Devadasi
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Devadasi

A 1920s photograph of two Devadasis in Tamil Nadu, South India

In parts of southern and eastern India, a devadasi (Sanskrit: ?, lit. 'female servant of dev (the divine)') or jogini was a term used for a young woman who dedicated her life to the worship and service of a Hindu deity or a temple. Devadasis could be as young as 7 years old when they were initiated into this way of life. The initiation or 'Pottukattu' ceremony is similar to Hindu marriage in some aspects and the devadasi was expected to take up the traditional duties performed by a Hindu wife belonging to that time period. In addition to taking care of the temple and performing rituals, these women also learned and practiced classical Indian artistic traditions like Bharatanatya and Odissi dances. They had a high social status as dance and music were an essential part of temple worship.

After becoming devdasis, these young women would spent their time learning religious rites, rituals and dance. They had children from high officials or priests who were also taught their skills of music or dance. Eminent personalities that have hailed from this community are Bharat Ratna M S Subbalakshmi and Padma Vibhushan Ms Balasaraswathi.

During British rule, in the Indian subcontinent, kings who were the patrons of temples and temple arts lost their power. As a result, devadasi were left without their traditional means of support and patronage. During colonial times, reformists worked towards outlawing the devadasi tradition. Colonial views on devadasi are hotly disputed by several groups and organizations in India and by western academics. The British were unable to distinguish the devadasi from the girls who danced in the streets for the reasons other than spiritual devotion to the deity. This caused socio-economic deprivation and perusal of folk arts.[1][2][3][4]

Recently the devdasi system has started to disappear, having been outlawed in all of India in 1988.[5]

Devdasi are also known by various other local terms, such as jogini. Furthermore, the devdasi practice is known as basivi in Karnataka, matangi in Maharashtra and Bhavin and Kalavantin in Goa.[6] It is also known as venkatasani, nailis, muralis and theradiyan. There were Devadasis from iyer communities as they performed Bharatanatiyam.[7] Devadasi are sometimes referred to as a caste; however, some question the accuracy of this usage. "According to the devadsi themselves there exists a devdasi 'way of life' or 'professional ethic' (vritti, murai) but not a devadasi j?ti (sub-caste). Later, the office of devdasi became hereditary but it did not confer the right to work without adequate qualification" (Amrit Srinivasan, 1985). In Europe the term bayadere (from French: bayadère, ascending to Portuguese: balhadeira, literally dancer) was occasionally used.[8]

History

According to rules concerning temple worship (Agamas), dance and music are necessary ingredients of daily puja of deities in temples.

Ancient and medieval period

The definite origin of Devdasi tradition is unknown to history. There appears no mention of such tradition in the ancient works of Buddhist Jatak, Kaultilya and Vatsyayana.[9] Many scholars have noted that the tradition has no basis in scriptures. Altekar states, "the custom of association of dancing girls with temples is unknown to Jataka literature. It is not mentioned by Greek writers, and Arthashastra, which describes in detail the life of Ganik, is silent about it."[9]

The link of dancing girls with temples is said to be developed during the 3rd century AD. The mention of such dancing girls is found in the Meghad?ta of Kalidas, a classical poet and Sanskrit writer of the Gupt Empire in ancient India.[9] Other sources include the works of authors such as Xuanzang, a Chinese traveller, and Kalhana, a Kashmiri historian. An inscription dated to the 11th century suggests that there were 400 Devdasi attached to the temple at Tanjore in South India. Similarly, there were 500 Devdasi at Someshwer shrine of Gujarat.[9] Between the 6th and 13th centuries, Devdasi had a high rank and dignity in society and were exceptionally affluent, who were seen as the protectors of music and dance. During this period, royal patrons provided them with gifts of land, property and jewellery.[9]

Devdasis in South India and the Chola empire (Devar Adigalar)

The Chola empire encouraged the devdasi system, In Tamil they are known as Devar Adigalar, ("Dev" being Sanskrit for "Divine" and "Adigalar" "Servants", i.e. "Servants of the Divine"). Both male and female Devdasi were dedicated to the service of a temple and its Deity. They developed the system of music and dance employed during temple festivals.[10]

