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In Dutch politics the term dualism is used to refer to the separation of powers between the cabinet and parliament. In this respect, the way the Dutch cabinets function is somewhat semi-presidential in its system of government, not parliamentary. Unlike the presidential system, the legislative branch consists of the cabinet together with the parliament and cabinets are formed on basis of a majority in parliament. Unlike the Westminster parliamentary system, cabinet ministers cannot be members of parliament. An important political issue is whether ministers and leaders of governing parliamentary parties should prepare important political decisions. According to the dualistic position, members of parliament of governing parties should function independently of their cabinet. The term monism is used to refer to a stance that important decisions should be prepared by the members of the governing coalition in order to promote political stability.
In the context of the history of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, "dualism" refers to the political doctrine of Austria's and Hungary's co-equality. The phrase "during dualism" (Hungarian: dualizmus alatt) is used in Hungarian historiography as shorthand for "during the dual monarchy."