Georgism, also called geoism and single tax, is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society. Developed from the writings of the economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.
Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies, pollution, and the control of commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g., intellectual property). Any natural resource which is inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of 'land monopoly' involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient, fair, and equitable. The main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value. Georgists argue that revenues from a land value tax (LVT) can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes (for example, on income, trade, or purchases) that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue back to the people by means of a basic income or citizen's dividend.
Adam Smith observed that, unlike other taxes, a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency. According to the World Bank, a land value tax also has progressive tax effects, in that it is paid primarily by the wealthy (the landowners), and it cannot be passed on to tenants, workers, or users of land. William J. McCluskey and Riël C. D. Franzsen have alleged land value taxes would reduce economic inequality, increase economic efficiency, remove incentives to under-utilize urban land, and reduce property speculation. The philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early thinkers such as John Locke,Baruch Spinoza, and Thomas Paine, but the concept of gaining public revenues mainly from land and natural resource privileges was widely popularized by Henry George and his first book, Progress and Poverty (1879).
Georgist ideas were popular and influential during the late 19th and early 20th century. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early devotees of Henry George's economic philosophy were often termed Single Taxers for their political goal of raising public revenue mainly from a land value tax, although Georgists endorsed multiple forms of rent capture (e.g., seigniorage) as legitimate. The term Georgism was invented later, and some prefer the term geoism to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George.
A supply and demand
diagram showing the effects of land value taxation. Note that the burden
of the tax is entirely on the land owner, the rental price of land does not change, and there is no deadweight loss
Henry George is best known for popularizing the argument that government should be funded by a tax on land rent rather than taxes on labor. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be performed in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and by thought experiments about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, he concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty, inequality, and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land. In his most celebrated book, Progress and Poverty, George argues that the appropriation of land for private use contributes to persistent poverty in spite of technological progress, and causes economies to exhibit a tendency toward boom and bust cycles. According to George, people justly own what they create, but that natural opportunities and land belong equally to all.
The tax upon land values is, therefore, the most just and equal of all taxes. It falls only upon those who receive from society a peculiar and valuable benefit, and upon them in proportion to the benefit they receive. It is the taking by the community, for the use of the community, of that value which is the creation of the community. It is the application of the common property to common uses. When all rent is taken by taxation for the needs of the community, then will the equality ordained by Nature be attained. No citizen will have an advantage over any other citizen save as is given by his industry, skill, and intelligence; and each will obtain what he fairly earns. Then, but not till then, will labor get its full reward, and capital its natural return.
-- Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Book VIII, Chapter 3
George believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property. Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land mostly in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and slowly shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted.
Georgists have observed that privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (e.g., through income and sales tax), while socially created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages. The opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue; socially created wealth would become available for use by the community, while the fruits of labor would remain private. According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions. A land value tax, charging fees for exclusive use of land, as a means of raising public revenue is also a progressive tax tending to reduce economic inequality, since it applies entirely to ownership of valuable land, which is correlated with income, and there is generally no means by which landlords can shift the tax burden onto tenants or laborers.
Standard economic theory suggests that a land value tax would be extremely efficient - unlike other taxes, it does not reduce economic productivity.Milton Friedman described Henry George's tax on unimproved value of land as the "least bad tax", since unlike other taxes, it would not impose an excess burden on economic activity (leading to zero or even negative "deadweight loss"); hence, a replacement of other more distortionary taxes with a land value tax would improve economic welfare. As land value tax can improve the use of land and redirect investment toward productive, non-rentseeking activities, it could even have a negative deadweight loss that boosts productivity. Because land value tax would apply to foreign land speculators, the Australian Treasury estimated that land value tax was unique in having a negative marginal excess burden, meaning that it would increase long-run living standards.
It was Adam Smith who first noted the efficiency and distributional properties of a land value tax in his book, The Wealth of Nations:
Ground-rents are a still more proper subject of taxation than the rent of houses. A tax upon ground-rents would not raise the rents of houses. It would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent, who acts always as a monopolist, and exacts the greatest rent which can be got for the use of his ground. More or less can be got for it according as the competitors happen to be richer or poorer, or can afford to gratify their fancy for a particular spot of ground at a greater or smaller expense. In every country the greatest number of rich competitors is in the capital, and it is there accordingly that the highest ground-rents are always to be found. As the wealth of those competitors would in no respect be increased by a tax upon ground-rents, they would not probably be disposed to pay more for the use of the ground. Whether the tax was to be advanced by the inhabitant, or by the owner of the ground, would be of little importance. The more the inhabitant was obliged to pay for the tax, the less he would incline to pay for the ground; so that the final payment of the tax would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent.
Both ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are a species of revenue which the owner, in many cases, enjoys without any care or attention of his own. Though a part of this revenue should be taken from him in order to defray the expenses of the state, no discouragement will thereby be given to any sort of industry. The annual produce of the land and labour of the society, the real wealth and revenue of the great body of the people, might be the same after such a tax as before. Ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are, therefore, perhaps, the species of revenue which can best bear to have a peculiar tax imposed upon them. ... Nothing can be more reasonable than that a fund which owes its existence to the good government of the state should be taxed peculiarly, or should contribute something more than the greater part of other funds, towards the support of that government.
Benjamin Franklin and Winston Churchill made similar distributional and efficient arguments for taxing land rents. They noted that the costs of taxes and the benefits of public spending always eventually apply to and enrich, respectively, the owners of land. Therefore, they believed it would be best to defray public costs and recapture value of public spending by applying public charges directly to owners of land titles, rather than harming public welfare with taxes assessed against beneficial activities such as trade and labor.
Henry George wrote that his plan for a high land value tax would cause people "to contribute to the public, not in proportion to what they produce ... but in proportion to the value of natural [common] opportunities that they hold [monopolize]". He went on to explain that "by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by reason of the growth and improvement of the community", it would, "make the holding of land unprofitable to the mere owner, and profitable only to the user".
A high land value tax would discourage speculators from holding valuable natural opportunities (like urban real estate) unused or only partially used. Henry George claimed this would have many benefits, including the reduction or elimination of tax burdens from poorer neighborhoods and agricultural districts; the elimination of a multiplicity of taxes and expensive obsolete government institutions; the elimination of corruption, fraud, and evasion with respect to the collection of taxes; the enablement of true free trade; the destruction of monopolies; the elevation of wages to the full value of labor; the transformation of labor saving inventions into blessings for all; and the equitable distribution of comfort, leisure, and other advantages that are made possible by an advancing civilization. In this way, the vulnerability that market economies have to credit bubbles and property manias would be reduced.