Inscriptions reveal that 400 dancers, along with their gurus and orchestras, were maintained by the Brihadeesvarar temple, Thanjavur,[11] with munificent grants, including the daily disbursement of oil, turmeric, betel leaves and nuts.[12]

Nattuvanars were the male accompanists of the devdasi during her performance. They conducted the music orchestra while the devdasi performed her service. Inscriptions reveal that nattuvanars were used to teach the Chola princess Kuntavai a thousand years ago.[12]

As the Chola empire expanded in wealth and size, they built more temples throughout their country. Soon other emperors started imitating the Chola empire and developed the system.[]

Natavalollu

A community of Karnatak living in Andhra Pradesh, the Natavalollu are also known as Nattuvaru, Banajiga Natavollu, Bogam, Bhogam, Bogam Balija or Kalavanthulu.[13]

Balijas at the census, 1901, were:--

Jakkulas, among whom it was, at Tenali in the Krishna district, formerly customary for each family to give up one girl for Devdasi system. Under the influence of social reform, a written agreement was a few years ago entered into to give up the practice.

?dap?pa. Female attendants on the ladies of the families of Zamindars, who, as they are not allowed to marry, lead a life of prostitution. Their sons call themselves Balijas. In some places, e.g., the Krishna and God?vari districts, this class is known as Khasa or Khasavandlu.[14]

Sri Raja Venugopala Krishna Yachendralu Garu, unmarried, but had issue, two illegitimate sons by Saraswathamma, a dasi of the Balija community. He died on 20 June 1920.[15]

Natavalollu /Kalawant A community of Andhra Pradesh, they are also referred to as Devadasi, Bogamvallu, Ganikulu and Sani and are distributed throughout the state. Kalavantulu means one who is engaged in art.[16]

Mahari Devadasi of Odisha

Unlike in other parts of India, in the eastern state of Odisha the devadasis, also known colloquially as Mahari(s)of the Jagannatha temple complex, were never sexually liberal, and have been expected to remain celibate from the time they became devadasis. However, they did have relationships and children, so this practice was obviously not strictly adhered to. It is said that the daughters of the Maharis of the Jagannatha temple took to other professions such as nursing in the mid 20th century, because of the stigma attached to their inherent profession, which does suggest prostitution. Devadasi is a name given to a group of women who danced in the temple premises. The word devadasi or mahari means "those great women who can control natural human impulses, their five senses and can submit themselves completely to God (Vachaspati)." Mahari means Mahan Nari that is, the woman belonging to God. Sri Chaitanayadev had defined devadasis as 'Sebayatas' who served God through dance and music. Pankaj Charan Das, the oldest Guru of Odissi classical dance, who comes from a Mahari family, explains Mahari as Maha Ripu -Ari (one who conquers the five main ripus - enemies).[17]

The Orissa Gazette of 1956 lists nine devadasis and eleven temple musicians. By 1980, only four devadasis were left - Harapriya, Kokilaprabha, Parashmani and Shashimani. By 1998, Only Shashimani and Parashmani were alive. The daily ritualistic dance had stopped long ago. This twosome served in a few of the yearly temple rituals like Nabakalebara, Nanda Utsava and Duara Paka during Bahuda Jatra.[17]

The last of the devadasis, Shashimani, died on 19 March 2015, at the age of 92.[18]

Yellamma cult of Karnataka in South India

In the state of Karnataka in the region of South India the devadasi system was followed for over 10 centuries. Chief among them was the Yellamma cult.[19]

There are many stories about the origin of the Yellamma cult. The most prevalent one says that Renuka was the daughter of a Brahmin, married to sage Jamadagni and was the mother of five sons. She used to bring water from the river Malaprabha for the sage's worship and rituals. One day while she was at the river, she saw a group of youths engaged themselves in water sports and forgot to return home in time which made Jamadagni to suspect her chastity. He ordered his sons one by one to punish their mother but four of them refused on one pretext or the other. The sage cursed them to become eunuchs and got her beheaded by his fifth son, Parashuram. To everybody's astonishment, Renuka's head multiplied by tens and hundreds and moved to different regions. This miracle made her four eunuch sons and others to become her followers, and worship her head.[20]

Colonial era

Reformists and abolitionists

Reformists and abolitionists consider the devadasi a social evil, being prostitutes. The first anti-Nautch and anti-dedication movement was launched in 1882.

