|NOC||Cuban Olympic Committee|
|Competitors||137 (109 men and 28 women) in 14 sports|
|Summer Olympics appearances (overview)|
|Gold||Orlando Martinez||Boxing||Men's bantamweight|
|Gold||Emilio Correa||Boxing||Men's welterweight|
|Gold||Teófilo Stevenson||Boxing||Men's heavyweight|
|Silver||Gilberto Carrillo||Boxing||Men's light-heavyweight|
|Bronze||Silvia Chivás||Athletics||Women's 100 metres|
|Bronze||Silvia Chivás, Marlene Elejarde, Fulgencia Romay, and Carmen Valdés||Athletics||Women's 4×100 metre relay|
|Bronze||José Alvarez, Miguel Calderón, Rafael Cañizares, Pedro Chappé, Juan Carlos Domecq, Ruperto Herrera, Tomás Herrera, Conrado Pérez, Juan Roca, Franklin Standard, Alejandro Urgellés, and Oscar Varona||Basketball||Men's team|
|Bronze||Douglas Rodríguez||Boxing||Men's flyweight|
Men's 100 metres
Men's High Jump
Men's 4 × 100 m Relay
Six cyclists represented Cuba in 1972.
15 fencers, 10 men and 5 women, represented Cuba in 1972.
Eight male shooters represented Cuba in 1972.