Income flow resulting from payments for restricted access to natural opportunities or for contrived privileges over geographic regions is termed economic rent. Georgists argue that economic rent of land, legal privileges, and natural monopolies should accrue to the community, rather than private owners. In economics, "land" is everything that exists in nature independent of human activity. George explicitly included climate, soil, waterways, mineral deposits, laws/forces of nature, public ways, forests, oceans, air, and solar energy in the category of land. While the philosophy of Georgism does not say anything definitive about specific policy interventions needed to address problems posed by various sources of economic rent, the common goal among modern Georgists is to capture and share (or reduce) rent from all sources of natural monopoly and legal privilege.
Henry George shared the goal of modern Georgists to socialize or dismantle rent from all forms of land monopoly and legal privilege. However, George emphasized mainly his preferred policy known as land value tax, which targeted a particular form of unearned income known as ground rent. George emphasized ground-rent because basic locations were more valuable than other monopolies and everybody needed locations to survive, which he contrasted with the less significant streetcar and telegraph monopolies, which George also criticized. George likened the problem to a laborer traveling home who is waylaid by a series of highway robbers along the way, each who demand a small portion of the traveler's wages, and finally at the very end of the road waits a robber who demands all that the traveler has left. George reasoned that it made little difference to challenge the series of small robbers when the final robber remained to demand all that the common laborer had left. George predicted that over time technological advancements would increase the frequency and importance of lesser monopolies, yet he expected that ground rent would remain dominant. George even predicted that ground-rents would rise faster than wages and income to capital, a prediction that modern analysis has shown to be plausible, since the supply of land is fixed.
Common ground rent is still the primary emphasis of Georgists because of its large value and the known diseconomies of misused land. However, there are other sources of rent that are theoretically analogous to ground-rent and are debated topics of Georgists. The following are some sources of economic rent.
Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, "[S]uch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned." Georgists were divided by this question of natural monopolies and often favored public ownership only of the rents from common rights-of-way, rather than public ownership of utility companies themselves.
Georgism and environmental economics
The early conservationism of the Progressive Era was inspired partly by Henry George and his influence extended for decades afterward. Some ecological economists still support the Georgist policy of land value tax as a means of freeing or rewilding unused land and conserving nature by reducing urban sprawl.
Pollution degrades the value of what Georgists consider to be commons. Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic rent, even when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income. Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution with taxation or quotas that capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a citizen's dividend.
Georgism is related to the school of ecological economics, since both propose market based restrictions for pollution. The schools are compatible in that they advocate using similar tools as part of a conservation strategy, but they emphasize different aspects. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism. Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights.Geolibertarianism, a market oriented branch of geoism, tends to take a direct stance against what it perceives as burdensome regulation and would like to see auctioned pollution quotas or taxes replace most command and control regulation.
Since ecologists are primarily concerned with conservation, they tend to emphasize less the issue of equitably distributing scarcity/pollution rents, whereas Georgists insist that unearned income not accrue to those who hold title to natural assets and pollution privilege. To the extent that geoists recognize the effect of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts do not accrue to polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution. Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, emphasizing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents. To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free. This distinction can be seen in the difference between basic cap and trade and the geoist variation, cap and share, a proposal to auction temporary pollution permits, with rents going to the public, instead of giving pollution privilege away for free to existing polluters or selling perpetual permits.
The revenue can allow the reduction or elimination of taxes, greater public investment/spending, or the direct distribution of funds to citizens as a pension or basic income/citizen's dividend.
In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a very great land value tax, greater than any currently existing land tax. Introducing a land value tax greater than the value of existing taxes would, at an uncertain point, inevitably cause the price of all land titles to decrease. George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Other geoists disagree on the question of compensation; some advocate complete compensation while others endorse only enough compensation required to achieve Georgist reforms. Geoists have also long differed from George as to the degree of rent capture needed. Historically, those who advocated for public rent tax only great enough to replace other taxes were known as endorsers of single tax limited.
Synonyms and variants
Most early advocacy groups described themselves as Single Taxers, and George reluctantly accepted "single tax" as an accurate name for his main political goal--the repeal of all unjust or inefficient taxes, to be replaced with a land value tax (LVT). In the modern era, Georgist proponents are a diverse group coming from many different backgrounds: ecologists emphasize environmentalism; geolibertarians emphasize its egalitarian free market philosophy; utilitarians emphasize the potential for enhanced public goods; and urbanists emphasize the economic and social benefits of efficiently utilizing prime land for businesses and housing.
Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name Georgist. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. Some now prefer the term geoism, with the meaning of geo (from Greek ?? g? "earth, land", as incidentally is in Greek the first compound of the name George (whence Georgism) < (Gr.) Ge?rgios < ge?rgos "farmer" or ge?rgia "agriculture, farming" < g? + ergon "work") deliberately ambiguous. The terms Earth Sharing,geonomics, and geolibertarianism (see Libertarianism) are also used by some Georgists. These terms represent a difference of emphasis, and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent (citizen's dividend or just replacing other taxes); but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients.
Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary value capture systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees, community land trusts, and purchasing land value covenants.
Some geoists believe that partially compensating landowners is a politically expedient compromise necessary for achieving reform. For similar reasons, others propose capturing only future land value increases, instead of all land rent.
Though Georgism has historically been considered as a radically progressive or socialist ideology, some libertarians and minarchists take the position that limited social spending should be financed using Georgist concepts of rent value capture, but that not all land rent should be captured. Today, this relatively conservative adaptation is usually considered incompatible with true geolibertarianism, which requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents. During Henry George's time, this restrained Georgist philosophy was known as "single tax limited", as opposed to "single tax unlimited". Henry George disagreed with the limited interpretation but accepted its adherents (e.g., Thomas Shearman) as legitimate "single-taxers" [Georgists]. (See Milton Friedman in "Critical reception")
, whose writings and advocacy form the basis for Georgism.
Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas include the United States Commonwealth Land Party, the Henry George Justice Party, the Single Tax League, and Denmark's Justice Party.
In the UK during 1909, the Liberal Government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the People's Budget intended to redistribute wealth (including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax). This caused a crisis which resulted indirectly in reform of the House of Lords. The budget was passed eventually--but without the land tax. During 1931, the minority Labour Government passed a land value tax as part III of the 1931 Finance act. However, this was repealed during 1934 by the National Government before it could be implemented.
In Denmark, the Georgist Justice Party has previously been represented in Folketinget. It formed part of a centre-left government 1957-60 and was also represented in the European Parliament 1978-79. The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics. In the 2004 Presidential campaign, Ralph Nader mentioned Henry George in his policy statements.
Economists still generally favor a land value tax.Milton Friedman publicly endorsed the Georgist land value tax as the "least bad tax".Joseph Stiglitz stated that: "Not only was Henry George correct that a tax on land is non-distortionary, but in an equilibrium society ... tax on land raises just enough revenue to finance the (optimally chosen) level of government expenditure." He dubbed this proposition the Henry George theorem.
Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delaware, which was founded during 1900 by Frank Stephens and Will Price, and Fairhope, Alabama, which was founded during 1894 by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation.