The portrayal of the devadasi system as "prostitution" sought to advertise the grotesqueness of the subject population for political ends, while the British colonial authorities officially maintained most brothels in India.[] For those who supported imperialism on the grounds of its "civilizing" function, programs of reform had ideological rewards.

Due to the devadasi being equated to prostitutes, they also became associated with the spreading of venereal disease Syphilis in India. During the British Colonial period, many British soldiers were exposed to venereal disease in the various brothels being operated at that time. As such, devadasis were misunderstood to be responsible for this. In efforts to control the spread of venereal disease, the British Government mandated that all prostitutes register themselves, with devadasis being forced to do this as well, as they were thought to be prostitutes by the British Government.

In addition to obligatory registration, the British Government also established institutions known as Lock Hospitals, where women were brought in order to be treated for venereal diseases. However, many of the women admitted to these hospitals, including many devadasi women, were identified through the registry and then brought to the hospitals against their will, with a number of these women never seen again by their families.[21]

In 2011, Rationalist Debashis, the general secretary of Rationalists' and Humanists' Forum of India, filed complain and got four people, arrested who were involved in making devdasi in Yellamma Temple. Since then devdasi system in Yellamma temple had stopped.[]

Seetavva Jodatti of Belagavi district today helps victims find a foothold in society. At seven, she was a Devadasi. Thirty-six years later, she is a Padma Shri awardee. In 1997 she began a non-governmental organisation called MASS (Mahila Abhivrudhi-Samrakshana Sansthe) in Ghataprabha, Belagavi district to help women like her escape the clutches of the Devadasi system and live a life of dignity. And she can now proudly look back at the last two decades as her efforts during this time have helped bring over 4,800 Devadasis into mainstream society. Her efforts were recognised and Padmashri award given to her in 2018.[22][23][24]

Revivalists

Rukmini Devi Arundale, a theosophist and trained in ballet, sought to reappropriate the devadasi dance traditions and bring them into a context which could be perceived as respectable. She did this by changing the dance repertoire to exclude pieces perceived as erotic in their description of a deity. She also systematized the dance in a way that incorporated the extension and use of space associated with dance traditions such as ballet. The product of this transformation was Bharatnatyam, which she then began to teach professionally at a school she established in Madras called Kalakshetra. Bharatnatyam is commonly propagated as a very ancient dance tradition associated with the Natyasastra. However, in reality, Bharatnatyam as it is performed and known today is a product of Arundale's endeavour to remove the devadasi dance tradition from the perceived immoral context of the devadasi community and bring it into the upper caste performance milieu.[25]

Legislative initiatives

The first legal initiative to outlaw the devadasi system dates back to the 1934 Bombay Devadasi Protection Act. This act pertained to the Bombay province as it existed in the British Raj. The Bombay Devadasi Protection Act made dedication of women illegal, whether consensual or not.

In 1947, the year of independence, the Madras Devadasi (Prevention of Dedication) Act outlawed dedication in the southern Madras Presidency.

The devadasi system was outlawed in all of India in 1988, yet some devadasis still practice illegally.[7]

Devadasi practices

From the late medieval period until 1910, the Pottukattu or tali-tying dedication ceremony, was a widely advertised community event requiring the full cooperation of the local religious authorities. It initiates a young girl into the devadasi profession and is performed in the temple by the priest. In the Brahminical tradition[] marriage is viewed as the only religious initiation (diksha) permissible to women. Thus the dedication is a symbolic "marriage" of the pubescent girl to the temple's deity.

