Fan Fiction
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Fan Fiction

Fan fiction or fanfiction (also abbreviated to fan fic, fanfic or fic) is fiction about characters or settings from an original work of fiction, created by fans of that work rather than by its creator. It is a popular form of fan labor, particularly since the advent of the Internet.

Fan fiction is rarely commissioned or authorized by the original work's creator or publisher, and is rarely professionally published. It may or may not infringe on the original author's copyright, depending on the jurisdiction and on such questions as whether or not it qualifies as "fair use" (see Legal issues with fan fiction). Attitudes of authors and copyright owners of original works to fan fiction have ranged from indifference to encouragement to rejection. Copyright owners have occasionally responded with legal action.

Fan fiction is defined by being both related to its subject's canonical fictional universe (often referred to as "canon") and simultaneously existing outside it.[1] Most fan fiction writers assume that their work is read primarily by other fans, and therefore presume that their readers have knowledge of the canon universe (created by a professional writer) in which their works are based.

Earlier meanings of the term

The term "fan fiction" has been attested in print as early as 1939; in this earliest known citation, it is used in a disparaging way to refer to amateurish science fiction (as opposed to "pro fiction").[2] The term also appears in the 1944 Fancyclopedia, an encyclopedia of fandom jargon. It is defined there as "fiction about fans, or sometimes about pros, and occasionally bringing in some famous characters from [science fiction] stories". The book also mentions that the term is "[s]ometimes improperly used to mean fan science fiction, that is, ordinary fantasy published in a fan magazine".[2][3]

History

The Star Trek fanzine Spockanalia contained the first fan fiction in the modern sense of the term.

The modern phenomenon of fan fiction as an expression of fandom and fan interaction was popularized and defined via Star Trek fandom and their fanzines published in the 1960s. The first Star Trek fanzine, Spockanalia (1967), contained some fan fiction; many others followed its example.[4]:1 These fanzines were produced via offset printing and mimeography, and mailed to other fans or sold at science fiction conventions for a small fee to help recoup costs. Unlike other aspects of fandom, women dominated fan fiction authoring; 83% of Star Trek fan fiction authors were female by 1970, and 90% by 1973.[5] One scholar states that fan fiction "fill[s] the need of a mostly female audience for fictional narratives that expand the boundary of the official source products offered on the television and movie screen."[6]

Fan fiction has become more popular and widespread since the advent of the World Wide Web; according to one estimate, fan fiction comprises one third of all content about books on the Web.[7] In addition to traditional fanzines and conventions, Usenet group electronic mailing lists were established for fan fiction as well as fan discussion. Online, searchable fan fiction archives were also established. The online archives were initially non-commercial hand-tended and fandom- or topic-specific. These archives were followed by non-commercial automated databases. In 1998, the not-for-profit site FanFiction.Net came online, which allowed anyone to upload content in any fandom.[8] The ability to self-publish fan fiction at an easily accessible common archive that did not require insider knowledge to join, and the ability to review the stories directly on the site, became popular quite quickly.[9] One popular example of modern fan fiction is E. L. James' Fifty Shades of Grey. This series was originally written as fan fiction for the Twilight series of books and movies and played off the characters of Bella and Edward. In order to not infringe on copyright issues, James changed the character names to Anna and Christian for the purposes of her novels,[10] which is a practice known as 'pulling-to-publish'.[11]Anna Todd's 2013 fan fiction After about the English boy band One Direction secured a book and movie deal with renamed characters in 2014.[12][13]

On May 22, 2013, the online retailer Amazon.com established a new publishing service, Kindle Worlds. This service would enable fan fiction stories of certain licensed media properties to be sold in the Kindle Store with terms including 35% of net sales for works of 10,000 words or more and 20% for short fiction ranging from 5000 to 10,000 words. However, this arrangement includes restrictions on content, copyright violations, poor document formatting and/or using misleading titles.[14]

Japanese d?jinshi

A similar trend in Japan also began appearing around the 1960s and 1970s, where independently published manga and novels, known as d?jinshi, are frequently published by d?jin circles; many of these d?jinshi are based on existing manga, anime, and video game franchises. Manga authors like Shotaro Ishinomori and Fujiko Fujio formed d?jin groups such as Fujio's New Manga Party (?, Shin Manga-t?). At this time, d?jin groups were used by artists to make a professional debut. This changed in the coming decades with d?jin groups forming as school clubs and the like. This culminated in 1975 with the Comiket in Tokyo.

