Glossary Of Buddhism

Some Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition.

Languages and traditions dealt with here:

A

Definition Etymology In other languages
abhidhamma A category of scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena
  • abhi is "above" or "about", dhamma is "teaching"
  • P?li: abhidhamma
  • Sanskrit: abhidharma
  • Khmer: ???????
  • Bur: ???????? abhidhamma (IPA: [?b?d?mà])
  • Tib: ?????????? chos mngon pa
  • Mn: ?? ???, ????? ?????; ikh nom, bilig ukhaan
  • Thai: ??????? a-pi-tam
  • ????/???
    • Cn: ?pídámó
    • Jp: Abidatsuma
    • Ko: ????, Abidalma
    • Vi: a-tì-??t-ma, th?ng pháp
Abhidhamma Pitaka The third basket of the Tripitaka canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way
  • P?li: Abhidhamma-pi?aka
  • Sanskrit: Abhidharma-pi?aka
  • Bur: ?????????????? Abidhamma Pitakat (IPA: [?b?damà p?d??a?])
  • Mon: ??????????? ([?p?ì?t?ò p?e?t?k?t])
  • Thai: ??????????? a-pi-tam-pi-dok
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: Lùnzàng
    • Jp: Ronz?
    • Ko: ??, Nonjang
    • Vi: Lu?n t?ng, T?ng lu?n, t?ng th? ba trong ba t?ng là kinh, lu?t và lu?n
  • Mn: ??? ???, Ilt nom
acariya, lit. "teacher", One of the two teachers of a novice monk - the other one is called up?dhy?ya
  • P?li: ?cariya[1]
  • Sanskrit: ?c?rya
  • Bur: ??? saya (IPA: [s??jà])
  • Shan: ?????????? atsariya ([?a:? tsa? ri? ja:?])
  • Thai: ??????? ajahn
  • ??? or ????
    • Cn: ?shélí or ?shélíy?
    • Jp: ajari or ajariya
    • Ko: ???, asari or ???? asariya
    • Vi: a-xà-lê or a-xà-lê-da or giáo th? s?
adhitthana Determination, to pray, to wish
  • P?li: Adhi??h?na
  • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: ????????? (IPA: [?de??t?à?])
  • Thai: ??????? ah-tid-taan
  • ?? or ??
    • Cn: Juéx?n, juéyì
    • Jp: kesshin
    • Ko: ??, gyeolsim or ??, gyeolui
    • Vi: nguy?n l?c
Agama The non-Mahayana divisions of the Sutra Pitaka
  • Sanskrit: ?gama
  • P?li: ?gama (but usually called Nik?ya)
  • ??
    • Cn: ?hán
    • Jp: Agon
    • Ko: ??, Aham
    • Vi: A-hàm
ahimsa The devotion to non-violence and respect for all forms of life. Practicers of ahimsa are often vegetarians or vegans
  • Sanskrit: ahi?s?
  • P?li: ahi?s?
  • Thai: ?????? 'ah-hing-sa'
  • ??
    • Cn: bù hài
    • Jp: fugai
    • Ko: ??, bulhae
    • Vi: b?t h?i
Akshobhya
  • Sanskrit: Ak?obhya
  • Mn: ???????? ????? ??? ?????????;
    ?? ???????, ?????????;
  • ????
    • Cn: ?chùrúlái
    • Jp: Ashuku Nyorai
    • Vi: A-súc Nh? Lai

