D.C. United
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D.C. United
D.C. United
A shield with stylized black eagle facing right with three red stars and two red strips across its chest, and the words "D.C. UNITED above."
Full name D.C. United
Nickname(s) Black-and-Red[1][2][3]
Founded 1996
Stadium Audi Field
Washington, D.C.
Ground Capacity 20,000
President Tom Hunt
Head Coach Ben Olsen
League Major League Soccer
2017 Eastern Conference: 11th
Overall: 21st
Playoffs: Did not qualify
Website Club website
Current season

D.C. United is an American professional soccer club based in Washington, D.C. The club competes as a member of the Eastern Conference in Major League Soccer (MLS), the top level of professional American soccer. The franchise began play in 1996 as one of the ten charter clubs of the league. The club was one of the most successful clubs in the early years of MLS, winning eight of its thirteen titles between 1996 and 1998 under then head coach Bruce Arena. United holds the joint MLS record for most Supporters' Shields, has four MLS Cups, and been crowned U.S. Open Cup champions three times. It is also the first club to win both the MLS Supporters' Shield and MLS Cup consecutively.[4]

On the international stage, D.C. United has competed in both the CONCACAF Champions League and its predecessor, the CONCACAF Champions' Cup. The club won the 1998 CONCACAF Champions' Cup, making them one of only two MLS teams to ever win a CONCACAF tournament.[5] Subsequently, United won the now-defunct Copa Interamericana in 1998 against Vasco da Gama of Brazil.[6] This is the only intercontinental title won by an MLS club.[7]

The team's home field from 1996 to 2017 was the 45,596-seat Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, owned by the District of Columbia. The team plans to move into the new Audi Field, a soccer-specific stadium at Buzzard Point just a few blocks from Nationals Park in summer of 2018,[8] and with capacity of 20,000.[9] The team is owned by the consortium D.C. United Holdings. The team's head coach is former long-time starting midfielder Ben Olsen, who has coached the team since 2010.

Players such as Jaime Moreno, Marco Etcheverry, and Eddie Pope are among the team's most successful stars. D.C. United's fan base includes four supporters' clubs.[10] The club's official nickname is the "Black-and-Red" and home uniforms are black and white with accents of red. The team's name alludes to the "United" appellation commonly found in the names of soccer teams in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.[11]


Prior to the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the United States Soccer Federation fulfilled its promise to FIFA by aiding in the foundation of a new professional league. On June 15, 1994, Major League Soccer selected Washington, D.C. out of twenty-two applicants to host one of the first seven teams, with three more added before the league's launch.[12] The team's name was chosen as a reflection of the names of European clubs, such as Manchester United or Leeds United.

A team celebrates in the center of a soccer field while fans in stand on both sides cheer.
D.C. United won the 2004 Eastern Conference championship in what has been called one of the best games in MLS history.

On April 6, 1996, D.C. United played in the league's inaugural match against the San Jose Clash in Spartan Stadium in San Jose, California.[12] In the league's early years, D.C. was the most successful of all the teams in MLS. In their first year, coach Bruce Arena led the team to the first "double" in modern U.S. soccer history by beating the Los Angeles Galaxy in the first MLS Cup and the Rochester Raging Rhinos of the USL First Division in the 1996 U.S. Open Cup. D.C. repeated its MLS Cup victory in 1997 against the Colorado Rapids, in front of a home crowd at RFK Stadium. The team also experienced early success in CONCACAF competitions, winning both the Champions' Cup and the Interamerican Cup in 1998.[4]