The German protectorate of Jiaozhou Bay (also known as Kiaochow) in China fully implemented Georgist policy. Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied in its territory. The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by land speculation. One of the main reasons for using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, which the policy achieved. The colony existed as a German protectorate from 1898 until 1914, when seized by Japanese and British troops. During 1922 the territory was returned to China.
Henry George School of Social Science in New York
Georgist ideas were also adopted to some degree in Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions. Many municipal governments of the US depend on real property tax as their main source of revenue, although such taxes are not Georgist as they generally include the value of buildings and other improvements, one exception being the town of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which for a time in the 21st century only taxed land value.
Institutes and organizations
Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas of Henry George. According to The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, the periodical Land&Liberty, established during 1894, is "the longest-lived Georgist project in history". Also in the U.S., the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (established during 1974) was initiated based on the writings of Henry George. It "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad". The Henry George Foundation continues to promote the ideas of Henry George in the UK. The Henry George School of Social Science in New York offers courses, sponsors seminars, and publishes research in the Georgist paradigm.The IU is an international umbrella organisation that brings together organizations worldwide that seek land value tax reform.
Richard T. Ely, known as the "Father of Land Economics", agreed with the economic arguments for Georgism but believed that correcting the problem the way Henry George wanted (without compensation) was unjust to existing landowners. In explaining his position, Ely wrote that "If we have all made a mistake, should one party to the transaction alone bear the cost of the common blunder?"
Alfred Marshall thought George's views in Progress and Poverty were dangerous, even predicting wars, terror, and economic destruction. Specifically, Marshall was upset about the idea of rapid change and the unfairness of not compensating existing landowners. In his lectures on Progress and Poverty, Marshall opposed George's position on compensation while fully endorsing his ultimate remedy. So far as land value tax moderately replaced other taxes and did not cause the price of land to fall, Marshall supported land value taxation on economic and moral grounds, suggesting that a three or four percent tax on land values would fit this condition. After implementing land taxes, governments would purchase future land values at discounted prices and take ownership after 100 years. Marshall asserted that this plan, which he strongly supported, would end the need for a tax collection department of government. For newly formed countries where land was not already private, Marshall advocated implementing George's economic proposal immediately.
Robert Solow endorsed the theory of Georgism, but is wary of the perceived injustice of expropriation. Solow stated that taxing away expected land rents "would have no semblance of fairness"; however, Georgism would be good to introduce where location values were not already privatized or if the transition could be phased in slowly.
John R. Commons supported Georgist economics but opposed what he perceived as an environmentally and politically reckless tendency for advocates to rely on a one-size-fits-all approach to tax reform, specifically, the "single tax" framing. Commons concluded The Distribution of Wealth, with an estimate that "perhaps 95% of the total values represented by these millionnaire [sic] fortunes is due to those investments classed as land values and natural monopolies and to competitive industries aided by such monopolies", and that "tax reform should seek to remove all burdens from capital and labour and impose them on monopolies". However, he criticized Georgists for failing to see that Henry George's anti-monopoly ideas must be implemented with a variety of policy tools. He wrote, "Trees do not grow into the sky--they would perish in a high wind; and a single truth, like a single tax, ends in its own destruction." Commons uses the natural soil fertility and value of forests as an example of this destruction, arguing that a tax on the in situ value of those depletable natural resources can result in overuse or over-extraction. Instead, Commons recommends an income tax based approach to forests similar to a modern Georgist severance tax.
Milton Friedman agreed that "the Henry George argument" is "the least bad" means of raising needed public revenue. However, Friedman viewed Georgism as partially immoral, due to a difference of opinion about the validity of vested property rights in land. Georgists agree with Friedman that land titles should remain private, however they believe that the private capture of unimproved land-rents is inherently unjust, drawing comparisons to slavery.
Karl Marx considered the Single Tax platform as a regression from the transition to communism and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism's last ditch". Marx argued that, "The whole thing is ... simply an attempt, decked out with socialism, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one." Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state."Fred Harrison replies to these Marxist objections in "Gronlund and other Marxists - Part III: nineteenth-century Americas critics", American Journal of Economics and Sociology.
George has also been accused of exaggerating the importance of his "all-devouring rent thesis" in claiming that it is the primary cause of poverty and injustice in society. George argued that the rent of land increased faster than wages for labor because the supply of land is fixed. Modern economists, including Ottmar Edenhofer have demonstrated that George's assertion is plausible but was more likely to be true during George's time than now.
Contemporaries such as Austrian economist Frank Fetter and neoclassical economist John Bates Clark argued that it was impractical to maintain the traditional distinction between land and capital, and used this as a basis to attack Georgism. Mark Blaug, a specialist in the history of economic thought, credits Fetter and Clark with influencing mainstream economists to abandon the idea "that land is a unique factor of production and hence that there is any special need for a special theory of ground rent" claiming that "this is in fact the basis of all the attacks on Henry George by contemporary economists and certainly the fundamental reason why professional economists increasingly ignored him".
An early criticism of Georgism was that it would generate too much public revenue and result in unwanted growth of government, but later critics argued that it would not generate enough income to cover government spending. Joseph Schumpeter concluded his analysis of Georgism by stating that, "It is not economically unsound, except that it involves an unwarranted optimism concerning the yield of such a tax." Economists who study land conclude that Schumpeter's criticism is unwarranted because the rental yield from land is likely much greater than what modern critics such as Paul Krugman suppose. Krugman agrees that land value taxation is the best means of raising public revenue but asserts that increased spending has rendered land rent insufficient to fully fund government. Georgists have responded by citing studies and analyses implying that land values of nations like the US, UK, and Australia are more than sufficient to fund all levels of government.
Anarcho-capitalist political philosopher and economist Murray Rothbard criticized Georgism in Man, Economy, and State as being philosophically incongruent with subjective value theory, and further stating that land is irrelevant in the factors of production, trade, and price systems, but this critique is seen by some, including other opponents of Georgism, as relying on false assumptions and flawed reasoning.
Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek credited early enthusiasm for Henry George with developing his interest in economics. Later, Hayek said that the theory of Georgism would be very strong if assessment challenges did not result in unfair outcomes, but he believed that they would.
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It can also invoke geoism, a philosophical tradition encompassing the views of John Locke and Henry George ...
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- ^ Niman, Neil B. "Henry George and the Intellectual Foundations of the Open Source Movement" (PDF). Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 2014. "A modern counterpart to the nineteenth century focus on land can be found in the twentieth century concern with the establishment of intellectual property rights that fence off a portion of the creative commons in order to construct temporary monopolies."
- ^ Fox, Stephen R. The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin, 1985.
- ^ a b c Daly, Herman E., and Joshua C. Farley. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island, 2004.