Ködelüsi ügei, Ülü hödelügci

alayavijnana, see store consciousness
  • Sanskrit: ?layavijñ?na
  • Tib: ?????????????????????
    kun gzhi rnam par shes pa
  • ????, ????
    • Cn: ?làiy?shí
    • Jp: araya-shiki
    • Ko: ????, aroeyasik
    • Vi: a-l?i-da th?c
Amitabha Lit. "The Buddha of Infinite Light". The main buddha of the Pure Land school, but is popular in other Mahayana sects as well. The image is of light as the form of wisdom, which has no form. Also interpreted as the Tathagata of Unhindered Light that Penetrates the Ten Quarters by Tan Luan, Shinran and others
  • Sanskrit: amit?bha (lit. "limitless light") and amit?yus (lit. "limitless life")
  • ??? or ????, ??? or ????
    • Cn: ?mítuó or ?mítuó fó
    • Jp: Amida or Amida-butsu
    • Ko: ???, Amita or ????, Amitabul
    • Vi: A-Di-?à, A-Di-?à Ph?t, or Ph?t A-Di-?à
  • Tib: ????????????
  • Mn: ????????? ??????? ???? ???????;
    ?????????, ????????? ??????;
    Amindava, Tsaglasi ügei gereltü
Amoghasiddhi
  • Sanskrit: Amoghasiddhi
  • Tib: Dön yö drub pa
  • Mn: ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????;
    ???? ?????????, ??? ???????;
    Tegüs nögcigsen, Üyile Bütügegci
anagarika A white-robed student in the Theravada tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination
  • P?li: an?garika
  • Thai: ???????? a-na-ka-rik
anapanasati Mindfulness of the breath meditation
  • P?li: ?n?p?nasati
  • Sanskrit: ?n?p?nasm?ti
  • Bur: ??????? anapana (IPA: [ànàpàna?])
anatta The principle denial of the soul in any phenomena. See also negative theology.
  • P?li: anatt?
  • Sanskrit: an?tman
anicca Impermanence
  • P?li: anicca
  • Sanskrit: anitya
  • Bur: ?????? aneissa (IPA: [?ne??sa?])
  • Shan: ????????? ([?a? nik? tsa:?])
  • ??
    • Cn: wúcháng
    • Jp: muj?
    • Ko: ??, musang
    • Vi: vô th??ng
anuttara Unsurpassing
  • P?li: anuttara
  • Sanskrit: anuttara
  • ????/???? (??/??)
    • Cn: ?nòudu?luó ("w?shàng")
    • Jp: anokutara
    • Ko: ????, anyokdara
    • Vi: A-n?u-?à-la (vô th??ng)
    • Fi: Ylittämätön
arhat, lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment
  • P?li: arahat or arahant
  • Sanskrit: arhat or arhant
  • Bur: ?????? yahanda (IPA: [jahá?dà])
  • Shan: ????????? rahanta ([ra? ha:n? ta:?])
  • Tib: ??????????, dgra com pa
  • Mn: ?????, arkhad
  • ???
    • Cn: ?luóhàn
    • Jp: arakan
    • Ko: ???, arahan
    • Vi: a-la-hán
anuttara samyak sambodhi, unsurpassable, complete, perfect enlightenment; unsurpassable, right, and full enlightenment
  • P?li:
  • Sanskrit:
  • Khmer: ??????????????????? "ak-nut-tha-rak-sam-ma-sam-po-thi"
  • Tib: ,
  • Thai: ??????? uh-ra-hann
  • ????????? (or ??????)
    • Cn: ?nòudu?luó s?nmi?os?npútí (or wúshàng zhèngd?ng zhèngjué)
    • Jp: anokutara sanmyakusanbodai
    • Ko: ?????????, Anyokdara sammyak sambori
    • Vi: A-n?u-?à-la tam-mi?u tam-b?-??, Vô-th??ng chánh-??ng chánh-giác, Sáng-su?t giác-ng? hoàn-toàn
atman literally "self", sometimes "soul" or "ego". In Buddhism, the predominant teaching is the negating doctrine of anatman, that there is no permanent, persisting atman, and that belief in atman is the prime consequence of ignorance, the foundation of samsara
  • P?li: atta
  • Sanskrit: ?tman
  • Bur: ???? atta (IPA: [a?ta?])
  • ?
    • Cn: w?
    • Jp: ga
    • Ko: ?, a
    • Vi: ngã
Avalokitesvara, lit. "One Who Hears the Suffering Cries of the World", The bodhisattva of compassion (see also Guan Yin)
  • Sanskrit: Avalokite?vara
  • Bur: ??????? lawka nat (IPA: [l??ka? na?])
  • Tib: ?????????????? spyan ras gzigs
  • Mn: ?????????, Janraisig
  • ??? or ??
    • Cn: Gu?nshì Y?n or Gu?n Y?n
    • Jp: Kanzeon or Kannon
    • Ko: ???, Gwanse-eum or ??, Gwaneum
    • Vi: "Quan Th? Âm B? Tát" , "Quán Th? Âm B? Tát' or "Quan Âm"
avidya "ignorance" or "delusion"
  • Sanskrit: avidy?
  • P?li: avijj?
  • Bur: ??????? aweizza (IPA: [?we?? zà])
  • Shan: ????????? awitsa ([?a wik? tsa:?])
  • Thai: ?????? aa-wit-sha
  • Tib: ???????? ma rig-pa
  • ??
    • Cn: wúmíng
    • Jp: mumy?
    • Ko: ??, mumyeong
    • Vi: vô minh

