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French Military Mission to Japan 1872%E2%80%9380
The second French Military Mission to Japan (1872-1880).
The formation of a second military mission to Japan was rather a surprise, as the first French Military Mission had sided with the sh?gunTokugawa Yoshinobu against the ruling government of Emperor Meiji during the Boshin war. Furthermore, France had lost some of its military prestige, due to its defeat during the Franco-Prussian war.
Nevertheless, France still retained some attractiveness for Japan. This was expressed by the Japanese foreign minister Iwakura Tomomi during his visit (the Iwakura mission) to France in 1873:
The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Mikado (Iwakura) said to our representative after our fatal combat against Germany: "We know about the sufferance France had to go through in this war, but it has not changed anything in our opinion on the merits of the French army, which showed great courage in the face of numerically superior troops"
-- Revue des Deux Mondes (March - April 1873). Le Japon depuis l'Abolition du Taïcounat
Reception by the Meiji Emperor of the Second French Military Mission to Japan, 1872.
The mission arrived in Japan in May 1872, headed by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Antoine Marquerie (1824-1894). He was later replaced by Colonel Charles Claude Munier.
The members of the mission were hired with three-year contracts, with monthly salaries from 150 to 400 yen (for comparison, at the time the salary of the Japanese Prime Minister was 500 yen, and a newly graduated school teacher would receive 5 yen monthly).
The task of the mission was to help reorganize the Imperial Japanese Army, and establish the first draft law, enacted in January 1873. The law established military service for all males, for a duration of three years, with an additional four years in the reserve.
The French mission was essentially active at the Ueno Military School for non-commissioned officers. Between 1872 and 1880, various schools and military establishments were set up under the direction of the mission, including:
Ichigaya Military Academy (), built by the second French Military Mission to Japan, on the ground of today's Japan Ministry of Defense (1874 photograph).
Establishment of the Toyama Gakko, the first school to train and educate officers and noncommissioned officers.
A shooting school, using French rifles.
An arsenal for gun and munition manufacture, equipped with French machinery, which employed 2500 workers.
Between 1874 and the end of their term, the mission was in charge of building Japan's coastal defenses.
The mission occurred at the time of a tense internal situation in Japan, with the revolt of Saig? Takamori in the Satsuma rebellion, and contributed significantly to the modernization of Imperial forces before the conflict.
Around that time however, France gained considerable influence over the Imperial Japanese Navy, with the despatch of the engineer Louis-Émile Bertin, who directed the design and construction of Japan's first large-scale modern Navy from 1886.
Some other members of the mission
Colonel Munier, second commander of the Second French Military Mission to Japan. 1874 photograph.
Armand Pierre André Echeman (April 11, 1872 - January 18, 1875). Infantry Captain (military exercises, shooting, physical training, and theory).
Joseph Auguste Cros (April 11, 1872 - February 29, 1876) Infantry Sublieutenant (military exercises, shooting, physical training and theory).
François Joseph Ducros (May 26, - April 10, 1877) Infantry Sergeant (instruction in physical training).
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Kreitmann, Louis; Kreitmann, Pierre; Uméda, Masami (1995). Deux ans au Japon 1876-1878 = 1876-1878. 1, Carnets de route [Two years in Japan 1876-1878. 1, Travel reports] (in French and Japanese). Marseille: published at the author. OCLC51106062.
Kreitmann, Louis; Kreitmann, Pierre; Uméda, Masami (1996). Deux ans au Japon 1876-1878 = 1876-1878. 2, Carnets de route et des lettres [Two years in Japan 1876-1878. 2, Travel reports and letters] (in French and Japanese). Marseille: published at the author. OCLC863854214.
Nishibori, Akira (2008). ? ? ? [Maison Franco-Japonaise liberal arts courses: Franco-Japanese Interactions in the Early Stage: Grand Ecoles and modernization of Japan] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Tsuge Shob? Shinsha. ISBN4806805866. OCLC277275342.
Watanabe, Ichir? (1971). [Meiji martial arts history] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shinjinbutsu ?raisha, Sh?wa 46. OCLC15374653.
[Army History of Education] (in Japanese). 1913.
Hideaki, Kinoshita (April 21, 1983). " [Rikugun Toyama Gakko no Taiiku]" [Physical Education in Toyama Military Academy]. [Olympic]. 21 (July 22, 1983): 6-9.