In October 1998, Arena left DC United to coach the U.S. men's national team. Arena's departure marked the beginning of a downturn in the team's fortunes.[13] While the club again won the MLS Cup in 1999 under coach Thomas Rongen, lackluster results in 2000 and 2001 led to Rongen's departure and his replacement by Ray Hudson in 2002. The team did not, however, fare much better under Hudson, and Piotr Nowak replaced him before the start of the 2004 season.[14] The club's first season under Nowak was marred by injuries in the early going, and some players were known to have complained about Nowak's methods.[15] Nevertheless, a strong finish, assisted in large measure by the late-season acquisition of Argentine midfielder Christian Gómez, who helped to propel United into the playoffs as the second seed. There they advanced past the New England Revolution on penalty kicks in what has been called one of the best games in MLS history.[16][17][18][19][20] United then defeated the Kansas City Wizards to win their fourth MLS Cup.[4] United's attendance record at RFK Stadium is 54,282, in a match against the Tampa Bay Mutiny in 2001.[21][22]

On November 18, 2003, MLS made sports history by signing Freddy Adu, a 14-year-old soccer prodigy and on January 16, 2004, he was officially selected by United with the first pick in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft. When Adu entered United's regular-season opener as a second-half substitute on April 3, 2004, he became the youngest player in any professional sport in the United States since 1887.[23] On December 11, 2006, D.C. United traded Adu and goalkeeper Nick Rimando to Real Salt Lake in exchange for a major allocation, goalkeeper Jay Nolly, and future considerations.[24]

In 2005, the club again made MLS history by becoming the first United States-based team to participate in Copa Sudamericana, entering in the Round of sixteen.[25] Since 2006, United has played well against international competition, beating Scottish champions Celtic F.C. and drawing Real Madrid in Seattle. In addition, the 2006 MLS All-Star Team, which included eight United players and was managed by United's manager Piotr Nowak, defeated English champions Chelsea.[14] In 2006 and 2007, United became the first club in league history to win the MLS Supporters' Shield consecutively.

Since winning back-to-back Shields in 2006 and 2007, the club failed to qualify for the MLS Cup Playoffs five years in a row. During this stretch, United's lone major title came in 2008, when they won the U.S. Open Cup. In league play during the 2008 and 2009 campaigns, United faltered at the tail-end of each season, ultimately causing them to miss out on the playoffs. They had a poor 2010 MLS season, winning only six matches, drawing four and losing 20. In 2011, United again failed to qualify for the playoffs in the second to last week of the campaign. In 2012, United returned to the playoffs for the first time in five years, clinching a berth in the second-to-last week of the season.[26]

D.C. United tallied a total of only three wins in the 2013 season, setting a record for fewest wins in league history.[27] Despite the team's poor showing in league play, D.C. United defeated Real Salt Lake in the U.S. Open Cup final.[28] This qualified the team to participate in the 2014-15 CONCACAF Champions League.[28] In 2014, D.C. United executed a historic turnaround by clinching first place in the Eastern Conference, which also earned the team its second consecutive Champions League berth.[29]

Colors and badge

The team's colors and original logo were announced on October 17, 1995, along with those of the other ten original teams during a presentation in New York City.[12] Black and white are D.C. United's primary colors, though the team's nickname is the "Black-and-Red." Red is used to accent the home jersey while white is the main color of the team's road uniform. The three stripes along the shoulder - in white at home and black on the road - do not represent the three jurisdictions of the Washington Metropolitan Area (Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia); rather, they represent the fact that the team's uniforms are made by Adidas. United's shirt sponsor is Reston, Virginia defense company Leidos.[30] In 2011, the team introduced a predominantly red third uniform with black accents to be worn four or more times in the season.[31] The team has also previously used white road uniforms with red stripes; white and red are the colors of the flag of Washington, D.C., and the stripes are also reminiscent of those used on the flag.

The team's original shield was implemented in 1996 consisting of the team's name, D.C. United, above a black bald eagle facing right on a red field, clawing three soccer balls overlaid on three white stars. The three stars and balls were intended to represent the region's three jurisdictions. The bird, associated with the federal government based in Washington, D.C., symbolizes many of the attributes of the team, including speed and power. The logo was redesigned before the 1998 season. This second logo design reoriented the eagle facing left, and removed the three stars below it, whose metaphor was retained by three raised wing feathers. At the center of the eagle is a single gold-colored star and soccer ball, which represents the team's victory in Major League Soccer's inaugural cup in 1996.[32] The logo can also be adorned with four silver stars above it, representing the MLS Cups the team has won.