B

Definition Etymology In other languages
bardo, lit. "intermediate state" or "in-between state", According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives
  • Tib: ????????????????? bar ma do'i srid pa
  • Sanskrit: antar?bhava
  • Mn: ?????, zuurd
  • ??,???
    • Cn: zhongy?u
    • Jp: ch?u
    • Ko: ?? jungyu or ??? bareudo
    • Vi: trung h?u, trung ?m thân, thân trung-?m
bhavacakra/bhavacakka A circular symbolic representation of samsara, also known as Wheel of becoming
  • P?li: bhavacakka
  • Sanskrit: bhava-cakra
  • Bur: ????? bawa set (IPA: [b?wa? s??])
  • Mon: ????? ([h?w??? c?k])
  • Shan: ????????? ([p?a? wa:? tsa:k?])
  • Tib: ???????????????
  • Mn: ?????????? ??????, Orchlongiin khurden
  • ??
    • Cn: y?ulún
    • Jp: ariwa
    • Ko: ??, yuryun
    • Vi: h?u luân
bhante The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist monks in the Theravada tradition. Bhante literally means "Venerable Sir."
  • P?li
bhava Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-samutpada
  • P?li, Sanskrit: bhava
  • Bur: ?? bawa (IPA: [b?wa?])
  • Mon: ?? ([h?w???])
  • Shan: ???? ([p?a? wa:?])
  • Thai: ???? pa-wah
  • ?(????)
    • Cn: y?u
    • Jp: u
    • Ko: ?, yu
    • Vi: h?u (th?p nh? nhân duyên)
bhikkhu/bhikshu, lit. "beggar", A Buddhist monk
  • P?li: bhikkhu
  • Sanskrit: bhik?u
  • Bur: ?????? bheikkhu (IPA: [be??k?ù])
  • Shan: ???????? ([p?ik? k?u?])
  • Tib: ????????? dge slong
  • Mn: ?????, gelen
  • Thai: ????? bhikku
  • ??
    • Cn: b? qi?
    • Jp: biku
    • Ko: ??, bigu or ?? seunim, also ?, jung (pejorative)
    • Vi: tì-kheo
bhikkhuni/bhikshuni A Buddhist nun
  • from bhikkhu
  • P?li: bhikkhuni
  • Sanskrit: bhik?uni
  • Bur: ???????? bheikkhuni (IPA: [be??k?ùnì])
  • Shan: ??????????? ([p?ik? k?u? ni?])
  • Kar: ?????? or ???? "beegoonee" or "hpeewah"
  • Tib: ??????????? sde slong ma
  • Mn: ????????, gelenmaa
  • Thai: ??????? bhiksuni
  • ???
    • Cn: b?qi?ní"
    • Jp: bikuni
    • Ko: ???, biguni, ?? (??), yeoseung
    • Vi: t?-khâu-ni, t?-kh?u-ni or tì-kheo-ni, ni
bija, lit. "seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara school
  • Sanskrit: b?ja
  • Bur: ??? biza (IPA: [bì za?])
  • ??
    • Cn: zh?ngzi
    • Jp: sh?ji
    • Ko: ??, jongja
    • Vi: ch?ng t?, h?t gi?ng, h?t gi?ng
bodhi Awakening or Enlightenment
  • P?li, Sanskrit: bodhi
  • Bur: ????? bawdhi (IPA: [b??d?])
  • Shan: ??????? ([p?? t?i?])
  • Thai: ????? poe
  • Tib: ??????? byang chub
  • Mn: ????, bodi
  • ??
    • Cn: pútí
    • Jp: bodai
    • Ko: ??, bori
