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festival marketplace is a realization by James W. Rouse and the Rouse Company in the United States of an idea conceived by Benjamin C. Thompson of Benjamin Thompson and Associates for European-style shopping markets taking hold in the United States in an effort to revitalize downtown areas in major US cities during the late 20th century.
Festival marketplaces were a leading
downtown revitalization strategy in American cities during the 1970s and 1980s. The guiding principles are a mix of local tenants instead of regional or national chain stores, design of shop stalls and common areas to energize the space, and uncomplicated architectural ornament in order to highlight the goods. 
List of festival marketplaces
Aloha Tower Marketplace -- Honolulu, Hawaii
Arizona Center -- Phoenix, Arizona
Bandana Square -- Saint Paul, Minnesota 
Bayside Marketplace -- Miami, Florida
Canalside -- Buffalo, New York
Catfish Town -- Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
Cray Plaza -- Saint Paul, Minnesota
Faneuil Hall -- Boston, Massachusetts
Festival Market -- Lexington, Kentucky
Ghirardelli Square -- San Francisco, California
Harborplace -- Baltimore, Maryland
Jack London Square -- Oakland, California
Jackson Brewery -- New Orleans, Louisiana
Jacksonville Landing -- Jacksonville, Florida
Navy Pier -- Chicago, Illinois
Pier 39 -- San Francisco, California
Portside Festival Marketplace -- Toledo, Ohio 
Riverwalk -- New Orleans, Louisiana Sixth Street Festival Marketplace --
Richmond, Virginia 
South Street Seaport -- New York City, New York
Saint Anthony Main -- Minneapolis, Minnesota 
St. Louis Union Station -- St. Louis, Missouri
Station Square -- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Tower City Center -- Cleveland, Ohio
Underground Atlanta -- Atlanta, Georgia
Union Station -- Indianapolis, Indiana 
Union Station -- Washington, D.C. Water Street Pavilion --
Flint, Michigan 
Waterside -- Norfolk, Virginia West End Marketplace --
Dallas, Texas  Westfield Horton Plaza -- San Diego, California
Maitland, Barry (1990). The New Architecture of the Retail Mall. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 25-26. ISBN 1854548158.
Jossi, Frank (February 2, 2012). "Bandana Square in St. Paul". Finance & Commerce. Minneapolis, MN – via NewsBank.
McRae, Sharon (June 29, 1986). "Catfish Town two years old". The Advocate. Baton Rouge, LA – via NewsBank.
Marx, Paul (2008). . University Press of America. p. 192. Jim Rouse: Capitalist/Idealist ISBN 0761839445.
Mack, Linda (August 20, 2002). " Benjamin Thompson". . Star Tribune "Thompson designed Minneapolis' first festival marketplace , the first part of St. Anthony Main in the early 1980s."
Ledbetter, Erik. "Rethinking Adaptive Reuse, or, How Not to Save a Great Urban Terminal". Railway Preservation News. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08 . Retrieved .
Blueprints Magazine Spring 1988 cover Archived 2007-04-16 at the Wayback Machine.
Brown, Steve (February 8, 2014). "Downtown Dallas' historic West End Marketplace eyed by developers for new hotel". Dallas Morning News . Retrieved .