Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language, probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary. Local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet (both in the early 4th century BC) as well to the Doric eponym Machatas, first attested in Macedonia (early 5th century BC).
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows:
Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and also by its colonies, Tarentum and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Tarentum was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
The Northwest Greek group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two subgroups of West Greek: the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:
- Dative plural of the third declension in - (-ois) (instead of - (-si)): ? ? Akarnanois hippeois for Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
- (en) + accusative (instead of (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
- - (-st) for - (-sth): genestai for genesthai (to become), ? mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
- ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
- Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: , Doric , Attic (to Asclepius)
- Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
This dialect was spoken in Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian.Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p ( for )
The dialect of Elis is considered, after Aeolic Greek, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts (earliest c. 600 BC)
Northwest Greek Koiné
- hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
- chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the second and third centuries BC.
Calydon sanctuary (earliest c. 600-575 BC) - Aetolian League 300-262 BC
A school of thought maintains that the Ancient Macedonian language may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular, although other scholars would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant" item on its own.
Proto-Greek long ? -> Doric ? ~ Attic long open ? (eta) in at least some positions.
- Doric g? m?t?r ~ Attic g? m?t?r "earth mother"
Compensatory lengthening of e and o
In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), e and o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to eta or omega ~ Attic ei and ou (spurious diphthongs).
- Severe Doric -? ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
- -?s ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
- -?n ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)
Contraction of a and e
Contraction: Proto-Greek ae -> Doric ? (eta) ~ Attic ?.
Proto-Greek eo, ea -> some Doric dialects' io, ia.
Proto-Greek short a -> Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.
- Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros "holy", Artemis
Proto-Greek -ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).
- Doric ph?ti ~ Attic ph?si "he says" (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
- legonti ~ legousi "they say" (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
- w?kati ~ eikosi "twenty"
- tri?katioi ~ tri?kosioi "three hundred"
Proto-Greek -ss- between vowels is retained (shortened to -s- in Attic).
- Doric messos ~ Attic mesos "middle"
Initial w (?) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
- Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos "house" (compare Latin v?cus "village")
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
The aorist and future of verbs in -iz?, -az? has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
- Doric ag?nixato ~ Attic ag?nisato "he contended"
Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.
Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".
Ordinal pr?tos ~ Attic-Ionic pr?tos "first".
Demonstrative pronoun t?nos "this" ~ Attic-Ionic (e)keinos
t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
- Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
- ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.
Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
- Doric edon ~ Attic-Ionic edosan
First person plural active -mes ~ Attic-Ionic -men.
Future -se-? ~ Attic -s-?.
- pr?x?tai (pr?k-se-etai) ~ Attic-Ionic pr?xetai
Modal particle ka ~ Attic-Ionic an.
- Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic-Ionic -te.
Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
- ? aigades (Attic aiges) "goats"
- aiges (Attic kymata) "waves"
- ? halia (Attic ekkl?sia) "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia)
- brykainai (Attic ? hiereiai) "priestesses"
- bryketos (Attic ? brygmos, bryk?thmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
- damiorgoi (Attic archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic ? d?miourgos "public worker for the people (d?mos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius ?· "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
- Elôos Hephaestus ?
- karr?n (Attic kreitt?n) "stronger" (Ionic kreiss?n, Cretan kart?n )
- ? koryg?s (Attic k?ryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
- laios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek aristeros) "left".Cretan: ? laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. laipha laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
- ? laia (Attic, Modern Greek ? leia) "prey"
- (?) le(i)? (Attic ethel?) "will"
- oin?tros "vine pole" (: Greek oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
- mogionti (Ionic ? pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic ? mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
- ? myrm?dônes (Attic myrm?kes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
- optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
- paomai (Attic ? ktaomai) "acquire"
- rhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis)
- skana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
- tanthalyzein (Attic ? tremein) "to tremble"
- ? tun? or toun? 'you nominative' (Attic ) dative teein (Attic soi)
- chanaktion (Attic m?ron)(chan goose)
- Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)
- Daulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket) (Hes.daulon fire log)
- droon strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton)
- kester youngman (Attic neanias)
- ? kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
- ? semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhak?, cf. himatia clothes)
- ? ôbea eggs (Attic ôa )
- agela "group of boys in the Cretan ag?g?". Cf. Homeric Greek agel? "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
- adnos holy, pure (Attic hagnos) (Ariadne)
- aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus - . ?
- akaralegs (Attic skelê)
- hamakis once (Attic hapax)
- ? argetos juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
- ? auka power (Attic alkê)
- aphrattias strong
- ? balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
- britu sweet (Attic glyku)
- damioô, Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
- dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
- ? dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
- Welchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
- wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
- ? Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
- ? ibên wine (Dialectal Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ibêna)
- itton one (Attic hen )
- karanô goat
- kosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
- ?, ? kypheron, kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
- lakos rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
- malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
- othrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
- rhyston spear
- seipha darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
- speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
- tagana (Attic tauta) these things
- tiros summer (Homeric, Attic theros)
- tre you, accusative ( Attic se )
- ? abêr storeroom ?, ? ?