    • Vi: b?-??, giác, giác ng?
Bodhi tree The Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment
  • Bur: ?????????? bawdhi nyaung (IPA: [b?? d? ?à??])
  • Shan: ???????????? ([???? p?? t?i?])
  • ???
    • Cn: Pútíshù
    • Jp: Bodaiju
    • Ko: ???, Borisu
    • Vi: B?-?? th?, B?-?? th?, cây B?-??
bodhicitta The motivation of a bodhisattva
  • P?li, Sanskrit: bodhicitta
  • Bur: ?????????? bawdhi seitta (IPA: [b??d? se?? da?])
  • Tib: ?????????????????, byang chub kyi sems
  • Mn: ???? ??????, bodi setgel
  • ???
    • Cn: pútíx?n
    • Jp: bodaishin
    • Ko: ???, borisim
    • Vi: b?-?? tâm
bodhisattva One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering
  • P?li: bodhisatta
  • Sanskrit: bodhisattva
  • Bur: ???????? bawdhi that (IPA: [b?? d? ?a?])
  • Mon: ???? ?????? ???? ([kraoh k?mo caik])
  • Thai: ????????? poe-ti-satt
  • Tib: ????????????????, byang chub sems dpa'
  • Mn: ???????(??), bodisad(va)
  • ??
    • Cn: púsà
    • Jp: bosatsu
    • Ko: ??, bosal
    • Vi: b?-tát
Boghda Holy, living Buddha, living Boddhisattva. The title of Jebtsundamba Khutuktu; also title used with the names of highest Buddhist masters, e.g. boghda Tsongkhapa, Panchen boghda
  • Shan: ???????? ([p?ak? ka? wa:?])
  • Mn: ????, bogd
  • Tib: ?????? bogda
Buddha A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddh?rtha Gautama.
  • from ?budh: to awaken
  • P?li, Sanskrit: buddha
  • Bur: ????? bodha (IPA: [bo??da?])
  • Shan: ???????? ([puk? t?a:?])
  • Tib: ???????? sangs rgyas
  • Mn: ??????, burhan
  • ?, ?, ??
    • Cn:
    • Jp: butsu or hotoke or budda
    • Ko: ?, Bul or ??, Bucheo
    • Vi: Ph?t or B?t
buddha nature The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the Tathagatagarbha sutras, Tendai/Tiantai, Nichiren thought)
  • Sanskrit: buddha-dhatu, buddha-svabh?va, "tathagata-dhatu", or tathagatagarbha.
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: fóxìng
    • Jp: bussh?
    • Ko: ??, bulseong
    • Vi: Ph?t tính, Ph?t tánh, Cái tánh sáng-su?t giác-ng? hoàn-toàn
Buddhism
  • from ?budh: to awaken
  • P?li, Sanskrit:

C

Definition Etymology In other languages
cetana Volition
  • Pali: cetana
Cetiya A reliquary holding holy objects of veneration
  • Pali: cetiya
  • Sanskrit: caitya
  • Bur: ???? zedi (IPA: [zèdi])
  • Khm:
  • Mon: ???? setaow ([cet?e])
  • Shan: ?????? tseti ([tse? ti?])
  • Sin: ??????? chedi
  • Thai: ?????? chetiya
  • Tib: ?????????? mchod rten (chorten)
  • ?
    • Zh: Ta
    • Vi: Tháp
    • Ko: Tap
    • Jp: ??? sot?ba