- ^ Cato, Molly Scott. "The Gypsy Rover, the Norman Yoke and the Land Value Tax". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Smith, Peter. "Beaver, Rewilding & Land Value Tax have the answer to the UK's Flooding Problem.". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Ikerd, John. "The Green Tax Shift: Winners and Losers". missouri.edu. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Casal, Paula (2011). "Global Taxes on Natural Resources" (PDF). Journal of Moral Philosophy (8): 307-27. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Backhaus, Jurgen, and J. J. Krabbe. "Henry George's Contribution to Modern Environmental Policy: Part I, Theoretical Postulates." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 50.4 (1991): 485-501. Weborn 14 Aug. 2014.
- ^ Cobb, Clifford. "Herman Daly Festschrift: Ecological and Georgist Economic Principles: A Comparison". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Roark, Eric (2013). Removing the Commons: A Lockean Left-Libertarian Approach to the Just Use and Appropriation of Natural Resources. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739174692. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Brebbia, C. A. (2012). Ecodynamics: The Prigogine Legacy. WIT Press. p. 104. ISBN 9781845646547. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Gluckman, Amy. "A Primer on Henry George's "Single Tax"". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Hartzok, Alanna. "Citizen Dividends and Oil Resource Rents A Focus on Alaska, Norway and Nigeria". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "A Cannan Hits the Mark" (PDF). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Socialism, Capitalism, and Geoism - by Lindy Davies
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- ^ Introduction to Earth Sharing,
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- ^ Foldvery, Fred. "Geoanarchism A short summary of geoism and its relation to libertarianism.". Retrieved 2014.
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- ^ Wolf, Martin. "Why we must halt the land cycle". Financial Times. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Barker, Charles A. "The Followers of Henry George". Henry George News. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2004-08-28. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved .
- ^ "Why Henry George had a point". The Economist. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Land and taxation. Shepheard-Walwyn in association with Centre for Incentive Taxation. 1 January 1994. ISBN 978-0-85683-162-1.
- ^ Stiglitz, Joseph (1977). "The theory of local public goods". In Feldstein, Martin; Inman, Robert. The Economics of Public Services. London: Macmillan Publishers. pp. 274-333.
- ^ Arnott, Richard J.; Joseph E. Stiglitz (Nov 1979). "Aggregate Land Rents, Expenditure on Public Goods, and Optimal City Size". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 93 (4): 471-500. JSTOR 1884466. doi:10.2307/1884466.
- ^ "Fairhope Single Tax Corporation". Fairhope Single Tax Corporation. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Silagi, Michael; Faulkner, Susan N (1984). "Land Reform in Kiaochow, China: From 1898 to 1914 the Menace of Disastrous Land Speculation was Averted by Taxation". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 43 (2): 167-77. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02240.x.
- ^ Gaffney, M. Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later". Association for Georgist Studies Board. Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved .
- ^ The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 62, 2003, p. 615
- ^ "About the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy". Lincolninst.edu. Retrieved .
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- ^ Marshall, Alfred, Principles of Economics. 1920. Library of Economics and Liberty.
- ^ a b Foldvery, Fred E. (2005). "Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists" (PDF). Econ Watch. 2 (1): 106-32. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Commons, John R. "The Distribution of Wealth", 1893 https://books.google.com/books?id=dhVEAAAAIAAJ
- ^ Commons, John R. "A Progressive Tax on Bare Land Values." Political Science Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 1, 1922, pp. 41-68. www.jstor.org/stable/2142317.
- ^ Mankiw, N. Gregory; Taylor, Mark P. (9 October 2017). "Microeconomics". Cengage Learning EMEA. Retrieved 2017 - via Google Books.
- ^ George, Henry (1881). The Irish Land Question.
- ^ Andelson, Robert V. "Henry George and The Reconstruction Of Capitalism". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b Marx, Karl. "Letters: Marx-Engels Correspondence 1881". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ "FindArticles.com - CBSi". findarticles.com. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Andelson, Robert V., ed. (21 November 2003). "Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty, Vol. 1". Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2017 - via Amazon.
- ^ Blaug, Mark. Interview in Andelson, Robert V. Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty. Blackwell Publishing. 1979. p. 686.
- ^ Hudson, Michael (1994). A Philosophy for a Fair Society. ISBN 9780856831591. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ http://www.psmag.com/politics/this-land-is-your-land-3392 "urban economics models actually do suggest that Georgist taxation would be the right approach at least to finance city growth."/
- ^ Mason Gaffney (13 March 2009). "The hidden taxable capacity of land: enough and to spare". International Journal of Social Economics. 36 (4): 328-411. doi:10.1108/03068290910947930. Retrieved 2017 - via emeraldinsight.com (Atypon).
- ^ Foldvery, Fred. "The Ultimate Tax Reform: Public Revenue from Land Rent" (PDF). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Steven, Cord, "How Much Revenue would a Full Land Value Tax Yield? Analysis of Census and Federal Reserve Data". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44 (3) (July 1985), pp. 279-293
- ^ Steven Cord, "Land Rent is 20% of U.S. National Income for 1986", Incentive Taxation, July/August 1991, pp. 1-2.
- ^ Miles, Mike. 1990. "What Is the Value of all U.S. Real Estate?" Real Estate Review 20 (2)(Summer): 69-75.
- ^ Nicolaus Tideman and Florenz Plassman, "Taxed Out of Work and Wealth: The Costs of Taxing Labor and Capital", in The Losses of Nations: Deadweight Politics versus Public Rent Dividends (London: Othila Press, 1988), pp. 146-174.
- ^ Fitzgerald, Karl. "Total Resource Rents of Australia". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Rothbard, Murray (1962). Man, Economy, and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles. Van Nostrand.
- ^ Heinrich, David J. "Murray Rothbard and Henry George". www.mises.org. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Andelson, Robert V. (January 2000). "On Separating the Landowner's Earned and Unearned Increment: A Georgist Rejoinder to F. A. Hayek". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 59 (1): 109-17. doi:10.1111/1536-7150.00016. Retrieved 2013. Hayek wrote, "It was a lay enthusiasm for Henry George which led me to economics."
- ^ Brown, H. G. "A Defense of the Single Tax Principle." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 183.1 (1936): 63-69. Quote: "The truth is that I recognize the fundamental justice and common sense of the single-tax idea. But that any other tax than a tax on land values is always and everywhere wrong, regardless of public needs or the nature of this other tax, I do not maintain."
- ^ Harter, Lafayette G. John R. Commons, His Assault on Laissez-faire. Corvallis: Oregon State UP, 1962. pp. 21, 32, 36, 38.
- ^ "Two Centuries of Economic Thought on Taxation of Land Rents." In Richard Lindholm and Arthur Lynn, Jr., (eds.), Land Value Taxation in Thought and Practice. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 151-96.
- ^ Brue, Stanley (2012). The Evolution of Economic Thought (PDF) (Supplemental Biography of John Rogers Commons for chapter 19 of the online edition of The Evolution of Economic Thought ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved 2014. "After reading Henry George's Progress and Poverty," Commons "became a single-taxer."