In the sadanku or puberty ceremonies, the devadasi-initiate begins her marriage with an emblem of the god borrowed from the temple as a stand-in 'bridegroom'. From then onward, the devadasi is considered a nitya sumangali: a woman eternally free from the adversity of widowhood.

She would then perform her ritual and artistic duties in the temple. The puberty ceremonies were an occasion not only for temple honor, but also for community feasting and celebration in which the local elites also participated.

Odisha

The Orissa Gazette of 1956 mentions some occasions where the devadasis danced. They had two daily rituals. The Bahara Gaaunis would dance at the Sakaala Dhupa. Lord Jagannatha, after breakfast, would give Darshana to the bhaktas (the devotees). In the Main hall, a devadasi accompanied by musicians and the Rajaguru, the court guru, would dance, standing near the Garuda stambha (pillar). This dance could be watched by the audience. They would perform only pure dance here. The Bhitara Gaunis would sing at the Badashinghara, the main ceremony for ornamenting and dressing the God. Lord Jagannatha, at bedtime, would be first served by male Sebayatas- they would fan Him and decorate Him with flowers. After they would leave, a Bhitara Gaauni would then enter the room, stand near the door (Jaya Vijaya) and sing Gita Govinda songs, and perhaps perform a ritualistic dance. After a while, she would come out and announce that the Lord has gone to sleep and then the guard would close the main gate.

Karnataka

Life after dedication

A devadasi's life after dedication was obviously very different centuries ago. Nowadays

After dedication of a girl to the temple, she has to take bath every day early in the morning and should present herself at the temple during morning worship of Yellamma. She is not allowed to enter the sanctum sanctorum. But she will bow to the deity from outside. Thereafter she sweeps compound of the temple. Every Tuesday and Friday she goes for yoga along with senior jogatis (yoga teachers). During this period she learns innumerable songs in praise of Yellamma and her son Parashurama. If she shows some aptitude to learn playing instruments she will be given training by her elder jogatis. In Yellampura and other villages Devadasis do not dance but this is performed by eunuch companions. The main functions of Devadasis would be singing and playing stringed musical instruments and Jagate. They form a small group and go for joga, from house to house on every Tuesday and Friday (Jogan Shankar, 1990).[]

Social status

Traditionally, no stigma was attached to the devadasi or to her children, and other members of their caste received them on terms of equality. The children of a devadasi were considered legitimate and devadasis themselves were outwardly indistinguishable from married women of their own community.

Furthermore, a devadasi was believed to be immune from widowhood and was called akhanda saubhagyavati ("woman never separated from good fortune"). Since she was wedded to a divine deity, she was supposed to be one of the especially welcome guests at weddings and was regarded as a bearer of good fortune. At weddings, people would receive a string of the tali (wedding lock) prepared by her, threaded with a few beads from her own necklace. The presence of a devadasi on any religious occasion in the house of an upper caste member was regarded as sacred and she was treated with due respect and was presented with gifts.

Contemporary statistical data

India's National Commission for Women, which is mandated to protect and promote the welfare of women, has collected information on the prevalence of devadasis in various states. The government of Odisha has stated that the devadasi system is not prevalent in the state. There is only one Devadasi in Odisha, in a Puri temple. In March, a newspaper report said that the last devadasi, Sashimoni, attached to Jagannath temple had died, bringing the curtain down on the institution.[26]

Similarly the government of Tamil Nadu wrote that this system has been eradicated and there are now no devadasis in the state. Andhra Pradesh has identified 16,624 devadasis within its state and Karnataka has identified 22,941. The government of Maharashtra did not provide the information as sought by the Commission. However, the state government provided statistical data regarding the survey conducted by them to sanction a "Devadasi Maintenance Allowance". A total of 8,793 applications were received and after conducting a survey 6,314 were rejected and 2,479 devadasis were declared eligible for the allowance. At the time of sending the information, 1,432 Devadasis were receiving this allowance.

