Location of the Far East, geographically defined
|Literal meaning||Far East|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Vi?n ?ông|
Malayong Silangan (literal)
IPA: ['dal?nj v?'stok]
The Far East is an alternate geographical term in English (with equivalents in many other languages - see the infobox on the right for examples), that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.
Since the 1960s, East Asia has become the most common term for the region in international mass media outlets. Far East is often deprecated as archaic and Eurocentric, along with the terms "Near East" and "Middle East".
The term Far East came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. For the same reason, Chinese people in the 19th and early 20th centuries called Western countries "Tàix? ()"--i.e. anything further west than the Arab world.
Prior to the colonial era, "Far East" referred to anything further east than the Middle East. In the 16th century, King John III of Portugal called India a "rich and interesting country in the Far East (Extremo Oriente)." The term was popularized during the period of the British Empire as a blanket term for lands to the east of British India.
In pre-World War I European geopolitics, the Near East referred to the relatively nearby lands of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East denoted northwestern South Asia and Central Asia, and the Far East meant countries along the western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean. Many European languages have analogous terms, such as the French (Extrême-Orient), Spanish (Extremo Oriente), Portuguese (Extremo Oriente), German (Ferner Osten), Italian (Estremo Oriente), Polish (Daleki Wschód), Norwegian (Det fjerne Østen) and Dutch (Verre Oosten).
Significantly, the term evokes cultural as well as geographic separation; the Far East is not just geographically distant, but also culturally exotic. It never refers, for instance, to the culturally Western nations of Australia and New Zealand, which lie even farther to the east of Europe than East Asia itself. This combination of cultural and geographic subjectivity was well illustrated in 1939 by Robert Menzies, a Prime Minister of Australia. Reflecting on his country's geopolitical concerns with the onset of war, Menzies commented that:
The problems of the Pacific are different. What Great Britain calls the Far East is to us the Near North."
Far East in its usual sense is comparable to terms such as the Orient, which means East; the Eastern world; or simply the East. Southeast Asia, the Russian Far East, and occasionally the Indian Subcontinent might be included in the Far East to some extent.
Concerning the term, John K. Fairbank and Edwin O. Reischauer, professors of East Asian Studies at Harvard University, wrote (in East Asia: The Great Tradition): "When Europeans traveled far to the east to reach Cathay, Japan and the Indies, they naturally gave those distant regions the general name 'Far East.' Americans who reached China, Japan and Southeast Asia by sail and steam across the Pacific could, with equal logic, have called that area the 'Far West.' For the people who live in that part of the world, however, it is neither 'East' nor 'West' and certainly not 'Far.' A more generally acceptable term for the area is 'East Asia,' which is geographically more precise and does not imply the outdated notion that Europe is the center of the civilized world."
Today, the term remains in the names of some longstanding institutions, including the Far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok, Far Eastern University in Manila, and the Far East University in South Korea. Furthermore, the United Kingdom and United States have historically used Far East for several military units and commands in the region:
|Name of region and
territory, with flag
|Capital||Forms of government||Currency||Official languages|
||1,370,536,875||161.0||Beijing||One-party socialist republic||Yuan (Renminbi)||Chinese (Mandarin)|
|Hong Kong||1,104||6,985,200||6,352.0||Hong Kong||Special administrative region
of the People's Republic of China.
|Hong Kong dollar||Chinese (Cantonese),
|Macau||28.6||520,400||17,310.0||Macau||Special administrative region
of the People's Republic of China
(Japanese as de facto)
|North Korea||120,540||23,301,725||190.0||Pyongyang||Juche unitarian dictatorship
|North Korean won||Korean|
|South Korea||100,032||49,044,790||493.0||Seoul||Presidential republic||South Korean won||Korean|
|Taiwan||36,188||22,911,292||633.12||Taipei||Semi-presidential system||New Taiwan dollar||Chinese (Mandarin)|
|Brunei||5,765||381,371||66.0||Bandar Seri Begawan||Absolute Islamic Sultanate||Brunei dollar||Malay and English|
|Cambodia||181,035||14,241,640||78.0||Phnom Penh||Constitutional monarchy||Riel||Khmer|
|East Timor||15,410||1,115,000||64.0||Dili||Parliamentary republic||U.S. dollar / Centavo coins||Tetum and Portuguese|
|Malaysia||329,847||27,730,000||83.0||Kuala Lumpur||Federal constitutional monarchy,
|Myanmar (Burma)||676,578||55,390,000||75.0||Naypyidaw||Unitary presidential
|Philippine peso (Piso)||Filipino and English|
|Singapore||707.1||4,588,600||6,489.0||Singapore||Parliamentary republic||Singapore dollar||Malay, English,
Chinese (Mandarin), and Tamil
|Vietnam||331,690||86,116,559||253.0||Hanoi||One-party led state,
|Russia||6,215,900||6,692,865||3.0||Moscow||Federal semi-presidential republic||Ruble||Russian and
27 other co-official languages
For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.