The Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth (Gurmukhi: ; Punjabi pronunciation: [dasam patshah ji da ?aranth]), commonly known as Dasam Granth (Gurmukhi: Punjabi pronunciation: [d?asam ?aranth]), is a religious text containing many of the texts traditionally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is written primarily in Braj Bhasha, with Awadhi, Hindustani, Punjabi and Persian compositions written almost entirely in the Gurmukhi script except for the Fatehnama, Zafar Nama and Hikayat, which are in the Persian alphabet.
Although the compositions of the Dasam Granth are widely accepted to be penned by Guru Gobind Singh there are some that still question the authenticity of the Dasam Granth. There are three major views on the authorship of the Dasam Granth:
In his religious court at Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh had employed 52 poets, who translated several classical texts into Braj Bhasha. Most of the writing compiled at Anandpur Sahib was lost while the Guru's camp was crossing the Sirsa river before the Battle of Chamkaur (1704). There were copiers available at Guru's place who made several copies of writings. Later, Bhai Mani Singh compiled all the available works under the title Dasam Granth.
The traditional scholars claim that all the works in Dasam Granth were composed by the Guru himself, on the basis of Bhai Mani Singh's letter. But the veracity of the letter has been examined by scholars and found to be unreliable. Any one even moderately acquainted with Hindi can tell from the internal evidence of style that Chandi Charitar and Bhagauti ki War are translations by different hands. Some others dispute the claim of the authorship, saying that some of the compositions included in Dasam Granth (such as Charitropakhyan) are "out of tune" with other Sikh scriptures, and must have been composed by other poets. The names of poets Raam, Shyam and Kaal appear repeatedly in the granth. References to Kavi Shyam can be seen in Mahan Kosh of Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, under the entry 'Bawanja Kavi' and also in Kavi Santokh Singh's magnum opus Suraj Prakash Granth.
The following are historical books after the demise of Guru Gobind Singh which mention that the compositions in the present Dasam Granth was written by Guru Gobind Singh:
It contains the Jaap Sahib, the Akal Ustat or praise of the Creator and the Bachittar Natak, which gives an account of the Guru's parentage, his divine mission and the battles in which he had been engaged.
Following this is the Gyan Parbodh, or awakening of knowledge; the Shabad Hazare; quatrains called savaiye (singular savaiya), which are hymns in praise of God and reprobation of idolatry and hypocrisy; the Shastar Nam Mala, a list of offensive and defensive weapons used in the Guru's time with special reference to the attributes of the Creator; the Kabiovach Bainti Chaupai, which will "absolve the suffering, pain or fear of the person, who will even once recite this Bani"; the Zafarnamah, containing the Tenth Guru's epistle to the emperor Aurangzeb; and hikayats, Persian language metrical tales.
These are the compositions included in Dasam Granth:
|No.||Bani Title||Common Name||Description||Page No|
|1||Jaap Sahib||Jaap Sahib||a meditational work.||1|
|2||Akal Ustat||271 devotional verses on the divine.|
|3||Bachittar Natak||Bachitar Natak||autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, including his spiritual lineage.|
|4||Chandi Charitar Ukti Bilas||Chandi Charitar 1||a discussion of the mythological goddess, Chandi. As per internal references, it is based on the Sanskrit scripture Markandeya Purana.|
|5||Chandi Charitar II||Chandi Charitar 2||a discussion of Chandi|
|6||Chandi di Var||Chandi Di Vaar||a discussion of Chandi in Punjabi. Not based on any Purana, but an independent narrative.|
|7||Gyan Prabodh||Gyan Prabodh, Parbodh Chandra Natak||(The Awakening of Knowledge)|
|8||Chaubis Avtar||Vishnu Avtar, Chaubis Avtar||a narrative of 24 incarnations of Vishnu that comprises one-third of the Dasam Granth|
|9||Brahma Avtar||Brahma Avtar||Narrative on the seven incarnations of Brahma|
|10||Rudra Avtar||Rudra Avtar||an epic poem discussing Rudra.|
|11||Sabad Patshahi 10||Shabad Hazare||ten religious hymns criticising ritualistic practices by renunciates such as sannyasins, yogis and vair?g?s as well as idolatry|
|12||33 Swayyee||33 stanzas|
|14||Khalsa Mahima||Khalsa Mahima||two poetic compositions praising the Khalsa|
|15||Ath Sri Shastar Naam Mala Purana Likhyate||Shastarnam Mala||"Garland of the Names of Weapons"|
|16||Sri Charitropakhyan||Charitropakhyan, Triya Charitar||(various character of men and women [details both negative and positive]). Includes Chaupai (Sikhism) (hymn of supplication)|
|17||Chaupai Sahib||Kabyo Bach Benti Chaupai||One of the daily prayer of Sikhs|
|18||Zafarnamah||(epistle of victory, a letter written to Emperor Aurangzeb, includes Hikaaitaan)|
|19||Hikayat||Hikayat||Tales which are part of zafarnama|
Some birs (recensions) also include the following compositions:
The compositions within Dasam Granth play a huge role in Sikh liturgy, which is prescribed by Sikh Rehat Maryada:
The Guru by his time at Damdama Sahib, around 1705, assembled a large set of literature on bramvidiya and other topics much was formed by his 52 poets and some say that these 52 poets also contributed directly to the Dasam Granth.
The earliest surviving full manuscript of the Dasam Granth dates to 1713, although it appears not to have been publicly available. In 1721, Mata Sundari commissioned Bhai Mani Singh with compiling a volume of the Dasam Granth. He completed his manuscript after collecting and sifting through material collected from a number of Sikhs. "Minor textual variation" exist between the early manuscripts.
Giani Gian Singh claims that the full copy of the Dasam Granth was in possession of the Budha Dal, an 18th-century Sikh army, at the Battle of Kup and was lost during the Second Sikh Holocaust (1762) During the 1890s the text was standardized into its current two-volume 1,428 page print version.