According to a study by the Joint Women's Programme of the Bangalore for National Commission for Women, girls who have to accept becoming a devadasi, few reasons were provided, which included dumbness, deafness, poverty, and others.[27] The life expectancy of devadasi girls is low compared to the average of the country, it is rare to find devadasis older than fifty.[27]

In popular culture

"The Last Great Devadasi", Bharatanatyam dancer Balasaraswati's story, as told by her son-in-law,[28] appeared in the book Balasaraswati: Her Art & Life.[29]

A dance performance of Balasaraswati was documented by Satyajit Ray in the 1976 film Bala. The film was jointly produced by National Centre for the Performing Arts and Government of Tamil Nadu. The thirty-three-minute documentary features the life and some of the works by Balasaraswati in the form of narration and dance.[30]

In 1984, TS Ranga made a Hindi film, Giddh, based on the theme of exploitation of young girls in the name of the Devadasi tradition with the film's story set in a village on the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka. It starred Smita Patil and Om Puri in the lead roles.[31]

In 1987, another Hindi movie, Mahananda, produced and directed by Mohan Kavia, portrays life of a Devadasi in a coastal village in Maharashtra.[32]

In 1999, a Tamil serial by the name of Krishnadasi was aired in SunTV. It had Gemini Ganesan, a popular movie actor in a prominent role.

In 2002-2003, a Tamil serial titled Rudra Veenai showcased the devadasi system in 1702-1703 to 2003 in Tanjore/Tanjavour district of Tamil Nadu, in a short descriptive way. An important role was held by a devadasi character in the series.

In 2011, the director Beeban Kidron made a documentary about devadasis called "Sex, Death and the Gods" as part of BBC Storyville series in 2011.[33][34]

In 2012 VICE Guide to Travel produced a controversial documentary Prostitutes of God, which has been criticized for its portrayal of devadasi sex workers.[35]

In 2016, a show named Krishnadasi started airing on Colors TV which is based on the lives of devdasis married to lord krishna.

Agnijal (Bengali) was a Bengali period romantic drama (where a king falls in love with a devdasi) that premiered on November 21, 2016 and aired on Star Jalsha. This serial also portrays the life of devdasis.

See also

References

  1. ^ Crooke, W., , Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. X, Eds., James Hastings and Clark Edinburg, Second Impression, 1930.
  2. ^ Iyer, L.A.K, Devadasis in South India: Their Traditional Origin And Development, Man in India, Vol.7, No. 47, 1927.
  3. ^ V.Jayaram. "Hinduism and prostitution". Hinduwebsite.com. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ "Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God: Temple Women in Medieval Tamilnadu - Reviews in History". History.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ Devdasi.(2007). Retrieved 4 July 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ De Souza, Teotonio R. (1994). Goa to Me. Concept Publishing Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-8170225041.
  7. ^ a b "devadasi, at The Skeptic's Dictionary". Skepdic.com. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ Bayadère. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 February 2008 from Oxford English Dictionary.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ruspini, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Glenda Tibe; Corradi, Consuelo, eds. (2018). "Divine shadows:". Women and religion: Contemporary and future challenges in the Global Era (1 ed.). Bristol University Press. pp. 79-92. doi:10.2307/j.ctv301d7f.9. ISBN 9781447336365.
  10. ^ "Temple Run: The Sacred Structures of the Chola Dynasty in Tamil Nadu". Natgeotraveller.in. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "Thanjavur through the ages". Thehindu.com. 15 March 2009. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ Thurston, E. Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume I of VII. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 9781465582362. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ Sastri, A.J. (1922). A family history of Venkatagiri Rajas. Addison Press. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ Singh, K.S.; Anthropological Survey of India (1998). India's Communities. 5. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195633542. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ a b "The Sacred & the Profane -The Conference | Mahari of Odisha". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ Barry, Ellen (23 March 2015). "Sashimani Devi, Last of India's Jagannath Temple Dancers, Dies at 92". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "The Yellamma Cult of India". Kamat.com. Retrieved 2017.
  20. ^ Yellamma Slaves Archived 28 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Soneji, Davesh (2012). Unfinished Gestures: Devadasis, Memory and Modernity in South India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-226-76809-0.
  22. ^ "Urban Legend: Conquering a cult - Seetavva shows it can be done". Deccanchronicle.com. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  23. ^ "ZP honours Padma Shri Jodatti". Thehindu.com. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  24. ^ "Padma awardee Sitavva, Mysuru resident find mention in PM Modi's Mann ki Baat". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018.
  25. ^ Soneji, Davesh (2010). Bharatnatyam: A reader. India: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-808377-1.
  26. ^ "The last devadasi". Forwardpress.in. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  27. ^ a b Anil Chawla. "DEVADASIS - SINNERS OR SINNED AGAINST : An attempt to look at the myth and reality of history and present status of Devadasis" (PDF). Samarthbharat.com. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ "The Last Great Devadasi". Open Magazine. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ "Beatification Of The Erotic". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2018.
  30. ^ Satyajit Ray (20 November 1976). "Bala ( 1976) Satyajit Ray Documentary On T. Balasaraswati". Archive.org. Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ "Giddh - The Vultures". Alternate Movies. Retrieved 2015.
  32. ^ "Mahananda". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "BBC Four - Storyville, Sex, Death and the Gods". BBC. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Sex, Death and the Gods". YouTube. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ Cornwall, Andrea (2016) Save us from Saviours: Disrupting Development Narratives of the Rescue and Uplift of the 'Third World Woman' in Hemer, Oscar and Thomas Tufte (Eds.) (2016) Voice and Matter: Communication, Development and the Cultural Return. Gothenburg: Nordicom.