- ^ Crotty, Raymond D. (1988). A Radical's Response. Poolbeg. ISBN 9780905169989. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Sheppard, Barry. "'Progress and Poverty' - Henry George and Land Reform in modern Ireland". The Irish Story. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Daly, Herman. "Smart Talk: Herman Daly on what's beyond GNP Growth". Henry George School of Social Science. Retrieved 2015.
. . . I am really sort of a Georgist.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Stimulus: The False and the True Mason Gaffney". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Douglas, Paul (1972). In the fullness of time; the memoirs of Paul H. Douglas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151443769.
- ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar (2013). "Hypergeorgism: When is Rent Taxation as a Remedy for Insufficient Capital Accumulation Socially Optimal?". SSRN 2232659 .
Extending and modifying the tenet of georgism, we propose that this insight be called hypergeorgism." "From a historical perspective, our result may be closer to Henry George's original thinking than georgism or the neoclassical Henry George Theorems.
- ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Financing Public Capital Through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem". SSRN 2284745 .
- ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar. "The Triple Dividend Climate Change Mitigation, Justice and Investing in Capabilities" (PDF). Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Foldvary policy reforms". www.foldvary.net. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ "Mason Gaffney's Website". masongaffney.org. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Airlie Worrall, The New Crusade: the Origins, Activities and Influence of the Australian Single Tax Leagues, 1889-1895 (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1978).
- ^ Turgeon, Lynn. Bastard Keynesianism : the evolution of economic thinking and policymaking since World War II. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1997
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Warm Memories of Bill Vickrey". Land & Liberty. http://www.cooperative-individualism.org/gaffney-mason_warm-memories-of-bill-vickrey-1997.htm
- ^ Gaffney, Mason, and Fred Harrison. The corruption of economics. London: Shepheard-Walwyn in association with Centre for Incentive Taxation, 2006
- ^ Hotelling, Harold. "The General Welfare in Relation to Problems of Taxation and of Railway and Utility Rates." Econometrica, vol. 6, no. 3, 1938, pp. 242-69. www.jstor.org/stable/1907054.
- ^ Andelson Robert V. (2000). Land-Value Taxation Around the World: Studies in Economic Reform and Social Justice Malden. MA:Blackwell Publishers, Inc. p. 359.
- ^ Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Pay As You Park: UCLA professor Donald Shoup inspires a passion for parking." (May 2005). Planning Magazine. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Shoup, Donald C. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue." Regional Science and Urban Economics 34.6 (2004): 753-84.
- ^ Washington, Emily. "The High Cost of Free Parking Chapters 19-22". marketurbanism.com. Market Urbanism. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Quotes from Nobel Prize Winners Herbert Simon stated in 1978: "Assuming that a tax increase is necessary, it is clearly preferable to impose the additional cost on land by increasing the land tax, rather than to increase the wage tax - the two alternatives open to the City (of Pittsburgh). It is the use and occupancy of property that creates the need for the municipal services that appear as the largest item in the budget - fire and police protection, waste removal, and public works. The average increase in tax bills of city residents will be about twice as great with wage tax increase than with a land tax increase."
- ^ Herbert Simon. (2014). The Famous People website. Retrieved 12:59, Oct 30, 2014, from http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/herbert-simon-293.php.
- ^ Stiglitz, Joseph (2 December 2010). "Working Paper No. 6: Principles and Guidelines for Deficit Reduction" (PDF). Next New Deal The Blog of the Roosevelt Institute. The Roosevelt Institute. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 2017.
One of the general principles of taxation is that one should tax factors that are inelastic in supply, since there are no adverse supply side effects. Land does not disappear when it is taxed. Henry George, a great progressive of the late nineteenth century, argued, partly on this basis, for a land tax.
- ^ Tideman, Nicolaus. "Global Economic Justice". Schalkenbach Foundation. Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Bill Vickrey: "This paper would benefit from an application of Henry George's idea of taxing land values!"". www.wealthandwant.com. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Netzer, Dick (November 1996). "Remembering William Vickrey". Land Lines. 8 (6). Retrieved 2016.
- ^ Vickrey, William. "The Corporate Income Tax in the U.S. Tax System, 73 TAX NOTES 597, 603 (1996). Quote: "Removing almost all business taxes, including property taxes on improvements, excepting only taxes reflecting the marginal social cost of public services rendered to specific activities, and replacing them with taxes on site values, would substantially improve the economic efficiency of the jurisdiction."
- ^ Cirillo, Renato (Jan 1984). "Léon Walras and Social Justice". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 43 (1): 53-60. JSTOR 3486394. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02222.x.
- ^ Barker, Charles A., 1955. Henry George. New York: Oxford University Press
- ^ Boast, Richard (2008). Buying the land, selling the land : governments and Maori land in the North Island 1865-1921. Wellington N.Z: Victoria University Press, Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 9780864735614.
- ^ Daunton, M. J. State and market in Victorian Britain : war, welfare and capitalism. Woodbridge, UK Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2008. Quote: "In the election of 1890 he campaigned for radical land reform, arguing for a tax on the 'unearned increment', and advocated the programme of Henry George as a means of 'bursting up the great estates'."
- ^ http://www.cooperative-individualism.org/churchill-winston_mother-of-all-monopolies-1909.html
- ^ MacLaren, Andrew (Autumn 2001). "The People's Rights: Opportunity Lost?". Finest Hour. 112. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (March 17, 2013). "It's a Lonely Quest for Land-Tax Fans, But, by George, They Press On". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly. "A Tax Policy With San Francisco Roots". July 30, 2011 https://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/us/31bcstevens.html?_r=0 Quote: "But Mr. Brown was certainly in good company as a Georgist. Devotees over the years have included Leo Tolstoy, Winston Churchill, Sun Yat-Sen, and the inventor of the board game that would become Monopoly."
- ^ Murdoch, Walter. Alfred Deakin: a sketch. Melbourne, Vic: Bookman, 1999. 
- ^ Bastian, Peter (2009). Andrew Fisher: An Underestimated Man. Sydney, N.S.W: UNSW Press. pp. 28-30. ISBN 1742230040.
- ^ [George, Henry, Jr. The Life of Henry George. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1900.]
- ^ Hayes, Rutherford B. "Henry George". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862-1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography: Online Edition.
- ^ Stout, Robert (14 April 1885). "ADDRESS BY THE HON. R. STOUT." (Volume XXII, Issue 7302). PAPERPAST. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Trescott, Paul B. (2007). Jingji Xue: The History of the Introduction of Western Economic Ideas Into China, 1850-1950. Chinese University Press. pp. 46-48. ISBN 9789629962425.
The foregoing help to demonstrate why Sun Yat-sen would have regarded Henry George as a very credible guide, and why in 1912 Sun could tell an interviewer, 'The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.'