On December 10, 2015, D.C. United unveiled an updated logo designed by Peter Horridge, featuring a D.C. flag-inspired design across the eagle, an updated wordmark, and more dynamic wings.[33][34]

Uniform evolution

  • Home
  • Road
  • Third/Special


Season Manufacturer Sponsor Ref.
1996-2001 Adidas MasterCard [35]
2002-2004 --
2005-2007 Sierra Mist
2008-2013 Volkswagen [36]
2014-present Leidos [37]

Leidos was announced as the main jersey sponsor on February 24, 2014, for a multi-year agreement,[38] replacing the previous sponsor Volkswagen Group of America. Other sponsors include Adidas, Chipotle Mexican Grill, GEICO, Verizon Wireless, and Papa John's Pizza.[39]


RFK Stadium (1996-2017)

 A large circular stadium with a curving overhang behind a mostly unused parking lot.
RFK Stadium was the first home to D.C. United.

Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium (RFK) was home to D.C. United from the club's founding in 1996 until the end of the 2017 season. The D.C. United Training Complex is located north of the stadium, and is where the Reserve Division team plays.[40]

RFK was built in 1961 as a dual use baseball and American football stadium. Prior to 1996, it periodically hosted soccer matches, including the 1980 Soccer Bowl, the 1993 Supercoppa Italiana, and five matches during the 1994 FIFA World Cup. When the Washington Nationals baseball team shared the field from 2005 to 2007, there were criticisms regarding problems with the playing surface and even the dimensions of the field.[41]

Other stadiums

Several regional university stadiums have been used by the team for Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup matches, including Klöckner Stadium in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1996,[42] and George Mason Stadium in Fairfax, Virginia in 2010.[43] Similarly, the team has also used the Maryland SoccerPlex in Germantown, Maryland for multiple early-round games in U.S. Open Cup and CONCACAF Champions' Cup since it opened in 2001.[44][45][46] Exhibition games,[47] as well as occasional regular season matches,[48] have also been played in nearby FedExField in Landover, Maryland; the latter have generally been played as part of doubleheaders featuring friendlies between national teams or foreign clubs.

Audi Field (2018- )

In July 2006, D.C. United proposed building a new stadium along the Anacostia River near Anacostia Park, but disputes with the city government forced the team to consider other sites.[8][49]

On July 25, 2013, a tentative deal was announced which would see a 20,000-25,000 seat stadium built at Buzzard Point in the District of Columbia costing $300 million.[50][51] It was signed into law on December 30, 2014.[52] Under the July 2013 deal, the District of Columbia was to have obtained a portion of the necessary Buzzard Point property from the developer that owned it, in exchange for cash and a government building. D.C. United would kick the $150 million needed to construct the stadium on the city-owned land, which it would rent for 20 to 35 years.[53] Under the deal as revised by D.C. City Council in December 2014, the city would instead pay fair market value for the developer's land, and use eminent domain if a deal could not be reached.

Mayor Muriel Bowser, Gray's successor, budgeted $106.3 million in fiscal 2016 to acquire the stadium site, add infrastructure, and remove toxic hazards at the site.[54]

D.C. United and the city signed a final construction agreement on June 8.[55] The agreement established the term of the lease at 30 years for a minimal $1 per year. The agreement also contained a clause governing land: If the cost of land acquisition rose above $150 million, D.C. United was required to reimburse the city 50 percent of the excess (although the club's commitment was capped at $10 million). The club was also barred from playing more than an occasional home game away from the Buzzard Point stadium, prohibiting the team from relocating during the term of the lease.[56] Mayor Bowser then submitted the agreement, as well as land purchase agreements and a revised developer agreement, to the City Council for approval; the council approved the land purchase agreements on June 30, 2015.[57]

