Seal of the Executive Office of the President
Flag of the Executive Office of the President
|Formed||July 1, 1939|
|Annual budget||$300-400 million|
|Parent agency||United States federal government|
|Website||Executive Office of the President|
The Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP) is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President. It consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office (the staff working directly for and reporting to the President, including West Wing staff and the President's closest advisers), National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget.
With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to effectively address various fields of the modern day.
In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts that was known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP, which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.
Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency (1869-1877), the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president" (then the title of the president's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were often appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.
After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U.S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, and brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.
Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).
Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.
The core White House staff appointments, and most EOP officials generally, are not required to be confirmed by the U.S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative).
The information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; for subordinate officers, see individual office pages.
|White House Office||White House Chief of Staff||John F. Kelly|
|National Security Council||Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs||John R. Bolton|
|Council of Economic Advisers||Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers||Kevin Hassett|
|Council on Environmental Quality||Managing Director of the Council on Environmental Quality||Vacant|
|Executive Residence Staff and Operations||White House Chief Usher||Timothy Harleth|
|Office of Administration||Director of the Office of Administration||Marcia Lee Kelly|
|Office of Management and Budget||Director of the Office of Management and Budget||Mick Mulvaney|
|Office of National Drug Control Policy||Director of National Drug Control Policy||James W. Carroll (Acting)|
|Office of Science and Technology Policy||Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy||Vacant|
|Office of the United States Trade Representative||United States Trade Representative||Robert Lighthizer|
|Office of the Vice President of the United States||Chief of Staff to The Vice President||Nick Ayers|
The White House Office (including its various offices listed below) is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President (EOP). The various agencies of the EOP are listed above.
|2007||$need cite million|
|2006||$need cite million|
|2005||$need cite million|
|2004||$need cite million|
The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education.