- ? abôr dawn (Attic êôs) (Latin aurora)
- ? adda need, deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
- ? addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
- ? aikouda (Attic aischun?) ?. ?
- ? haimatia blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
- aïtas (Attic er?menos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
- akkor tube, bag (Attic askos)
- akchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
- ? ambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
- ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
- apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
- apella (Attic ekkl?sia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
- ? arbylis (Attic aryballos) (Hesychius: ?. ?)
- attasi wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi)
- ? babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
- ? bagaron (Attic ? chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic ? ph?g? 'roast') (Laconian word)
- ? bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic ? baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek ? vafi dyeing)
- ? beikati twenty (Attic eikosi)
- ? bela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios)
- bernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
- beskeros bread (Attic artos)
- bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
- ? bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
- ? bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
- bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
- ? biôr almost, maybe (Attic ? isôs, schedon) wihôr (?)
- blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
- ? boua "group of boys in the Spartan ag?g?"
- (?)? bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
- bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
- bônêma speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
- gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
- ? gaiadas citizens, people (Attic dêmos)
- gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
- ? dabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian ? dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
- ? diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
- eir?n (Attic eph?bos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
- eispn?las (Attic ? erast?s) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale, breathe)
- exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
- ephoroi (Attic archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ephoros "overseer, guardian"
- ? Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
- thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
- ? kapha washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf.skaphê basin, bowl)
- keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
- ? kirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
- ? mesodma, messodoma woman and ? anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
- myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
- pasor passion (Attic pathos)
- por leg, foot (Attic pous)
- pourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf.purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
- ? salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
- ? sika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
- siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- psithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) ?
- ? psilaker first dancer
- ôba (Attic ? k?m?) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
Magna Graecian Doric
- astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
- bannas king basileus, wanax, anax
- beilarmostai cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic ilarchai) (il?, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
- ? dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ?)
- Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian ? ? Zeus Thaulios, Athenian ? Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family ? Thaulonidai
- ? rhaganon easy Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
- skytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trach?los)
- tênês till Tarentine (Attic heôs)
- tryphômata whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata)
- huetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)(huetos rain)
- agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: * , vA [? ] dim. of agros countryside, field)
- aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch. , ? .)
- kibba wallet, bag Aetolian (Attic ? pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic ? kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
- plêtomon Acarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion,palaiotaton very old)
- anchôrixantas having transferred, postponedChaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
- akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
- apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô)
- ? aspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
- ? Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)
- gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin n?sco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
- ? diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
- ? eskichremen lend out (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
- Weidus knowing (Doric ) weidôs) (Elean weizos) (Attic ) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
- kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston) (Dialectical kalon wood from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
- ? lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text . (LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
- ? manu small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
- Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
- pagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
- pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
- Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
- prami do optative (Attic prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
- ? tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
- ? trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)
- ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
- ^ Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric ". American Journal of Philology. 21 (2): 193-196. doi:10.2307/287905.
- ^ Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso internaz. di sciense onomastiche: 241-251.; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
- ^ Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan, eds. The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963.
- ^ Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245-253.
- ^ SEG 49:776
- ^ Mendez Dosuna -Doric dialects, p.452
- ^ Goodwin, William Watson (1874). Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin. Greek questions 9
- ^ IG IX,1² 3:609
- ^ Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale - Reviewed by Stephen Colvin 
- ^ Die Inschriften von Olympia - IvO 1
- ^ IG IX,1² 1:152,a
- ^ IG IX,1² 1:15
- ^ Potter, John (1751). Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece.
- ^ Lamelles Oraculaires 77
- ^ Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4.
- ^ Auroux, Sylvain (2000). Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Bd. 2/1.: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3.
- ^ Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1
- ^ Masson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905-906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
- ^ Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
- ^ Michael Meier-Brügger, Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28, on Google books
- ^ Roisman, Worthington, 2010, "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia", Chapter 5: Johannes Engels, "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95:"This (i.e. Pella curse tablet) has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".
- ^ "...but we may tentatively conclude that Macedonian is a dialect related to North-West Greek.", Olivier Masson, French linguist, "Oxford Classical Dictionary: Macedonian Language", 1996.
- ^ Masson & Dubois 2000, p. 292: "...<<Macedonian Language>> de l'Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1996, p. 906: <<Macedonian may be seen as a Greek dialect, characterized by its marginal position and by local pronunciation (like for etc.)>>."
- ^ Brian Joseph sums up that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic" (B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper) In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."
- ^ Plutarch Greek question 51
- ^ Dionysism and Comedy  by Xavier Riu
- ^ Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache 
- ^ Elis -- Olympia -- bef. c. 500-450 BC IvO 7
- ^ Epeiros -- Dodona -- 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
- ^ The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261  by Herbert William Parke
- ^ Epeiros -- Dodona -- ~340 BC SEG 26.700 - Trans.
- ^ Alexander the Great: A Reader
 by Ian Worthing
- ^ Greek Mythography in the Roman World 
By Alan Cameron (Aspetides)
- ^ (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from Kytheros ~340 BC)
- ^ Pokorny - aspetos
- Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51-83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.