- ^ Post, Louis Freeland (April 12, 1912). "Sun Yat Sen's Economic Program for China". The Public. 15: 349. Retrieved 2016.
land tax as the only means of supporting the government is an infinitely just, reasonable, and equitably distributed tax, and on it we will found our new system
- ^ Altgeld, John (1899). Live Questions (PDF). Geo. S Bowen & Son. pp. 776-81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-24.
- ^ Chicago Single Tax Club collection, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago http://findingaids.library.uic.edu/ead/rjd1/ChiSingleTaxf.html
- ^ a b c Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler". Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Finegold, Kenneth (1995). Experts and politicians: reform challenges to machine politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691037345.
- ^ Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly (July-August 2012). "The Power Broker". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Cameron, Clyde. "REVENUE THAT IS NOT A TAX". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Single Tax Loses, But Mayor Favoring This Reform Is Chosen By a Small Vote Margin". The Milwaukee Journal. Mar 6, 1912. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Arnesen, Eric. Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-class History. New York: Routledge, 2007
- ^ Johnston, Robert D. The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2003
- ^ Gaynor, William Jay. Some of Mayor Gaynor's Letters and Speeches. New York: Greaves Pub., 1913. 214-21. https://books.google.com/books?id=-7kMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219#v=onepage&q&f=false
- ^ "Socialism in England: James Keir Hardie Declares That It Is Capturing That Country.". California Digital Newspaper Collection. San Francisco Call. 25 September 1895. Retrieved 2014. Hardie states, "I was a very enthusiastic single-taxer for a number of years."
- ^ Howe, Frederic C. The Confessions of a Reformer. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1988.
- ^ Arcas Cubero, Fernando: El movimiento georgista y los orígenes del Andalucismo : análisis del periódico "El impuesto único" (1911-1923). Málaga : Editorial Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, 1980. ISBN 84-500-3784-0
- ^ "Single Taxers Dine Johnson". New York Times May 31, 1910.
- ^ "Henry George". Ohio History Central: An Online History of Ohio History.
- ^ "Frank de Jong: Economic Rent Best Way to Finance Government". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "What's the matter with Michigan? Rise and collapse of an economic wonder" (PDF). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Cleveland, Polly. "The Way Forward for Detroit? Land Taxes". Washington Spectator. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "New Life in Old Cities" (PDF). UC Riverside. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Bryson, Phillip (2011). The economics of Henry George : history's rehabilitation of America's greatest early economist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 145.
- ^ Moore, Robert (1974). Pit-men, preachers & politics the effects of Methodism in a Durham mining community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 61.
- ^ Barton, Stephen E. (2016). "Berkeley Mayor J. Stitt Wilson: Christian Socialist, Georgist, Feminist". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 75 (1): 193-216. ISSN 0002-9246. doi:10.1111/ajes.12132.
- ^ "Some Suggestions for Reform of Taxation", Proceedings, 14th Annual Convention, League of California Municipalities, Santa Barbara, California, October 25, 1911, pp. 152-71. J. Stitt Wilson, "Report from California", The Single Tax Review, V.17, No.1, January-February 1917, pp. 50-52
- ^ Jones, Carolyn C. (Spring 1997). "Taxing Women: Thoughts on a Gendered Economy: Symposium: A Historical Outlook: Taxes and Peace" A Case Study of Taxing Women". Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b Rothbard, Murray (2007). Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought (Complete, 1965-1968). Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 263. ISBN 9781610160407. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Chris Oestereich. "With Liberty and Dividends for All: An Interview with Peter Barnes"; https://medium.com/@costrike/with-liberty-and-dividends-for-all-an-interview-with-peter-barnes-2d3cbd95028c
- ^ Beth Shalom Hessel. "Field, Sara Bard"; http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00220.html; American National Biography Online April 2014. Access Date: Mar 22 2015
- ^ Lane, Fintan. The Origins of Modern Irish Socialism, 1881-1896.Cork University Press, 1997 (pp. 79, 81).
- ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). "Mr. Samuel Gompers Replies to Our Criticism". The Single Tax Review. 21-22: 42. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Gompers, Samuel (1986). The Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of a union leader, 1850-86, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. pp. 431-32. ISBN 9780252011375. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Leubuscher, F. C. (1939). Bolton Hall Archived December 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. The Freeman. January issue.
- ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). The Single Tax Review, Volumes 21-22. p. 178. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Land and Freedom, Volumes 22-23. 1922. p. 179. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 2014. Holmes said, "The passing years have only added to my conviction that Henry George is one of the greatest of all modern statesmen and prophets."
- ^ Eckert, Charles R. "Henry George, Sound Economics and the "New Deal"". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Thompson, Noel. Political economy and the Labour Party: The economics of démocratic socialism (1884-2005). Routlegde Ed., 2006, pp. 54-55.
- ^ Haggard, Robert (2001). The persistence of Victorian liberalism : the politics of social reform in Britain, 1870-1900. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313313059.
- ^ Caves, Roger W. Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon, Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2005.
- ^ Marsh, Benjamin Clarke. Lobbyist for the People; a Record of Fifty Years. Washington: Public Affairs, 1953.
- ^ "Single-Taxers again laud Henry George" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Sep 8, 1912. p. 12. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ * "British MP guest at George dinner" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Sep 6, 1912. p. 9. Retrieved 2014.
- "Community Club" (PDF). Silver Creek News. Silver Creek, NY. Jan 4, 1916. p. 1. Retrieved 2014.
- "James F. Morton at Eagle Temple" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Jan 23, 1917. p. 10. Retrieved 2014.
- "Meetings this evening; Labor Forum" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Mar 30, 1918. p. 12. Retrieved 2014.
- "F. P. Morgan(sic) gives instructive talk on the single tax" (PDF). The Saratogian. Saratoga Springs, NY. Apr 10, 1929. p. 9. Retrieved 2014.
- Morton, James F., Jr. (July-August 1918). "Report of James F. Morton, Jr.'s Lecture Work". The Single Tax Review. 18 (4): 116. Retrieved 2014.
- "Single taxer to speak" (PDF). Buffalo Courier. Buffalo, NY. Apr 7, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 2014.
- "Plans single tax talk" (PDF). Buffalo Courier. Buffalo, NY. Apr 14, 1916. p. 10. Retrieved 2014.
- "Single tax advocate lectures in church" (PDF). Buffalo Courier. Buffalo, NY. Apr 17, 1916. p. 6. Retrieved 2014.
- "Meetings this evening; Meeting of the Men's club" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Apr 25, 1916. p. 14. Retrieved 2014.
- "Philosophy of the Single Tax" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Apr 26, 1916. p. 7. Retrieved 2014.
- "Season's close at Chautauqua; The Single Tax" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Aug 28, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 2014.
- "Exclusive tax on land values" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Jan 15, 1917. p. 3. Retrieved 2014.
- "Saturday Night Club" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal. Jamestown, NY. Jan 12, 1917. p. 9. Retrieved 2014.