Under the terms of the June 8 agreement, D.C. United was required to submit a concept design for the stadium to the city by September 1, 2015. The District of Columbia faced a deadline for September 30, 2015, to use eminent domain to acquire the Akridge land, which forces the club to commit to building a stadium before the city finished purchasing land.[58] On September 30, the District of Columbia filed for eminent domain for the Akridge parcel.[59]

In April 2016, D.C. Mayor Muriel E. Bowser led a ceremonial demolition of the existing buildings at the Buzzard Point site.[60]Audi signed a 12-year contract for naming rights on the field.[61]

Club culture

Supporters and mascot

A black and white costumed bald eagle mascot with exaggerated features and an orange beak raising his wings. He wears a black soccer jersey with a white Volkswagen logo and the team's shield on it.
D.C. United's mascot, Talon.
Fans wearing black cheer with several large graphics in a stadium's bleachers.
Supporters display a tifo supporting head coach Ben Olsen (drawn to lampoon Rambo) during a regular season match against FC Dallas

D.C. United has four major supporters groups; La Barra Brava, the Screaming Eagles, La Norte[62] and the District Ultras.[62] Each group has a designated section of the home stadium. La Barra Brava, Spanish for "The Brave Fans", was founded in 1995 by Latino fans in the Washington, D.C. area, mostly Bolivian immigrants in support of original United players Marco Etcheverry and Jaime Moreno. They seek to bring a South American style to home games.[63] All four clubs host public tailgates before home matches, and are known for singing during games.[64] La Norte, which takes its name from its location on the north side of the stadium, is noted for its streamers, large drum, and harassment of the opposition.[65]

D.C. United's mascot is Talon, an anthropomorphic bald eagle.[66]


D.C. United's primary rival is the New York Red Bulls. The two teams compete annually for the Atlantic Cup, a competition instituted by the two clubs. The cup is awarded to the team that gets the most points across the teams' meetings throughout the season. D.C. United also has a burgeoning rivalry with the Philadelphia Union as the two teams represent two cities separated by only 120 miles.[67][68] D.C. United is also unique among MLS teams for its rivalry with the Charleston Battery of the United Soccer Leagues, as they compete every time they face one another for the Coffee Pot Cup, a trophy established by the two sides' supporters.[69]


When the league was founded in 1995, billionaire investor George Soros was the primary financial backer and director of Washington Soccer L.P., the group that owned the operating rights to D.C. United.[70]Kevin Payne, former President of Soccer USA Partners and current CEO of D.C. United, was instrumental in organizing this ownership group. By 1998 the group was looking for new investors, and on February 15, 2001, it agreed to sell the team to Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), founded by Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz, with AEG exercising its option to become the sole investor-operator on January 8, 2002.[12] AEG, who also own Major League Soccer's Los Angeles Galaxy and Houston Dynamo, ran the team until 2007.

In May 2007, United entered into an initial one-year strategic partnership with Brazilian club Atlético Mineiro. The goal of the partnership is to enhance the sporting and commercial success of the respective clubs by sharing expertise and experience as well as creating new opportunities for the clubs in both areas.[71]

On January 8, 2007, the operating rights to D.C. United were sold to D.C. United Holdings, a newly formed group venture that included real estate developer Victor MacFarlane, founder of MacFarlane Partners, and William H.C. Chang, chairman of Westlake International Group. Other investors included D.C. United president Kevin Payne and Blue Devil Development, headed by former Duke basketball players Brian Davis and Christian Laettner.[72] In April 2009, Victor MacFarlane sold his share of the team to his partner William Chang after two stadium proposals had fallen through.[73] In October 2009, Chang also bought out Davis and Laettner to fully control the team.[74] Chang is also one of the primary investors of Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants.[12] In July 2012, Erick Thohir and Jason Levien, minority owners of the Philadelphia 76ers National Basketball Association franchise, joined Chang as partners. Thohir and Levin stated their primary goals are to make United a global brand and build a soccer-specific stadium for the club.[75]


