The Doctor of Management (D.M., D.Mgt. or DMan) is a doctoral degree conferred upon an individual, and awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the applied science and practice of professional management. As a doctor within the management academy, this practitioner is part of a group of authorities and leaders in this field of scholarship and practice and is permitted to generate theories, dictate standards, prescribe methods, and scrutinize new and existing concepts or ideas. The ontology, capabilities, and baseline requirements of the D.M. are described below.
The D.M. was introduced at Case Western Reserve in 1995, and several universities have since developed their own programs. In the UK, the Doctor of Management (DMan) was introduced at the University of Hertfordshire in 2000. The D.M. program is an alternative to a PhD in management and is academically equivalent in research and training. In addition to research, it is focused on developing the talents, skills and abilities of organization executives and experienced management professionals. The doctor who holds this degree may practice within this professional academic discipline at universities, public or private research facilities, or as private-practice professional consultants. Primarily, however, the doctor practices applied management research for practical purposes within organizations of all types and sizes (industry, academia, public/private business organizations, multinational corporations, non-profits, government, or military): Compare Doctor of Business Administration.
The D.M. provides a critical ability and power to analyze problems and opportunities, as well as to coordinate and correlate data from a number of allied fields in such fashion as to serve the progress of ideas in those fields. The doctoral candidate must show his or her ability to make an original contribution to the knowledge of their chosen field through the dissertation, and give evidence of the ability to work ethically and independently at this level. This professional doctor's degree represents a mastery of the subject-matter and techniques of a professional field to a stage of competence parallel to that required for the PhD. Although the work for this professional doctor's degree may extend the boundaries of knowledge in the field through this scholar's academic and scientific research, it is primarily directed towards distinguished practical performance for business purposes.
As a practitioner and social scientist, the doctor is a professional practice subject-matter expert who applies both science and industry knowledge in the associated field of practice. This expert is considered a practitioner-scholar (see practitioner-scholar model) due to the ability to interchange methods of practice with theory and research and vice-versa. Some may call this the scholar-practitioner, which in contemporary scholarship, simply means that research may be the heavier focus of the model. McClintock (2003) includes three key points in his definition of this ideal. Scholarly practice is grounded in theory and research. It includes experimental knowledge and is driven by personal values, commitment, and ethical conduct. Scholar practitioners reflect on and assess the impact of their work. Benham (1996) adds a problem-solving approach to scholarly practice. He sees the work of a scholar practitioner as learning about or recognizing problems, examining them closely, and searching for productive solutions. High level management invariably incorporates sociology and psychology, which makes it rooted in social psychology. Managerial psychology is an inherent focus area of practice for many management doctors which is a sub-area of organizational or industrial psychology as well.
To be admitted as a doctoral management student in the U.S., one must hold a management-related master's degree, have sufficient managerial experience, and pass a comprehensive entrance exam or doctoral essay. In the UK (and in many programs in the U.S.), there is a minimum of five years of management or professional consulting experience required. In the UK, an honours degree plus a relevant master's degree is preferred. The student must then complete necessary coursework (typically focused on leadership and strategy, and including training in research methodology), perform independent original research under supervision of a qualified doctoral advisor, and pass the doctoral dissertation or doctoral thesis defense: In some cases, teach examinable courses. The D.M. typically takes from three to six years or more to complete.
The Doctor of Management is a variant of the traditional Ph.D. in Management. Even though the D.M. is a research doctorate (like the Ph.D., especially when the D.M. program requires a full research dissertation) as well as a professional doctorate representing the highest academic qualification in management in the U.S. education system, the D.M. focuses on practice as well as the research theory incorporated in the traditional Ph.D. As such, both the D.M. and Ph.D. programs require students to develop independent original research leading to successful defense of the completed dissertation. Upon conferring the doctoral degree to a candidate, both doctorates enable holders to become faculty members (professors, researchers, etc.) at higher education academic institutions.
