005, pp244-264.
  34. ^ McAvinue, L. P., and Robertson, I. H., Measuring motor imagery ability: A review. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2008, pp232-251.
  35. ^ Juttner, M., and Rentschler, I., Imagery in multi-modal object learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2002, pp197-198.
  36. ^ Banissy, M. J., Walsh, V., and Ward, J., Enhanced sensory perception in synesthesia. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 196, No. 4, 2009, pp565-571.
  37. ^ Betts, G. H., The distribution and functions of mental imagery. New York: Columbia University, 1909.
  38. ^ Tiggemann, M., and Kemps, E., The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp305-313.
  39. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
  40. ^ Pearson, D. G., De Beni, R., and Cornoldi, C., The generation and transformation of visuo-spatial mental images. In M. Denis, R. H. Logie, C. Cornoldi, M. de Vega, and J. Engelkamp (Eds.), Imagery, language and visuo-spatial thinking. Hove: Psychology Press, 2001, pp1-23.
  41. ^ Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory Hove. UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
  42. ^ Lang, P. J., Levin, D. N., Miller, G. A., and Kozak, M. J., Fear behavior, fear imagery, and the psychophysiology of emotion: The problem of affective response integration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 92, No. 3,1983, pp276-306.
  43. ^ Holmes, E. A., Coughtrey, A. E., and Connor, A., Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses? Imagery perspective and positive mood. Emotion, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2008, pp875-879.
  44. ^ Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2010, pp349-362,
  45. ^
    • Morris, C., The use of self-service technologies in stress management: A pilot project. Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers. Saint Catherine University, St. Paul, MN, 2012.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
    • Naik, M. N. S., Effect of guided imagery on life style among alcoholics. Sinhgad e-Journal of Nursing, Vol. 11, 2013.
    • Morris, C. W., and Morris, C. D., Increasing healthy habits and health behavior change in corporate wellness programs. Corporate Wellness Programs: Linking Employee and Organizational Health, Vol. 215, 2014.
    • Meador, K. S., The effect of synectics training on gifted and non-gifted kindergarten students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, Vol.18, 1994, pp55-73.
    • Meador, K. S., Fishkin, A. S., and Hoover, M., Research-based strategies and programs to facilitate creativity. In Fishkin, A. S., Cramond, B., and Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods, pp389-415. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton,1999.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
  46. ^ Lang P. J., A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, Vo.17, 1979, pp179-192.
  47. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Image and mind. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  48. ^ Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres. A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp148-175.
  49. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1994.
  50. ^
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Image and mind. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    • Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres--A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1987, pp148-175.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
    • Marr, D. C., Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. New York: Freeman, 1982.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres--A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1987, pp148-175.
    • Cichy, R. M., Heinzle, J., and Haynes, J. -D., Imagery and perception share cortical representations of content and location. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380.
    • Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and visual mental imagery recruit common control and sensory regions of the brain. Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp14-20.
  51. ^
    • Pearson, D. G., Mental imagery and creative thought. Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 147, 2007, pp187-212.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1994.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
    • Cornoldi, C., and Rossana, D. B., Memory and imagery: A visual trace is not a mental image. In A. C. Martin, E. G. Susan, and C. Cesare (Eds.), Theories of Memory, pp87-110. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 1998.
    • Gardini, S., Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., and Venneri, A., Cognitive and neuronal processes involved in sequential generation of general and specific mental images. Psychological Research-Psychologische Forschung, Vol. 73, No. 5, 2009, pp633-643.
    • Farah, M. J. (1988). Is visual imagery really visual? Overlooked evidence from neuro- psychology. Psychological Review, Vol. 95, No. 3, 1988, pp307-317.
    • Li, J., Tang, Y. -Y., Zhou, L., Yu, Q. -B., Li, S., and Sui, D. -N., EEG dynamics reflects the partial and holistic effects in mental imagery generation. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science, Vol. 11, No. 12, 2010, pp944-951.
    • Hitch, G. J., Brandimonte, M. A., and Walker, P., Two types of representation in vi- sual memory--Evidence from the effects of stimulus contrast on image combination. Memory and Cognition, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1995, pp147-154.
    • Pearson, D. G. (2007). Mental imagery and creative thought. Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 147, 2007, pp187-212.
