The ecological model of competition is a reassessment of the nature of competition in the economy. Traditional economics models the economy on the principles of physics (force, equilibrium, inertia, momentum, and linear relationships). This can be seen in the economics lexicon: terms like labour force, market equilibrium, capital flows, and price elasticity. This is probably due to historical coincidence. Classical Newtonian physics was the state of the art in science when Adam Smith was formulating the first principles of economics in the 18th century.
According to the ecological model, it is more appropriate to model the economy on biology (growth, change, death, evolution, survival of the fittest, complex inter-relationships, non-linear relationships). Businesses operate in a complex environment with interlinked sets of determinants. Companies co-evolve: they influence, and are influenced by, competitors, customers, governments, investors, suppliers, unions, distributors, banks, and others. We should look at this business environment as a business ecosystem that both sustains, and threatens the firm. A company that is not well matched to its environment might not survive. Companies that are able to develop a successful business model and turn a core competency into a sustainable competitive advantage will thrive and grow. Very successful firms may come to dominate their industry (referred to as category killers).
Key features include:
- A short 'Primer' at the beginning of each chapter to highlight the main issues and their relevance.
- Key Concepts such as 'institutions', 'economic order', 'coordination costs', competition' and 'public policy' are highlighted and clearly defined.
- International coverage is ensured as the three authors, experienced academic teachers, work in the US, Europe and the Asia Pacific.
Contents: Foreword 1. Introduction: Why Institutions Matter Part I: Foundations 2. Definitions: Economics, Institutions, Order and Policy 3. Human Behaviour 4. Fundamental Values 5. Institutions: Individual Rules 6. Institutional Systems and Social Order Part II: Applications 7. The Institutional Foundations of Capitalism 8. The Dynamics of Competition 9. Economic Organizations 10. Collective Action: Public Policy 11. The International Dimension 12. The Evolution of Institutions 13. Socialism versus Capitalism - System Transformations 14. Economic Freedom and Development Epilogue: Institutional versus Neoclassical Economics Bibliography Index
"What does AI mean for your business? Read this book to find out." -- Hal Varian, Chief Economist, Google
Artificial intelligence does the seemingly impossible, magically bringing machines to life--driving cars, trading stocks, and teaching children. But facing the sea change that AI will bring can be paralyzing. How should companies set strategies, governments design policies, and people plan their lives for a world so different from what we know? In the face of such uncertainty, many analysts either cower in fear or predict an impossibly sunny future.
But in Prediction Machines, three eminent economists recast the rise of AI as a drop in the cost of prediction. With this single, masterful stroke, they lift the curtain on the AI-is-magic hype and show how basic tools from economics provide clarity about the AI revolution and a basis for action by CEOs, managers, policy makers, investors, and entrepreneurs.
When AI is framed as cheap prediction, its extraordinary potential becomes clear:
Penetrating, fun, and always insightful and practical, Prediction Machines follows its inescapable logic to explain how to navigate the changes on the horizon. The impact of AI will be profound, but the economic framework for understanding it is surprisingly simple.
No other economist in recent times has been so closely identified with the Austrian School of economics as Israel M. Kirzner, professor emeritus of economics at New York University. A leader of the generation of Austrian economists after Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek, Kirzner has been recognized as one of the minds behind the revival of entrepreneurship and market process theory in the twentieth century.
Competition, Economic Planning, and the Knowledge Problem expands on the ideas Kirzner first discussed in Competition and Entrepreneurshipâthe role of the entrepreneur and its relation to the determination of prices and the coordination of individualsâ plansâas well as economic planning, the knowledge problem, market-process theory, and the parts played by information, knowledge and advertising. It includes a paper on F. A. Hayekâs theory of market coordination and the Austrian business-cycle theoryâseen now for the first time in its original English.
Over the course of this bookâs nineteen articles and one monograph, Kirzner stresses the fundamental idea that competition is a rivalrous process of entrepreneurial activity in which individuals and firms discover, innovate, and outdo each other. Kirzner discusses why this dynamic view of the market process is so important to understand, particularly in the contexts of economic planning and the workings of competitive markets.
In Kirznerâs view, free market competition has epistemic properties that cannot be replicated in other ways. Indeed, though knowledge is present in all economic interaction, it is also dispersed in the economy such that no individual mind can ever centralize it all. This âknowledge problemâ implies, as Hayek has argued, the impossibility of central planning. Kirznerâs contribution is to show that, ultimately, it is only the free, competitive entrepreneurial process that can overcome this problem through generation of knowledge that enables a relatively efficient, yet perfectible, allocation of scarce resources.
Peter J. Boettke is University Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University and the BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism at the Mercatus Center. His publications include Living Economics, The Handbook of Contemporary Austrian Economics, and The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics. He has been the editor of The Review of Austrian Economics since 1998.
FrÃ©dÃ©ric Sautet is Associate Professor at The Catholic University of America, Tim Busch School of Business and Economics. He is a specialist in Austrian market process theory, and he teaches entrepreneurship studies. He is the author of An Entrepreneurial Theory of the Firm and has published widely on entrepreneurship.
Peter C. Carstensen's expert analysis uses the policy goal of preserving and protecting the competitive process as a guide, and evaluates competition law and policy found around the world for diverse perspectives. He identifies and evaluates controls beyond conventional competition rules and makes recommendations for competition policy, including focus on limiting the emergence of undue buyer power, strict controls limiting the size of legitimate buyer groups, prohibition in most instances of buyer cartels, and strict standards to bar mergers creating buyer power to provide a set of policies that can constrain the risks of undue buyer power.
Competition law scholars, competition law practitioners, staff of competition enforcement agencies, economists interested in competition policy, and agricultural economists interested in market systems will all find this book a strong resource.
The Ethics of Competition is a book of Frank H. Knightâs writings on a common theme: the problem of social control and its various implications. Knight believed in free economic institutions but was also aware that the competitive economic system could be improved. One of the central figures of neoclassical economics in the twentieth century, Knight pursued a lifelong campaign against irrationalities of nationalism, religious fanaticism, and group conflict, while conceding that these were fundamental orientations of human action that might yet frustrate his own work as an economist. While Knight vigorously defended human freedom and the liberal order, he also was sufficiently moved by the shortcomings of liberalism as to condemn it as rife with abuse.
As Richard Boyd writes in the new introduction, The Ethics of Competition is nothing short of visionary. Knight foresaw virtually all of the reductionistic tendencies that have come to plague the discipline he cultivated, neoclassical economic theory. Even more impressively, Knight related these disciplinary proclivities back to themes as grand as the fate of liberal democracy and human nature. Boyd discusses Knightâs belief that the human craving for simple, mechanical explanations inevitably leads to frustration rather than material satisfaction. Chapters in The Ethics of Competition include âEconomic Psychology and the Value Problem,â âThe Limitations of Scientific Method in Economics,â âMarginal Utility Economics,â âFallacies in the Interpretation of Social Cost,â and âEconomic Theory and Nationalism.â This volume will be of essential value to economists, political theorists, philosophers, and sociologists.