Further reading

  • Altekar, A.S., The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization, Benaras: Motilal Banarasi Das, 1956.
  • Amrit Srinivasan, "Reform and Revival: The Devadasi and Her Dance", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XX, No. 44, 2 November 1985, pp. 1869-1876.
  • Artal R.O., "Basavis in Peninsular India", Journal of Anthropological Society of Bombay, Vol. IX, No. 2, 1910.
  • Asha Ramesh, Impact of Legislative Prohibition of the Devadasi Practice in Karnataka: A Study, (Carried out under financial assistance from NORAD), May 1993.
  • Banerjee, G.R., Sex Delinquent Women and Their Rehabilitation, Bombay: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1953.
  • Basham, A.L., The Wonder That Was India, New York: Grove Press, 1954.
  • Chakrabothy, K. (2000). Women as Devadasis: Origin and Growth of the Devadasi Profession. Delhi, Deep & Deep Publications.
  • Chakrapani, C, "Jogin System: A Study in Religion and Society", Man in Asia, Vol. IV, No. II, 1991.
  • Cornwall, Andrea (2016) Save us from Saviours: Disrupting Development Narratives of the Rescue and Uplift of the 'Third World Woman' in Hemer, Oscar and Thomas Tufte (Eds.) (2016) Voice and Matter: Communication, Development and the Cultural Return. Gothenburg: Nordicom.
  • Crooke Williams, The Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India, (Third Reprint), Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1968.
  • Crooke, W., "Prostitution", Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. X, Eds., James Hastings and Clark Edinburg, Second Impression, 1930.
  • Desai Neera, Women in India, Bombay: Vora Publishers, 1957.
  • Dubois Abbe J.A and Beachampes H.K., Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928
  • Dumont Louis, Religion, Politics and History in India, The Hague, Mouton and Co., 1970
  • Dumont Louis, Homo Hierarchius: The Caste System and Its Implications, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972.
  • Durrani, K.S., Religion and Society, New Delhi: Uppal, 1983.
  • Fuller Marcus B., The Wrongs of Indian Womanhood, Edinburgh: Oliphant Anderson and Ferrier, 1900.
  • Goswami, Kali Prasad., Devad?s?: dancing damsel, APH Publishing, 2000.
  • Gough Kathleen, "Female Initiation Rites on the Malabar Coast", Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, No. 85, 1952.
  • Gupta Giri Raj, Religion in Modern India, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1983.
  • Heggade Odeyar D., "A Socio-economic strategy for Rehabilitating Devadasis", Social Welfare, Feb-Mar 1983.
  • Iyer, L.A.K, "Devadasis in South India: Their Traditional Origin And Development", Man in India, Vol.7, No. 47, 1927.
  • Jain Devki, Women's Quest for Power, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1980.
  • Jogan Shankar, Devadasi Cult - A Sociological Analysis (Second Revised Edition), New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994.