Categories and terms

Genres

In addition to the "regular" list of genres, which for fanfiction are usually determined by the work they're based on, there are a few genres that are closely associated with fanfic. Often, they also overlap. The genres include:

Angst

A story with an angsty mood centered on a character/characters who are brooding, sad, or in anguish.

Crossover

Works featuring characters, items, or setpieces from multiple fandoms.

Fusion

Works blending two settings, and sometimes their casts, into a cohesive whole.

Fluff

A story designed to be happy, and nothing else. Plot is usually less relevant in these types of works, as the main focus is to be cheerful.

Darkfic

Stories which are considerably grimmer and/or more depressing than the original, often in deliberate contrast to the canonical work(s). Not all stories tagged as "dark" count as darkfic.

Fix-fic

A counterpart to darkfic, or perhaps its supergenre, fix-fic refers to stories which rewrite canonical events that the author disliked, often because they were depressing or incomprehensible.

Rebuild fiction

A subtype of fix-fic, wherein aspects of the setting and/or characters are rewritten to be more cohesive. Named for the Rebuild of Evangelion series, which originally qualified, and popularized by Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality.

Rationalist rewrite

Rebuild fiction that heavily features critical thinking skills and deductive reasoning. Also popularized by Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality.

Peggy Sue

A story in which one of the characters is sent back in time, getting a second chance with knowledge of the original plot. Named for the movie Peggy Sue Got Married, in which this happens to the titular character. Groundhog Day is an example of this happening repeatedly. Refers to both the story and the character in this situation. Not related to Mary Sue.

Hurt/comfort

A story in which a character is put through a traumatizing experience in order to be comforted.[15]

Shipping

A variant of romance, focused on exploring a relationship between two or more characters from the original fandom(s). Has several subgenres, including Slash (which focuses on homosexual pairings, usually of the male variety), Femslash/Femmeslash/Yuri (same as Slash, but exclusively female/female), Crossover Shipping, which focuses on a romance between characters from multiple fandoms, and "friendshipping", which focuses on platonic relationships.

Self-insert

A genre of fanfiction in which a version of the author is transported to, or discovers they are inside, the world the fanfiction is based on. Almost always written in the first person. Frequently overlaps with Fix-fic.

Smut

This could refer to a small portion of a story, or its entirety. Smut is sexually explicit or pornographic writing.

Multicross self-insert

Instead of a single fictional universe the inserted author is taken to many in a row, and must usually solve some problem or complete some challenge in each place before moving on. Gaining new powers and occasionally companions from each world is common.

Songfic

Songfic, also known as a song fic or a song-fic, is a genre of fan fiction that features a fictional work interspersed with the lyrics of a relevant song.[16][17] The term is a portmanteau of "song" and "fiction"; as such, one might also see the genre referred to as "songfiction". As many lyrics are under copyright, whether songfics are a violation of that copyright law is a subject of debate. Some fan fiction websites, such as FanFiction.Net, have barred authors from posting songfics with lyrics outside the public domain.[18]

In an essay in Music, Sound, and Silence in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, University of Sydney professor Catherine Driscoll commented that the genre was "one of the least distinguished modes of fan production" and that "within fan fiction excessive attachment to or foregrounding of popular music is itself dismissed as immature and derivative".[19]

WAFF

Short for "Warm And Fuzzy Feelings", referring to fanfic that is bright, cheery, and (generally) peaceful, intended to make the author and/or readers feel better.

Other related terms

Fandom

A fandom is a group of fans of a particular work of fiction (e.g. novel, film, television show or video game). Members of a fandom are typically interested in even minor details of the plot/characters of their fandom and often spend a significant portion of their time and energy involved with their interest, that is why most fan fictions are written by members of a particular fandom(s).