Rights to D.C. United matches not covered by one of MLS' national television partners (ESPN, FS1, and Univision) are held by Sinclair Broadcast Group. The matches are produced by Sinclair's Stadium sports division and air on local cable channel NewsChannel 8. All local matches are also carried on in the Richmond, Virginia market on CW affiliate WUPV (channel 65).[76]Dave Johnson is the play-by-play commentator.[77][78] Two matches in the 2017 season were moved to free TV in Washington, on Sinclair ABC affiliate WJLA-TV (channel 7). No such broadcasts are scheduled for the 2018 season.[79][76]

NBC Sports Washington held television rights from 1996 through 2015, dating back to its time as Home Team Sports and Comcast SportsNet (CSN). In CSN's final three-year deal, which was not completed until five games into the 2013 season, it was to show a minimum of 16 matches per season.[80] The team became frustrated that late-season and playoff matches were often relegated to the network's secondary "CSN+" feed or not televised at all due to scheduling conflicts with the Washington Capitals and Washington Wizards, leading them to seek a new deal for the 2016 season.[78]

The team's first radio partner was WMET (1160 AM), which picked up coverage in 2003. For the 2009 season, games moved to WTOP (1050 AM), but the station did not renew its deal and the team went the next four seasons without English-language radio. Tony Limarzi was the commentator.[81][82]

WACA (1540 AM) broadcast commentary in Spanish from the team's inception through the 2009 season.[83] In 2010, coverage moved to WDCN-LP (87.7 FM) through the end of the 2012 season.[84]

Coverage in both languages returned for the 2014 season, as D.C. United entered into a four-year deal with CBS Radio, including English commentary on WJFK-FM (106.7 FM) or WJFK (1580 AM) and Spanish on WLZL-HD2 (107.9 FM-HD2).[85][86] The contract with CBS Radio expired after the 2017 season, and the team currently does not have any radio coverage.


Current roster

As of February 13, 2018[87]
Bill Hamid was D.C.'s first Academy signing.
No. Position Player Nation
1 Goalkeeper Ousted, DavidDavid Ousted  Denmark
2 Defender Kemp, TaylorTaylor Kemp  United States
3 Defender Odoi-Atsem, ChrisChris Odoi-Atsem  United States
4 Midfielder Canouse, RussellRussell Canouse  United States
5 Midfielder Moreno, JúniorJúnior Moreno  Venezuela
6 Defender Opare, KofiKofi Opare  Ghana
7 Midfielder Arriola, PaulPaul Arriola (DP)  United States
8 Midfielder Segura, UlisesUlises Segura  Costa Rica
10 Midfielder Acosta, LucianoLuciano Acosta  Argentina
11 Forward Mattocks, DarrenDarren Mattocks  Jamaica
13 Defender Brillant, FrédéricFrédéric Brillant  France
14 Midfielder DeLeon, NickNick DeLeon  United States
15 Defender Birnbaum, SteveSteve Birnbaum (Captain)  United States
16 Forward Mullins, PatrickPatrick Mullins  United States
18 Midfielder Stieber, ZoltánZoltán Stieber  Hungary
20 Defender Robinson, JalenJalen Robinson (HGP)  United States
21 Defender Durkin, ChrisChris Durkin (HGP)  United States
22 Midfielder Asad, YamilYamil Asad (on loan from Vélez Sarsfield)  Argentina
23 Midfielder Harkes, IanIan Harkes (HGP)  United States
25 Midfielder Jeffrey, JaredJared Jeffrey  United States
26 Goalkeeper Clark, SteveSteve Clark  United States
27 Forward Miranda, BrunoBruno Miranda  Bolivia
28 Defender Mora, JosephJoseph Mora  Costa Rica
29 Forward Kelly, DaneDane Kelly  Jamaica
48 Goalkeeper Worra, TravisTravis Worra  United States
91 Defender Fisher, OnielOniel Fisher  Jamaica

D.C. United Academy

The D.C. United Academy is the youth and development program for D.C. United. The program consists of four levels: the under-23 and under-20 teams, as well as the Academy (U-18/17 & U-16/15) and Pre-Academy teams (U-14, U-13). While the U-23 team plays in the fourth tier, USL Premier Development League, the U-20 team plays in the Super-20 League, and the Academy and Pre-Academy teams play in the U.S. Soccer Development Academy leagues.