- "Lewiston" (PDF). Buffalo Evening News. Buffalo, NY. Apr 30, 1917. p. 10. Retrieved 2014.
- "Greenfield Center" (PDF). The Saratogian. Saratoga Springs, NY. Nov 13, 1917. p. 7. Retrieved 2014.
- "Church Services Tomorrow; First Congregational Church" (PDF). Daily Argus. Mount Vernon, NY. Dec 3, 1917. p. 12. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Jorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible, All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue by a Single Tax on Land Values Only. Chicago, IL: Chicago Singletax Club, 1920.
- ^ a b Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. https://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJ
- ^ a b Ware, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf
- ^ Young, Arthur Nichols (1916). Single tax Movement in the United States. S.l: Hardpress Ltd.
- ^ Thompson, John (1987). Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Powderly, Terence Vincent (1889). Thirty Years of Labor. 1859-1889. Excelsior publishing house. Retrieved 2014. "It would be far easier to levy a "single tax," basing it upon land values." "It is because [...] a single land tax would prove to be the very essence of equity, that l advocate it.
- ^ Mitgang, Herbert (1996). The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823217229.
- ^ Magarey, Susan (1985). Unbridling the tongues of women : a biography of Catherine Helen Spence. Sydney, NSW: Hale & Iremonger. ISBN 0868061492.
- ^ Wenzer, Kenneth (1997). An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1). University Rochester Press. pp. 87, 243. ISBN 9781878822819.
- ^ "Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren". Oregon History Project. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved .
- ^ Candeloro, Dominic (April 1979). "The Single Tax Movement and Progressivism, 1880-1920". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 38 (2): 113-27. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1979.tb02869.x. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "The Inquisitive Voter". The Great Adventure. 4 (35). September 11, 1920.
The proposition of Henry George will do more to lift humanity from the slough of poverty, crime, and misery than all else.
- ^ Eisenstein, Charles. "Post-Capitalism". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b c "The Funeral Procession". New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Newlin, Keith (2008). Hamlin Garland a life. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 102-27. ISBN 0803233477.
- ^ http://www.like2do.com/video?id=vviBboUXhuA Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
- ^ Aller, Pat. "The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Steuer, Max (June 2000). "REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard". The British Journal of Sociology. 51 (2): 377-86. PMID 10905006. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00377.x. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Meacham, Standish (1999). Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement. Yale University Press. pp. 50-53. ISBN 0300075723. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Purdom, Charles Benjamin (1963). The Letchworth Achievement. p. 1. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Hubard, Elbert (1907). Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Reformers. East Aurora, New York: The Roycrofters. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ Harrison, F. (May-June 1989). "Aldous Huxley on 'the Land Question' Archived 2014-12-13 at the Wayback Machine.". Land & Liberty. "Huxley redeems himself when he concedes that, if he were to rewrite the book, he would offer a third option, one which he characterised as 'the possibility of sanity.' In a few bold strokes he outlines the elements of this model: 'In this community economics would be decentralist and Henry Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque and co-operative.'"
- ^ Kunstler, James Howard (1998). "Chapter 7". Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684837376.
- ^ Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310. "Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical liberalism, which [Albert Jay Nock and Francis Nielson] were afraid was being lost, and for the economics of Henry George, which both men shared."
- ^ Norris, Kathleen. "The Errors of Marxism". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 2014.Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ A Great Iniquity.. Leo Tolstoy once said of George, "People do not argue with the teaching of George, they simply do not know it".
- ^ Lebrun, Victor. "Leo Tolstoy and Henry George". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Starr, Kevin (1997). The dream endures : California enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195157974. Wood had "strong leanings toward the single-tax theory of Henry George".
- ^ Barnes, Tim. "C.E.S. Wood (1852-1944)". The Oregon Encyclipedia. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Buckley, William F. Jr. "FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?" (PDF). PBS, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 2014. Buckley says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
- ^ Perry, Jeffrey (2009). Hubert Harrison the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883-1918. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 023113911X.
- ^ a b Sklar, Dusty. "Henry George and Zionism". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Kinsley, Michael (Jun 13, 2012). "Inequality: It's Even Worse Than We Thought". Bloomberg. BloombergView. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Kinsley, Michael. "The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts" (Dec 19, 2012). Retrieved 2014.Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.
- ^ "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 2014.In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
- ^ Chamberlain, John (1965). Farewell To Reform. Quadrangle Books. pp. 47-48.
- ^ Bernstein, David (May 2003). "Lochner's Feminist Legacy". Michigan Law Review. 101 (6). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (January 7, 2014). "Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for". The Washington Post. Wonkblog. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ https://twitter.com/dylanmatt/status/414149160775204864 Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
- ^ Lawson, R (2006). A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801884063.
- ^ Mowry, George (1958). The era of Theodore Roosevelt and the birth of modern America, 1900-1912. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0061330223.
I conceded the voice of ultimate wisdom and saw in Henry George the apostle of a new gospel.
- ^ Salam, Reihan (July 15, 2010). "On Property Taxes". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Traubel, Horace (1896). "Progress and Poverty". The Conservator. 7-9: 252-53. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Martin Wolf (2010-07-08). "Why we must halt the land cycle". The Financial Times. Retrieved .
- ^ Merryn Somerset Webb (2013-09-27). "How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax". The Financial Times. Retrieved .
- ^ ?, ©ommons $ense. "Closet georgist, @MerrynSW, on an entertaining BBC program "Simon Evans Goes to Market", about investing in land http://bbc.in/1oR0bZI #LVT". Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Smith, Charles Joseph (January-February 1941). "Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom". Land and Freedom. XLI (1). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Filler, Louis (1993). The muckrakers. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
- ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (ed.), 1917. Single Tax Year Book. NY: Single Tax Review Publishing Company
- ^ Worstall, Tim (2012-12-22). "What Michael Kinsley Gets Wrong About Taxation". Forbes. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Matthew, Yglesias. "My Five-Point Plan for Fixing Everything". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ https://twitter.com/mattyglesias/status/313754546486796288 "WSJ story on Georgism fails to note that it's clearly correct"
- ^ Wineapple, Brenda. Sister Brother: Gertrude and Leo Stein. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 2008.
- ^ a b Mills, Allen. "Single Tax, Socialism and the Independent Labour Party of Manitoba: The Political Ideas of F.J. Dixon and S.J. Farmer." Labour / Le Travail 5 (1980): 33-56. JSTOR. Weborn 04 Dec. 2014. <https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25139947?ref=no-x-route:ace15c2e1d6b230b7bafc46e82f39f89>
- ^ Smith, Carl (2008). Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 359. ISBN 9780226764252.
- ^ Muse return with new album The Resistance "Sure, he has already launched into a passionate soliloquy about Geoism (the land-tax movement inspired by the 19th-century political economist Henry George)".
- ^ Caldwell, John (1994). American paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Museum in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691037957.
- ^ Co-founder of the Henry George Club, Australia.