    • Pearson, D. G., and Logie, R. H., Effects of stimulus modality and working memory load on mental synthesis performance. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, Vol. 23, Nos. 2-3, 2004, pp183-192.
    • Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., Guisberti, F., and Massironi, M. (1998). Memory and imagery: A visual trace is not a mental image. In M. Conway, S. Gathercole, and C. Cornoldi (Eds.), Theories of memory. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, pp87-110.
  52. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1994.
  53. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., and Thompson, W. L. (2001). Neural foundations of imagery.Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 9, pp635-642.
  54. ^
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press., 1994.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
    • Denis, M., and Kosslyn, S. M., Scanning visual mental images: A window on the mind. Cahiers De Psychologie Cognitive-Current Psychology of Cognition, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999, pp409-465.
    • Baddeley, A. D., Human memory: Theory and practice. Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn and Bacon, 1990.
    • Denis, M., and Carfantan, M., Enhancing people's knowledge about images. In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks, and J. T. E. Richardson (Eds.), Imagery: Current developments, pp197-222. London: Routledge, 1990.
    • Pylyshyn, Z. W., The imagery debate. Analog media versus tacit knowledge. Psychological Review, Vol. 88, No. 1, 1981, pp16-45.
  55. ^
    • Pearson, D. G., De Beni, R., and Cornoldi, C., The generation and transformation of visuo-spatial mental images. In M. Denis, R. H. Logie, C. Cornoldi, M. de Vega, and J. Engelkamp (Eds.), Imagery, language and visuo-spatial thinking, pp1-23. Hove: Psychology Press, 2001.
    • Shepard, R. N., and Cooper, L. A., Mental images and their transformations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.
    • Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
    • Finke, R. A., Pinker, S., and Farah, M. J., Reinterpreting visual patterns in mental imagery. Cognitive Science, Vol. 13, No.1, 1989, pp 51-78.
    • Verstijnen, I. M., van Leeuwen, C., Goldschmidt, G., Hamel, R., and Hennessey, J. M., Creative discovery in imagery and perception: Combining is relatively easy, restructuring takes a sketch. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 99, No. 2, 1998, pp177-200.
    • Verstijnen, I. M., van Leeuwen, C., Goldschmidt, G., Hamel, R., and Hennessey, J. M., Creative discovery in imagery and perception: Combining is relatively easy, restructuring takes a sketch. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 99, No. 2, 1998, pp177-200.
    • Reisberg, D., The nonambiguity of mental images. In C. Cornoldi, R. H. Logie, M. A. Brandimonte, G. Kaufmann, and D. Reisberg (Eds.), Stretching the imagination: Representation and transformation in mental imagery New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
    • Verstijnen, I. M., Hennessy, J. M., van Leeuwen, C., Hamel, R., and Goldschmidt, G., Sketching and creative discovery. Design studies, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1998, pp519- 546.
    • Reisberg, D., and Logie, R. H. (1993). The ins and outs of working memory. In Intons-Peterson, M, Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., Blake, R., and Clayton, K. (Eds.), Imagery, creativity and discovery Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 39-76.
    • Brandimonte, M. A., and Collina, S., Verbal overshadowing in visual imagery is due to recoding interference. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2008, pp612-631.
    • Watkins, M. J., and Schiano, D. J., Chromatic imaging--An effect of mental coloring on recognition memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology-Revue Canadienne De Psychologie, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1982, pp291-299.
    • Reed, S. K., Imagery and Discovery. In Roskos-Ewoldsen, B,. Intons- Peterson, M. J., and Anderson, R. (Eds.), Imagery, creativity and discovery: A cognitive perspective Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1993.
  56. ^ Tellegen, A., and Atkinson, G., Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (absorption), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 83, No. 3, 1974, pp268-277.
  57. ^ Tellegen, A., A brief manual for the differential personality questionnaire. Minneapolis: Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 1982.
  58. ^ Bexton, W. H., Heron, W., and Scott, T. H., Effects of decreased variation in the sensory environment. Canadian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1954, pp70-76.
  59. ^ Engelhard, I. M., van den Hout, M. A., and Smeets, M. A. M., Taxing working memory reduces vividness and emotional intensity of images about the Queen's Day tragedy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2011, pp32-37.