Mary Sue

Also of note is the concept of the "Mary Sue", a term credited as originating in Star Trek fan fiction that has crossed over to the mainstream, at least among editors and writers. In early Trek fan fiction, a common plot was that of a minor member of the USS Enterprise's crew saving the life of Captain Kirk or Mister Spock, often being rewarded with a sexual relationship as a result. The term "Mary Sue", originating in a parody of stories in this wish fulfillment genre, thus tends to refer to an idealized character, often representing the author.[20]

SI

An abbreviation of self-insert, usually referring to either a story in the eponymous genre or to the author avatar within one.

TW

An abbreviation of "trigger warning". Trigger warnings are meant to warn of content in fics that could be harmful or "triggering" to those who have dealt with situations such as abuse. Fan fiction is tagged using various TWs so readers may avoid certain content. Sometimes CW is used instead or in addition, an abbreviation of "content warning".

Canon

Canon is the original story. This means anything related to the original source including the plot, settings, and character developments.[21]

Head canon

A head canon, also known as HC, is an add-on the canon (original story). It may add a certain personality trait to a character that doesn't necessarily change the plot, or a side event that is unimportant to a story.

OTP

An abbreviation of the term "one true pairing". Where the author or reader ships (wishes characters to be together) certain characters from a fandom in a relationship. Examples of OTPs include Phan (a pairing of YouTube stars Daniel Howell and Phil Lester) and Stydia (Lydia and Stiles - characters from MTV's Teen Wolf).

Fangirl/fanboy

A female/male that is a part of one or more fandoms.

Disclaimer

Disclaimers are author's notes typically informing readers about who deserves credit for the original source material,[22] and often containing pseudo-legal language disavowing any intent of copyright infringement or alluding to fair use. Such "disclaimers" are legally ineffective and based on misunderstandings of copyright law, particularly confusion between illegal copyright infringement and unethical plagiarism.[23]

A/N

An abbreviation of "author's note". Author's notes can be written at any point during a fanfiction (in some cases interrupting the flow of the piece by appearing within the body of a fanfiction), but are typically found directly before the beginning of a fanfiction or after it has concluded. A/N's are used to convey direct messages from the author to the reader regarding the piece.[21]

Interactivity in the online era

Reviews can be given by both anonymous and registered users of most sites, and sites are often programmed to notify the author of new feedback, making them a common way for readers and authors online to communicate directly.[24] This system is intended for a type of bond between the reader and the writer, as well as helping the author improve his or her writing skills through constructive criticism, enabling him or her to produce a better work next time.[25] Occasionally, unmoderated review systems are abused to send flames, spam, or trolling messages. As a result, the author of the story can either disable or enable anonymous reviews, depending on his/her preference. Internet fan fiction gives young writers a wider audience for their literary efforts than ever before, resulting in improved literacy.[26]

Legality

Fan fiction is a derivative work under United States copyright law.[27]

Some argue that fan fiction does not fall under fair use.[28] The 2009 ruling by United States District Court judge Deborah A. Batts, permanently prohibiting publication in the United States of a book by Ryan Cassidy, a Swedish writer whose protagonist is a 76-year-old version of Holden Caulfield of The Catcher in the Rye, may be seen as upholding this position regarding publishing fan fiction, as the judge stated, "To the extent Defendants contend that 60 Years and the character of Mr. C direct parodied comment or criticism at Catcher or Holden Caulfield, as opposed to Salinger himself, the Court finds such contentions to be post-hoc rationalizations employed through vague generalizations about the alleged naivety of the original, rather than reasonably perceivable parody."[29]

Others such as the Organization for Transformative Works uphold the legality of non-profit fan fiction under the fair use doctrine, as it is a creative, transformative process.[30]

In 1981, Lucasfilm Ltd. sent out a letter to several fanzine publishers, asserting Lucasfilm's copyright to all Star Wars characters and insisting that no fanzine publish pornography. The letter also alluded to possible legal action that could be taken against fanzines that did not comply.[31]

The Harry Potter Lexicon is one case where the encyclopaedia-like website about everything in the Harry Potter series, moved towards publishing and commercializing the Lexicon as a supplementary and complementary source of information to the series. Rowling and her publishers levied a lawsuit against the website creator, Steven Vander Ark, and the publishing company, RDR Books, for a breach of copyright. While the lawsuit did conclude in Vander Ark's favor, the main issue in contention was the majority of the Lexicon copied a majority of the Series' material and does not transform enough of the material to be held separately from the series itself.[32]