- ^ Williams, Karl. "Walter Burley Griffin". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Henry George, our hero in the battle for the right (Songs of the Hutchinsons)". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "George Inness (1825-1894)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Schor, Esther (2006). Emma Lazarus. Random House. ISBN 9780805242751. Author of "The New Colossus", on the Statue of Liberty, and the poem "Progress and Poverty", named after George's book, of which she said, "The life and thought of no one capable of understanding it can be quite the same after reading it."
- ^ Peseroff, Joyce (March-April 2007). "Emma Lazarus". Tikkun. 22 (2). Retrieved 2014. Lazarus "supported Henry George's single tax".
- ^ Schwartzman, Jack. "A Remembrance of Anna George de Mille and Agnes de Mille". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. pp. 29, 47. ISBN 9781439180419.
- ^ Easton, Carol (1996). No Intermissions The Life of Agnes de Mille. Da Capo Press.
- ^ Louvish, Simon (2008). Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art. Macmillan. pp. 40, 249. ISBN 9780312377335.
- ^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. p. 314. ISBN 9781439180419.
- ^ "Henry George, The Scholar" Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. - A Commencement Address Delivered by Francis Neilson at the Henry George School of Social Science, June 3, 1940.
- ^ Neilson, Francis (September 1939). "Albert Jay Nock on Henry George - Truth Sets Men Free". The Freeman. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ McQueen, Humphrey. A New Britannia. St. Lucia, Qld.: U of Queensland, 2004.
- ^ Mills, Benjamin Fay (1911). "Louis Prang, Popularizer of Art". Vocations, Vocational guidance, Hall & Locke Company. 10: 254. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Taylor, Mark (2010). Arden. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9780738585598.
- ^ Shields, Jerry. "Forgotten Writings of Arden's Frank Stephens". Collecting Delaware Books.
- ^ "Frank Lloyd Wright on Henry George's Remedy". Wealthandwant.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Carlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America Transaction Publishers, 2004 (p. 51).
- ^ Silagi, M., & Faulkner, S. (1993). Henry George and Europe: Early Efforts to Organize Germany's Land Reformers Failed, but the Pioneers Won a National Demonstration. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 52(1), 119-27. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3487644 Quote: "The meeting was chaired by the materialist philosopher Ludwig Biichner. He was an admirer of Henry George and had been won over to the [land reform] movement by Fliirscheim."
- ^ Buttenheim, Harold S. (March 1934). "The Relation of Housing to Taxation". Law and Contemporary Problems. 1, No. 2 (Low-Cost Housing and Slum Clearance: A Symposium): 198-205. JSTOR 1189565. doi:10.2307/1189565.
- ^ Butler, Nicholas. "Progress and Poverty" (PDF). Commencement Speech, Columbia University (1931). Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Daly, Herman (1994). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press. pp. 258-59, 328-29. ISBN 9780807047057.
- ^ "John Dewey: An Appreciation of Henry George". www.wealthandwant.com. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Onken, Werner. "The Political Economy of Silvio Gesell: A Century of Activism." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.4 (2000): 609-22. Weborn 16 Aug. 2014.
- ^ "The Life of Leon MacLaren". Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "The School of Economic Science". Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Van Parijs, Philippe (1992). Introduction to Arguing for Basic Income (PDF). London: Verso. pp. 3-43.
- ^ Sterba, James P. (2013). From Rationality to Equality. Oxford University Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780199580767.
- ^ Bertrand Russell (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, 1903-1959. Psychology Press. p. 492. ISBN 9780415083010.
- ^ Bertrand Russell (1962). Freedom versus Organization. W. W. Norton & Company.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved . Letter addressed to a Mr. Krumreig
- ^ Vallentyne, Peter. Left-libertarianism: A Primer. In Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). "Left-libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate". Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. "Georgist libertarians--such as eponymous George (1879, 1892), Steiner (1977, 1980, 1981, 1992, 1994), and Tideman (1991, 1997, 1998)--hold that agents may appropriate unappropriated natural resources as long as they pay for the competitive value of the rights they claim."
- ^ Babson, Roger (Aug 20, 1943). "Roger Babson Sees Many Changes To Come After the War Has Ended". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. p. 82. ISBN 9781438422565.
- ^ "101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth". Retrieved 2013. Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
- ^ How to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913 https://books.google.com/books/about/How_to_Abolish_Unfair_Taxation.html?id=rlOFHAAACAAJ
- ^ Darrow, Clarence. "The Land Belongs To The People" (PDF). www.umn.edu. Everyman. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "The Centre for Incentive Taxation". 20 (4). August 1994.
Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke."
- ^ Two lettrs written in 1934 to Henry George's daughter, Anna George De Mille Archived 2011-04-12 at the Wayback Machine.. In one letter Einstein writes, "The spreading of these works is a really deserving cause, for our generation especially has many and important things to learn from Henry George."
- ^ Elazar, Daniel (February 4, 1955). "Earth Is the Lord's". Newspapers.com. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Wilhelm, Donald (September 5, 1942). "Henry Ford Talks About War and Your Future". Liberty Magazine. Retrieved 2014. Henry Ford says, "[...] every American family can have a piece of land. We ought to tax all idle land the way Henry George said -- tax it heavily, so that its owners would have to make it productive"
- ^ MacCallum, Spencer H. (Summer-Fall 1997). "The Alternative Georgist Tradition" (PDF). Fragments. 35. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Foldvary, Fred E. (April 2004). "Heath: Estranged Georgist". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 63 (2): 411-31. doi:10.1111/j.0002-9246.2004.00295.x. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Justice for Mumia Abu-Jamal Archived August 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Kennedy, Margrit. "Money & The Land Grab". YouTube. Share the Rents. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Lincoln, John. "Fighting For Fundamentals". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Magie invented The Landlord's Game, predecessor to Monopoly
- ^ Dodson, Edward J. "How Henry George's Principles Were Corrupted Into the Game Called Monopoly". Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George Dr. Edward McGlynn & Pope Leo XIII" (PDF). Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Offers $250,000 For a Single Tax Campaign: Joseph Fels Pledges That Sum for Five Years Here and in England. IF THERE IS AN EQUAL FUND Commission of Single Taxers Formed to Raise the Fund - Roosevelt, Taft, and Hughes Said to be Friendly.". New York Times. May 8, 1909. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Post, Louis F. (April 2002). The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George. The Minerva Group. ISBN 9780898758337.
- ^ Thomas B. Buell (1974). The Quiet Warrior. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 9780870215629.
- ^ "American Single Taxers Invade Tiny Andorra; Fiske Warren Carries Their Gospel to the Republic Hidden for Twelve Centuries in the Pyrenees Between France and Spain". New York Times. April 16, 1916. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Stanley, Buder (1990). Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195362886. Wallace described Progress and Poverty as "Undoubtedly the most remarkable and important book of the present century."
- ^ Dudden, Arthur (1971). Joseph Fels and the single tax movement. Temple University Press.