Notable players to have graduated from the D.C United Academy include Bill Hamid, who has been called up by the U.S. national team, and Andy Najar, who has been capped for Honduras.[88][89]

Team management

Ben Olsen took over head coaching duties in August 2010.
Front Office
Chief operating officer Tom Hunt
Chief revenue officer Mike Schoenbrun
Vice president stadium development and operations Troy Scott
General manager Dave Kasper
Coaching staff
Head coach Ben Olsen
Assistant coach Chad Ashton
Assistant coach Nolan Sheldon
Goalkeeping coach Zach Thornton

Last updated: October 1, 2017
Source:D.C. United Official Website

Head coaching history


A table holding seven golden trophies of various sizes. The table is cover by a cloth with the team's shield on it.
D.C. United trophy collection as of 2007.
Competitions Titles Seasons
CONCACAF Champions League[90] 1 1998
Competitions Titles Seasons
MLS Cup[91] 4 1996, 1997, 1999, 2004
Supporters' Shield[91] 4 1997, 1999, 2006, 2007
Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup 3 1996, 2008, 2013
Eastern Conference 5 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2004
Eastern Conference (regular season) 6 1997, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2007, 2014


Friendly Trophies


Player records

Statistics below show the all-time regular-season club leaders. Bold indicates active D.C. United players.

A Hispanic soccer player with shiny brown hair smiles and faces left. He is wearing a red jersey with white and black details and a VW logo.
Jaime Moreno holds most of D.C. United's offensive records.
As of January 4, 2016[93]
Category Record holder Total
Games Bolivia Jaime Moreno 329
Goals Bolivia Jaime Moreno 131
Assists Bolivia Jaime Moreno 102
Penalty-kick goals Bolivia Jaime Moreno 42
Game-winning goals Bolivia Jaime Moreno 26
Hat tricks El Salvador Raúl Díaz Arce
Canada Dwayne De Rosario
United States Chris Pontius
Shutouts United States Bill Hamid 38
Wins United States Bill Hamid 50
  • All-Time regular season record: 264-249-115 (Through 2015 season)

Team MVP

MLS All-Time Best XI

Four players who were with D.C. United during the 1990s were chosen in 2005 as members of the MLS All-Time Best XI:

Hall of Tradition

In 2003, D.C. United introduced the "Hall of Tradition" (formerly "Tradition of Excellence"), an honor bestowed upon players, coaches & front office staff deemed by United to have been crucial to the team's success.[94] People are listed in the order in which they joined the club.

Seven large black shield-shaped banners are hung on a green wall, with white text for the name and number, or role that the individual played.
Banners for the "Hall of Tradition" members are displayed at RFK Stadium.
Name Pos / Role Years Inducted
United States Jeff Agoos DF 1996-00 October 16, 2008
El Salvador Raúl Díaz Arce FW 1996-97; 2000 September 2, 2009
Betty D'Anjolell Executive 1995-98 June 29, 2008
Danilo Noel Dirón Broadcaster 1997-08 September 2, 2009
Bolivia Marco Etcheverry MF 1996-03 October 20, 2007
United States John Harkes MF 1996-98 May 14, 2003
Bolivia Jaime Moreno FW 1996-02
September 14, 2013
United States Ben Olsen MF 1998-09 September 15, 2012
Kevin Payne President/CEO 1994-01
October 2, 2015
United States Eddie Pope DF 1996-02 July 18, 2010
United States Richie Williams MF 1996-00, 2002 October 15, 2011



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