Discus Throw
Athletics
Discus throw
Robert Harting (2008).jpg
German 2012 Olympic champion Robert Harting.
Men's records
World  Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (1986)
Olympic  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (2004)
Women's records
World  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (1988)
Olympic  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (1988)

The discus throw (About this sound pronunciation) is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc--called a discus--in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC.[1]

History

Modern copy of the Diskophoros, attributed to Alkamenes

Discus is a routine part of most modern track-and-field meets at all levels and is a sport which is particularly iconic of the Olympic Games. The men's competition has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first Olympic games in 1896. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games and the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.

The discus was re-discovered in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. His work around the discus and the earlier throwing techniques have been published since the 1880.

The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was Franti?ek Janda-Suk from Bohemia (present Czech Republic).[] He invented this technique when studying the position of the famous statue of Discobolus. After only one year of developing the technique he gained the olympic silver in 1900.

The women's competition was added to the Olympic program in the 1928 games, although they had been competing at some national and regional levels previously.

Description

Discus-thrower, tondo of a kylix by the Kleomelos Painter, Louvre Museum

The men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) and diameter of 22 centimetres (8.7 in), the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and diameter of 18 centimetres (7.1 in).

Under IAAF (international) rules, Youth boys (16-17 years) throw the 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus, the Junior men (18-19 years) throw the unique 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb) discus, and the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus.

In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49. The 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus is thrown by ages 50-59, and men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus. Women throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw the 0.75 kilograms (1.7 lb) discus.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used (see in the United States).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres (0.79 in). The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins anticlockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.

The distance from the front edge of the circle to where the discus has landed is measured, and distances are rounded down to the nearest centimetre. The competitor's best throw from the allocated number of throws, typically three to six, is recorded, and the competitor who legally throws the discus the farthest is declared the winner. Ties are broken by determining which thrower has the longer second-best throw.

The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.

Phases

The discus technique can be broken down into phases. The purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and half circles. The speed of delivery is high, and speed is built up during the throw (slow to fast). Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.

Rutger Smith in phases of the discus throw

During the wind up, keep weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind up sets the tone for the entire throw, the rhythm of the throw is very important.

Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[2]

For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, and the athlete 'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel (e.g. Ilke Wylluda[3]) but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common.

The aim is to land in the 'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point. The left foot should land very quickly after the right. Weight should be mostly over the back foot with as much torque as possible in the body - so the right arm is high and far back - this is very hard to achieve. power position

The critical stage is the delivery of the discus, from this 'power position' the hips drive through hard, and will be facing the direction of the throw on delivery. Athletes employ various techniques to control the end-point and recover from the throw, such as fixing feet (to pretty much stop dead[4]), or an active reverse spinning onto the left foot (e.g. Virgilijus Alekna[5]).

Sports scientist Richard Ganslen researched the Aerodynamics of the Discus, reporting the discus will stall at an angle of 29°.[6]

Culture

The discus throw has been the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros. The discus throw also appears repeatedly in ancient Greek mythology, featured as a means of manslaughter in the cases of Hyacinth, Crocus, Phocus, and Acrisius, and as a named event in the funeral games of Patroclus.

Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the EUR10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.

United States

In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.6 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. Under USATF Youth rules, boys throw the 1 kg discus between the ages of 11-14, and transition to the 1.6 kg discus as 15- to 18-year-olds. Girls throw the 1 kg discus as 11- to 18-year-olds.

Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under IAAF, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimetre.

US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable.

Top 25 performers

Gerd Kanter in Osaka
  • Correct as of July 2017.[7][8]

Men

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date Ref
1 74.08 m (243 ft 0 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg 6 June 1986
2 73.88 m (242 ft 4 in)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas 3 August 2000
3 73.38 m (240 ft 8 in)  Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg 4 September 2006
4 71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)  Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 29 May 1983
5 71.84 m (235 ft 8 in)  Piotr Ma?achowski (POL) Hengelo 8 June 2013
6 71.70 m (235 ft 2 in)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely 14 July 2002
7 71.50 m (234 ft 6 in)  Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden 3 May 1997
8 71.32 m (233 ft 11 in)  Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene 4 June 1983
9 71.29 m (233 ft 10 in)  Daniel Ståhl (SWE) Sollentuna 29 June 2017 [9]
10 71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  John Powell (USA) San Jose 9 June 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö 15 November 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose, CA 25 May 1985
13 71.18 m (233 ft 6 in)  Art Burns (USA) San Jose 19 July 1983
14 71.16 m (233 ft 5 in)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) Berlin 9 August 1978
15 71.14 m (233 ft 4 in)  Anthony Washington (USA) Salinas 22 May 1996
16 71.06 m (233 ft 1 in)  Luis Delís (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
17 70.98 m (232 ft 10 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) Helsinki 9 July 1980
18 70.82 m (232 ft 4 in)  Aleksander Tammert (EST) Denton 15 April 2006
19 70.66 m (231 ft 9 in)  Robert Harting (GER) Turnov 22 May 2012
20 70.54 m (231 ft 5 in)  Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS) Krasnodar 7 May 2002
21 70.38 m (230 ft 10 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Lancaster 16 May 1971
22 70.32 m (230 ft 8 in)  Frantz Kruger (RSA) Salon-de-Provence 26 May 2002
23 70.06 m (229 ft 10 in)  Romas Ubartas (LTU) Smalininkai 8 May 1988
24 70.00 m (229 ft 7 in)  Juan Martínez (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
25 69.95 m (229 ft 5 in)  Zoltán K?vágó (HUN) Salon-de-Provence 25 May 2006