  • JOINT WOMEN'S PROGRAMME, Regional Centre, Bangalore, An Exploratory Study on Devadasi Rehabilitation Programme Initiated by Karnataka State Women's Development Corporation and SC/ST Corporation, Government of Karnataka in Northern Districts of Karnataka, Report Submitted to National Commission for Women, New Delhi, 2001-02 (year not mentioned in the report).
  • JONAKI (The Glow Worm), Devadasi System: Prostitution with Religious Sanction, Indrani Sinha (Chief Editor), Calcutta, Vol.2 No.1 1998.
  • Jordens, J.T.F., "Hindu Religions and Social Reform in British India", A Cultural History of India, Ed. A.L. Basham, Clarendon Press,
  • Jordan, K. (2003). From Sacred Servant to Profane Prostitute; A history of the changing legal status of the Devadasis in India 1857-1947. Delhi, Manohar. Oxford, 1975.
  • Kadetotad, N.K., Religion and Society among the Harijans of Yellammana Jogatiyaru Hagu Devadasi Paddati (Jogati of Yellamma and Devadasi Custom), Dharwad, Karnatak University Press (Kannada), 1983.
  • Kala Rani, Role Conflict in Working Women, New Delhi: Chetna Publishers, 1976.
  • Karkhanis, G.G., Devadasi: A Burning Problem of Karnataka, Bijapur: Radha Printing Works, 1959.
  • Levine, P. (2000). "Orientalist Sociology and the Creation of Colonial Sexualities." Feminist Review 65(17): Pages: 5-21.
  • Marglin, F.A., Wives of The God-king: Rituals of Devadasi of Puri, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  • Mies, M. (1980). Indian Women and Patriarchy. Delhi, Concept Publishers.
  • Mies, M. (1986). Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labor. London, Zed Books Ltd.
  • Mukherjee, A.B., "Female Participation in India: Patterns & Associations", Tiydschrift: Voor Econ, Geografie, 1972.
  • Ostor Akos, Culture and Power, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1971.
  • Patil, B.R., "The Devadasis", in The Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. XXXV, No. 4, January 1975, pp. 377-89
  • Puekar S.D. and Kamalla Rao, A Study of Prostitution in Bombay, Bombay: Lalwani Publishing House, 1967.
  • Rajaladshmi, Suryanarayana and Mukherjee, "The Basavis in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh", Man in India, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1976.
  • Ranjana, "Daughters Married to Gods and Goddesses", Social Welfare, Feb-Mar 1983, pp. 28-31.
  • Sahoo, B.B, "Revival of the Devadasi system", Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol 58, No 3, 1997.
  • Srinivasan, K., Devadasi (a novel), Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1976.
  • Sujana Mallika & Krishna Reddy, Devadasi System - A Universal Institution, Paper presented in the A.P. History Congress at Warangal, January 1990.
  • Tarachand K.C., Devadasi Custom - Rural Social Structure and Flesh Markets, New Delhi: Reliance Publishing House, 1992.
  • Upadhyaya, B.S., Women in Rig Veda, New Delhi: S. Chand & Co., 1974.
  • Vasant Rajas, Devadasi: Shodh Ani Bodh (Marathi), Pune: Sugawa Prakashan, July 1997.
  • Vijaya Kumar, S & Chakrapani, c 1993, Joginism: A Bane of Indian Women, Almora: Shri Almora Book Depot.
  • Sanyal, Narayan, Sutanuka ekti debdasir nam (in Bengali).
  • Lathamala, Hegge Vandu Payana (in Kannada).

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