While the HP Lexicon case is an example of Western culture treatment of fan fiction and copyright law, in China, Harry Potter fan fiction is less addressed in legal conflicts but is used as a cultural and educational tool between Western and Chinese cultures. More specifically, while there are a number of "fake" Harry Potter books in China, most of these books are treated as addressing concepts and issues found in Chinese culture. This transformative usage of Harry Potter in fan fiction is mainly from the desire to enhance and express value to Chinese tradition and culture.[33]

Some prominent authors have given their blessings to fan fiction, notably J.K. Rowling. Rowling said she was "flattered" that people wanted to write their own stories based on her fictional characters.[34] Similarly, Stephenie Meyer has put links on her website to fan fiction sites about her characters from the Twilight series.[35] The Fifty Shades trilogy was developed from a Twilight fan fiction originally titled Master of the Universe and published episodically on fan-fiction websites under the pen name "Snowqueen's Icedragon". The piece featured characters named after Stephenie Meyer's characters in Twilight, Edward Cullen and Bella Swan.[36][37]

As an example of changing views on the subject, author Orson Scott Card (best known for the Enders Game series) once stated on his website, "to write fiction using my characters is morally identical to moving into my house without invitation and throwing out my family." He changed his mind completely and since has assisted fan fiction contests, arguing to the Wall Street Journal that "Every piece of fan fiction is an ad for my book. What kind of idiot would I be to want that to disappear?"[38]

However, Anne Rice has consistently and aggressively prevented fan fiction based on any of her fictional characters (mostly those from her famous Interview with the Vampire and its sequels in The Vampire Chronicles). She, along with Anne McCaffrey (whose stance has been changed by her son, Todd McCaffrey, since her death) and Raymond Feist, have asked to have any fiction related to their series removed from FanFiction.Net.[34]George R.R. Martin, who was selected by Time magazine as one of the "2011 Time 100" and is most famous for his epic fantasy series, A Song of Ice and Fire, is also strongly opposed to fan fiction, believing it to be copyright infringement and a bad exercise for aspiring writers.[39][40]Sharon Lee and Steve Miller, creators of the Liaden universe, strongly oppose fan fiction written in their universe, Lee saying that "Nobody else is going to get it right. This may sound rude and elitist, but honestly, it's not easy for us to get it right sometimes, and we've been living with these characters... for a very long time."[41]

