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A geologic or geomorphic province is a spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes. A province may include a single dominant structural element such as a basin or a fold belt, or a number of contiguous related elements. Adjoining provinces may be similar in structure but be considered separate due to differing histories.
|Shield||Exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas|
|Platform||Horizontal or gently-lying sedimentary strata covering a basement of igneous or metamorphic rocks|
|Orogen||Linear or arc-shaped formation where continental crust has been folded, deformed and uplifted to form mountain ranges|
|Basin||Low-lying formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously horizontal strata|
|Large igneous province||Accumulation of igneous rocks, including liquid rock (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive)|
|Extended crust||Continental crust thinned due to extensional strain|
Some studies classify provinces based upon mineral resources, such as mineral deposits. There are a particularly large number of provinces identified worldwide for petroleum and other mineral fuels, such as the Niger Delta petroleum province.