In some cases, as in that of Harvard University, the distinction is solely administrative (Harvard Business School is not authorized to issue Ph.Ds; only the Faculty of Arts and Sciences may do so). In most cases, however, the distinction is one of orientation and intended outcomes. The Ph.D. is highly focused on developing theoretical knowledge, while the D.M. further emphasizes applied research leading to the practical application of the theoretical knowledge developed by both the D.M. and the Ph.D. Upon completion, graduates of Ph.D. programs generally migrate to academia, while those of D.M. programs reemerge in industry as executives in leading organizations or private practice (they often teach as part-time professors in undergraduate and graduate programs, and may hold other administrative or doctoral supervisory positions on doctoral dissertation committees).
The British DMan is a professional doctorate with the same academic status as a Ph.D. The U.S. Doctor of Management is also a professional doctorate, and will also soon be added as a Ph.D. research equivalent doctoral degree by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The current list of equivalent doctorates is outdated, and is only current up to year 2008. The NSF has not yet specified a new release date for the update.
Although it can be completed in as little as three years, the D.M. typically takes 4-6 years to complete. The first two years of the program are usually focused on intensive coursework and generally at least one research practicum (near the end of core courses, residencies, and research and writing training). It may be followed by a comprehensive examination at this point if the candidate has successfully reached this stage. Similar to the PhD, the subsequent dissertation completion phase for the D.M. can take an additional two or more years. In some programs where the candidate has a good deal of professional management practical experience, the D.M. can be completed in as little as three years if the candidate has proven capable of taking a full load of credits each term, as well as successful completion of the required dissertation and its defense.
A D.M. degree is a doctorate which can be awarded in many areas of concentrated study. Areas of specialization often include, but are not limited to:
Research with regard to the study of management encompasses a wide range of activities. There are many research methodologies or "tools" one must learn before being able to conduct research. A D.M. program will teach these various methods.
Common research methodologies used in management studies include both quantitative and qualitative approaches such as: Modeling, Econometrics, Experiments, Descriptive and Field Studies, Phenomenology, Case Study, Action Research or Mixed Methods strategies of inquiry.
Consultant or Practitioner - D.M. professionals may provide consulting services to the general public as professional management consultants. They either operate their own practice or provide specialized consultancy within larger consulting firms. Like high level academia, a consulting practice can also provide a great standard of living in terms of income, but also like academia, the consultant must leverage the skills and abilities learned during the doctoral program to gain the most opportunity. This is no different than any other profession where the individual must carve the right career path and have the proper type of plan of action to achieve it. This also goes for industry practitioners who have this credential.
Professor - Becoming a professor of business or management means investing years of study before obtaining the desired degree, but academia offers many benefits, including: attractive salaries, the combination of varied activities in one career, intellectual stimulation as well as professional autonomy. However, following through with a doctorate can be challenging not only because of the academic rigor but also due to the pressure and stress that comes from conducting research and defending a dissertation. Moreover, once a person obtains a doctorate, there is no guarantee that even with an offer from a business school, that the doctor will go on to publish his or her research in a top journal, will be able to teach effectively, or will receive a tenured faculty position.
Still, for those who have the motivation, drive and stamina to be successful in this field, there are many benefits. The life of a business or management professor is markedly different from a corporate career. An academic has more time to explore his or her own interests, pursues research, and rarely has a 'nine to five' type of career. Being a professor is much like being an entrepreneur (in many respects). Success is based on the individual, and faculty are often their own bosses. Beyond being intellectually bright and able to conduct research, professors also need to be able to perform in the classroom. Teaching is a fundamental component of being a professor, though most faculty may only teach around 100 hours per year, the classroom setting can be challenging and often involve debate.
Not everyone can be a professor, but for those who have the skills required, it provides an excellent standard of living, with salaries comparable to the corporate world. Consulting, book publishing, and speaking engagements can also further add to overall compensation. Academic institutions are often less vulnerable than corporations to forces like global economic downturns. Academia offers much in the way of financial stability when working within a sufficiently established institution(s) and other income avenues are integrated.
The degree is offered at the following universities:
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