See also

References

  1. ^ Schulz, Nancy. "Fan Fiction - Literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008. 
  2. ^ a b Jeff Prucher, ed. (2007). Brave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-19-530567-8. 
  3. ^ "John Bristol" (1944). Fancyclopedia. The Fantasy Foundation. 
  4. ^ Verba, Joan Marie (2003). Boldly Writing: A Trekker Fan & Zine History, 1967-1987 (PDF). Minnetonka MN: FTL Publications. ISBN 0-9653575-4-6. 
  5. ^ Coppa, Francesca (2006). "A Brief History of Media Fandom". In Hellekson, Karen; Busse, Kristina. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 41-59. ISBN 978-0-7864-2640-9. 
  6. ^ Bacon-Smith, Camille (2000). Science Fiction Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 112-113. ISBN 978-0-8122-1530-4. 
  7. ^ Boog, Jason (September 18, 2008). "Brokeback 33 Percent". Mediabistro. Retrieved 2012. 
  8. ^ Buechner, Maryanne Murray (March 4, 2002). "Pop Fiction". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2010 
  9. ^ Bradley, Karen (Winter 2005). "Internet lives: Social context and moral domain in adolescent development". New Directions for Youth Development. 2005 (108): 57-76. doi:10.1002/yd.142. PMID 16570878. 
  10. ^ Marah Eakin (February 12, 2015). "Holy crow! Fifty Shades Of Grey is crazy similar to its Twilight origin story". The A.V. Club. 
  11. ^ Brennan, Joseph; Large, David (2014). "'Let's get a bit of context': Fifty Shades and the phenomenon of 'pulling to publish' in Twilight fan fiction". Media International Australia. 152 (1): 27-39. doi:10.1177/1329878X1415200105. 
  12. ^ "'After' Movie: Paramount Acquires Rights To Wattpad Book By Anna Todd". Deadline Hollywood. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  13. ^ Ford, Rebecca. "'Mom' Writer Susan McMartin to Adapt One Direction-Inspired Fan-Fiction 'After' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2015. 
  14. ^ Pepitone, Julianne (3 May 2013). "Amazon's "Kindle Worlds" lets fan fiction writers sell their stories". CNN Money. Retrieved 2013. 
  15. ^ "A Fanspeak Dictionary". 
  16. ^ Heilman, Elizabeth E. (2008-09-01). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter. Routledge. pp. 320-321. ISBN 9781135891541. 
  17. ^ Lugmayr, Artur; Zotto, Cinzia Dal (2016-07-23). Media Convergence Handbook - Vol. 2: Firms and User Perspectives. Springer. p. 148. ISBN 9783642544873. 
  18. ^ "Guidelines". FanFiction.net. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ Attinello, Paul Gregory; Halfyard, Janet K.; Knights, Vanessa (2010-01-01). Music, Sound and Silence in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 114, 129. ISBN 9780754660415. 
  20. ^ Segall (2008). Fan Fiction Writing: New Work Based on Favorite Fiction. Rosen Pub. p. 26. ISBN 1404213562. 
  21. ^ a b "Common Fandom Terms". May 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  22. ^ Freeman, Morgan. "A Fanspeak Dictionary". Retrieved 2017. 
  23. ^ "Fan Fiction, Plagiarism, and Copyright". 18 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "Fanfiction.Net Review Form". Fanfiction.net. Retrieved 2008. [permanent dead link]
  25. ^ Merlin, Missy (September 13, 2007). "Dr. Merlin's Guide to Fanfiction". Firefox. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008. [unreliable source?]
  26. ^ Tosenberger, Catherine (2008) "Homosexuality at the Online Hogwarts: Harry Potter Slash Fanfiction" Children's Literature 36 pp. 185-207 doi:10.1353/chl.0.0017
  27. ^ Burns, Elizabeth and Webbr, Carlie. "When Harry Met Bella: Fan fiction is all the rage. But is it plagiarism? Or the perfect thing to encourage young writers?" School Library Journal, 8/1/2009 Archived 2009-08-05 at the Wayback Machine..
  28. ^ Chan, Sewell (July 1, 2009). "Chan, Sewell. "Ruling for Salinger, Judge Bans 'Rye' Sequel" ''New York Times'', July 1, 2009". Cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  29. ^ Jenkins, Henry (2003). "Quentin Tarantino's Star Wars?: Digital Cinema, Media Convergence, and Participatory Culture". Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. 
  30. ^ Schwabach, Aaron (2009). "The Harry Potter Lexicon and the World of Fandom: Fan Fiction, Outsider Works and, Copyright". University of Pittsburgh Law Review. 70 (3): 387-434. 
  31. ^ Gupta, Suman (2009). Re-Reading Harry Potter 2nd Ed. Basingstoke (UK); New York (US): Palgrave Macmillan. 
  32. ^ a b Waters, Darren (May 27, 2004). "Rowling backs Potter fan fiction". BBC. Retrieved 2008. 
  33. ^ "Twilight Series Fansites". StephenieMeyer.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  34. ^ GalleyCat. "The Lost History of Fifty Shades of Grey". mediabistro.com. 
  35. ^ "Fifty Shades of Grey: Stephenie Meyer Speaks Out". mtv.com. MTV. 
  36. ^ Romano, Aja (2013-05-07). "Orson Scott Card's long history of homophobia". Salon.com. Retrieved . 
  37. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - George R. R. Martin's Official Website". Georgerrmartin.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved 2011. 
  38. ^ Martin, George R.R. (May 7, 2010). "Someone Is Angry On the Internet". Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  39. ^ Sharon Lee, Writer (2013-10-26). "Lee, Sharon. "The second answer" ''Sharon Lee, Writer'' October 26, 2013". Sharonleewriter.com. Retrieved . 

Further reading

External links



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