Non-Legal Marks

  • Ben Plucknett also threw a world record of 72.34 on 7 July 1981 in Stockholm, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.
  • Rickard Bruch also threw 72.18 on 23 July 1974 at an exhibition meeting in Piteå.
  • John Powell also threw 72.08 on 11 September 1987 in Klagshamn, but the throw was made onto a sloping/downhill sector.
  • Kamy Keshmiri threw 70.84 on 27 May 1992 in Salinas, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.

Women

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 76.80 m (251 ft 11 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 9 July 1988 Neubrandenburg
2 74.56 m (244 ft 7 in)  Zde?ka ?ilhavá (TCH) 26 August 1984 Nitra
74.56 m (244 ft 7 in)  Ilke Wyludda (GDR) 23 July 1989 Neubrandenburg
4 74.08 m (243 ft 0 in)  Diana Sachse (GDR) 20 June 1987 Karl-Marx-Stadt
5 73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)  Daniela Costian (ROU) 30 April 1988 Bucharest
6 73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) 17 August 1984 Prague
7 73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) 8 September 1984 Donetsk
8 73.22 m (240 ft 2 in)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) 19 April 1987 Kazanlak
9 73.10 m (239 ft 9 in)  Gisela Beyer (GDR) 20 July 1984 Berlin
10 72.92 m (239 ft 2 in)  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 20 August 1987 Potsdam
11 72.14 m (236 ft 8 in)  Galina Murashova (URS) 17 August 1984 Prague
12 71.80 m (235 ft 6 in)  Mariya Vergova (BUL) 13 July 1980 Sofia
13 71.68 m (235 ft 2 in)  Xiao Yanling (CHN) 14 March 1992 Beijing
14 71.58 m (234 ft 10 in)  Ellina Zvereva (URS) 12 June 1988 Leningrad
15 71.50 m (234 ft 6 in)  Evelin Jahl (GDR) 10 May 1980 Potsdam
16 71.41 m (234 ft 3 in)  Sandra Perkovi? (CRO) 18 July 2017 Bellinzona [10]
17 71.30 m (233 ft 11 in)  Larisa Korotkevich (RUS) 29 May 1992 Sochi
18 71.22 m (233 ft 7 in)  Ria Stalman (NED) 15 July 1984 Walnut
19 70.88 m (232 ft 6 in)  Hilda Ramos (CUB) 8 May 1992 Havana
20 70.80 m (232 ft 3 in)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS) 18 June 1988 Kharkov
21 70.68 m (231 ft 10 in)  Maritza Martén (CUB) 18 July 1992 Sevilla
22 70.65 m (231 ft 9 in)  Denia Caballero (CUB) 20 June 2015 Bilbao [11]
23 70.50 m (231 ft 3 in)  Faina Melnik (URS) 24 April 1976 Sochi
24 70.34 m (230 ft 9 in)  Silvia Madetzky (GDR) 16 May 1988 Athens
25 70.02 m (229 ft 8 in)  Natalya Sadova (RUS) 23 June 1999 Thessaloniki

Notes

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 72.94m:

Non-Legal Marks

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Robert Garrett (USA)  Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos (GRE)  Sotirios Versis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Rudolf Bauer (HUN)  Franti?ek Janda-Suk (BOH)  Richard Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Ralph Rose (USA)  Nikolaos Georgantas (GRE)
1908 London
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Merritt Giffin (USA)  Bill Horr (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Armas Taipale (FIN)  Richard Byrd (USA)  James Duncan (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Elmer Niklander (FIN)  Armas Taipale (FIN)  Gus Pope (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Vilho Niittymaa (FIN)  Thomas Lieb (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Antero Kivi (FIN)  James Corson (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 John Anderson (USA)  Henri LaBorde (USA)  Paul Winter (FRA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Ken Carpenter (USA)  Gordon Dunn (USA)  Giorgio Oberweger (ITA)
1948 London
details
 Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  Giuseppe Tosi (ITA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Sim Iness (USA)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  James Dillion (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)  Des Koch (USA)
1960 Rome
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Rink Babka (USA)  Dick Cochran (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Ludvík Dan?k (TCH)  Dave Weill (USA)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Lothar Milde (GDR)  Ludvík Dan?k (TCH)
1972 Munich
details
 Ludvík Dan?k (TCH)  Jay Silvester (USA)  Ricky Bruch (SWE)
1976 Montreal
details
 Mac Wilkins (USA)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR)  John Powell (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Viktor Rashchupkin (URS)  Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Rolf Danneberg (FRG)  Mac Wilkins (USA)  John Powell (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Jürgen Schult (GDR)  Romas Ubartas (URS)  Rolf Danneberg (FRG)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Romas Ubartas (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Roberto Moya (CUB)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Lars Riedel (GER)  Frantz Kruger (RSA)
2004 Athens
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Zoltán K?vágó (HUN)  Aleksander Tammert (EST)
2008 Beijing
details
 Gerd Kanter (EST)  Piotr Ma?achowski (POL)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)
2012 London
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Christoph Harting (GER)  Piotr Ma?achowski (POL)  Daniel Jasinski (GER)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Halina Konopacka (POL)  Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Svedberg (SWE)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Osburn (USA)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)
1936 Berlin
details
 Gisela Mauermayer (GER)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)  Paula Mollenhauer (GER)
1948 London
details
 Micheline Ostermeyer (FRA)  Edera Gentile (ITA)  Jacqueline Mazéas (FRA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Yelisaveta Bagriantseva (URS)  Nina Dumbadze (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Olga Fikotová (TCH)  Irina Beglyakova (URS)  Nina Romashkova (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Tamara Press (URS)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Tamara Press (URS)  Ingrid Lotz (EUA)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Lia Manoliu (ROU)  Liesel Westermann (FRG)  Jolán Kleiber-Kontsek (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Faina Melnyk (URS)  Argentina Menis (ROU)  Vasilka Stoeva (BUL)
1976 Montreal
details
 Evelin Schlaak (GDR)  Mariya Vergova (BUL)  Gabriele Hinzmann (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
 Evelin Jahl (GDR)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)  Tatyana Lesovaya (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Ria Stalman (NED)  Leslie Deniz (USA)  Floren?a Cr?ciunescu (ROU)
1988 Seoul
details
 Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Maritza Martén (CUB)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Daniela Costian (AUS)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
 Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  V?ra Pospí?ilová-Cechlová (CZE)[12]
2008 Beijing
details
 Stephanie Brown Trafton (USA)  Yarelys Barrios (CUB)  Olena Antonova (UKR)
2012 London
details
 Sandra Perkovi? (CRO)  Li Yanfeng (CHN)  Yarelys Barrios (CUB)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Sandra Perkovi? (CRO)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)  Denia Caballero (CUB)

World Championships medalists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)  Géjza Valent (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
 Jürgen Schult (GDR)  John Powell (USA)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Erik de Bruin (NED)  Attila Horváth (HUN)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Dmitry Shevchenko (RUS)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
1997 Athens
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Anthony Washington (USA)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Lars Riedel (GER)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Gerd Kanter (EST)  Robert Harting (GER)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Ma?achowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2011 Daegu
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)
2013 Moscow
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Ma?achowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2015 Beijing
details
 Piotr Ma?achowski (POL)  Philip Milanov (BEL)  Robert Urbanek (POL)
2017 London
details
 Andrius Gud?ius (LTU)  Daniel Ståhl (SWE)  Mason Finley (USA)

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Martina Opitz (GDR)  Galina Mura?ova (URS)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)
1987 Rome
details
 Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)  Daniela Costian (AUS)  Min Chunfeng (CHN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)
1997 Athens
details
 Beatrice Faumuina (NZL)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)
1999 Seville
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  V?ra Pospí?ilová-Cechlová (CZE)
2007 Osaka
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2009 Berlin
details
 Dani Samuels (AUS)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2011 Daegu
details
 Li Yanfeng (CHN)  Nadine Müller (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2013 Moscow
details
 Sandra Perkovi? (CRO)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2015 Beijing
details
 Denia Caballero (CUB)  Sandra Perkovi? (CRO)  Nadine Müller (GER)
2017 London
details
 Sandra Perkovi? (CRO)  Dani Stevens (AUS)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)

Season's bests

See also

Notes and references

External links


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Discus_throw