  60. ^ Bond, K., Ospina, M. B., Hooton, N., Bialy, L., Dryden, D. M., Buscemi, N., Shannahoff-Khalsa, D., Dusek, J., and Carlson, L. E., 'Defining a complex intervention: The development of demarcation criteria for "meditation"'. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 2009, pp129-137.
  61. ^ Shapiro, D. H. Jnr., 'Overview: Clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other self-control strategies'. In Shapiro, D.H Jnr. and Walsh, R.N. (Eds.) Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. Piscataway, New Jersey: Aldine Transaction, 1984, pp5-12.
  62. ^ Peterson DJ, Ryan M, Rimrodt SL, Cutting LE, Denckla MB, Kaufmann WE, Mahone EM. Increased regional fractional anisotropy in highly screened attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Neurol. 2011 Oct; 26(10):1296-302.
  63. ^ Scime, M. and Norvilitis, J. M. (2006), Task performance and response to frustration in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychol. Schs., 43: 377-386. doi:10.1002/pits.20151
  64. ^ Capilla Gonzalez, A.; Etchepareborda MC; Fernandez Gonzalez, S.; Mulas, F.; Campo, P.; Maestu, F.; Lucas Fernandez, A.; Ortiz, T. (1 February 2004). "The neurofunctional foundation of cognitive rigidity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: some preliminary findings". Revista de Neurologia (in Spanish). PMID 15011169. Retrieved 2017.
  65. ^ Palmiero, M; Nori, R; Aloisi, V; Ferrara, M; Piccardi, L (1 December 2015). "Domain-Specificity of Creativity: A Study on the Relationship Between Visual Creativity and Visual Mental Imagery". Frontiers in Psychology. 6: 1870. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01870. PMC 4664616. PMID 26648904.
  66. ^ Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2003). Decreased Latent Inhibition Is Associated with Increased Creative Achievement in High-Functioning Individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 499-606.
  67. ^ Abraham, Anna; Windmann, Sabine; Siefen, Rainer; Daum, Irene; Güntürkün, Oner (2006). "Creative Thinking in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)". Child Neuropsychology. 12: 111-123. doi:10.1080/09297040500320691. ISSN 1744-4136. PMID 16754532. Retrieved 2017.
  68. ^ Betts, G. H., The distribution and functions of mental imagery. New York: Columbia University, 1909.
  69. ^ Tiggemann, M., and Kemps, E., The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp305-313.
  70. ^ Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G., The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2006.
  71. ^ Pearson, D. G., De Beni, R., and Cornoldi, C., The generation and transformation of visuo-spatial mental images. In M. Denis, R. H. Logie, C. Cornoldi, M. de Vega, and J. Engelkamp (Eds.), Imagery, language and visuo-spatial thinking. Hove: Psychology Press, 2001, pp1-23.
  72. ^ Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory Hove. UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
  73. ^ Compare for example the results returned by Google Scholar for publications containing 'Creative Visualization' in the title: Creative Visualization with those containing 'Guided Imagery' Guided Imagery.
  74. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind-body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131-147.
  75. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015
  76. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind-body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131-147.
  77. ^ Post-White J. 2002. Clinical indication for use of imagery in oncology practice. In Voice Massage, Scripts for Guided Imagery, Edwards D.M (Ed.). Oncology Nursing Society: Pittsburgh, PA.
  78. ^ Wallace KG. 1997. Analysis of recent literature concerning relaxation and imagery interventions for cancer pain. Cancer Nursing 20: 79-87.
  79. ^ Luebert K, Dahme B, Hasenbring M. 2001. The effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing treatment-related symptoms and improving emotional adjustment in acute non-surgical cancer treatment: A meta-analytical review. Psycho-Oncology, Vol. 10: pp490-502.
  80. ^ Roffe L, Schmidt K, Ernst E (2005). "A systematic review of guided imagery as an adjuvant cancer therapy". Psychooncology (Systematic review). 14 (8): 607-17. doi:10.1002/pon.889. PMID 15651053.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Creative_visualization
 



 

Top US Cities

Like2do.com was developed using defaultLogic.com's knowledge management platform. It allows users to manage learning and research. Visit defaultLogic's other partner sites below:
PopFlock.com : Music Genres | Musicians | Musical Instruments | Music Industry