D

Definition Etymology In other languages
dakini A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth
  • Sanskrit: ??kin?
  • Tibetan: ???????????Wylie: mkha' 'gro ma
  • Mn: ??????, dagina
  • ???, ????
    • Cn: kong xing mu
    • Jp: Dakini-ten
    • Ko: ??? dakini or ??? gonghaengnyeo
    • Vi: không hành n?
Dalai Lama, lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean", secular and spiritual leader of Tibet as nominated by the Mongols
  • Mn: ?????, dalai, lit. "ocean"
  • Tibetan: ???????????? taa-la'i bla-ma
  • ????
    • Cn: Dálài L?ma
    • Jp: Darai Rama
    • Ko: ??? ?? dalai nama
    • Vi: ??t Lai L?t Ma or ??t-l?i L?t-ma
dana Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity
  • P?li, Sanskrit: d?na
  • Bur: ??? dana (IPA: [dàna?])
  • Mon: ??? ([t??an???]) or ???? ([tàn])
  • Thai: ??? taan
  • ??
    • Cn: bùsh?
    • Jp: fuse
    • Ko: ?? bosi
    • Vi: b? thí
  • Mn: ?????
deva many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human being
  • P?li and Sanskrit: deva
  • Bur: ??? dewa (IPA: [dèwa?])
  • Khmer: ??? or preah (????)
  • Mn: ?????? tenger
  • Mon: ????? tewetao ([tèw?tao])
  • Shan: ?????? ([a? w??])
  • ?
    • Zh: ti?n
    • Ko: cheon
    • Jp: ten
    • Vi: thiên
dependent origination, see Pratityasamutpada
  • P?li: pa?icca-samupp?da
  • Sanskrit: prat?tya-samutp?da
  • Bur: ??????????????? padeissa thamopad (IPA: [p?de??sa? ??mo??pa?])
  • Tib: rten.cing.'brel.bar.'byung.ba
  • Mn: ????? ?????????? shuten barildlaga
  • ??, also ??, ??
    • Cn: y?nyuan, also yuánq?
    • Jp: innen, also engi
    • Ko: ?? inyeon, also ?? yeongi
    • Vi: nhân duyên, duyên kh?i
dhamma/dharma Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations
  • from ?dh?: to hold
  • P?li: dhamma
  • Sanskrit: dharma
  • Bur: ???? dhamma (IPA: [d?ma?])
  • Mon: ??? ([thò])
  • Thai: ????? tharrma
  • Tibetan: ????Wylie: chos
  • Mn: ??????? ???, deediin nom
  • ?
    • Cn: f?
    • Jp: h?
    • Ko: beop
    • Vi: pháp
dhammavinaya The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism as taught to monks
  • Mn: ???????? ?????????, surtgaal nomkhotgol
dhammacakka/dharmacakra A symbolic representation of the dharma, also known as the Wheel of Dharma
  • Sanskrit: dharmacakra
  • P?li: dhammacakka
  • Bur: ???????? dhamma sekya (IPA: [d?m?s??t?à])
  • Tibetan: ???????????????Wylie: chos kyi 'khor lo
  • Mn: ????? ??????, momiin khurden
  • ??
    • Cn: F?lún
    • Jp: h?rin
    • Ko: beomnyun
    • Vi: pháp luân
Dhammapada a versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha
  • P?li: Dhammapada
  • Sanskrit: Dharmapada
dhammapala/dharmapala A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma
  • Sanskrit: dharmap?la
  • P?li: dhammap?la
  • Tib: ?????????? chos skyong
  • Mn: ??????, dogshid; ??????, khangal
  • ??
    • Cn: hùf?
    • Jp: goh?
    • Ko: hobeop
    • Vi: H? Pháp
Dhyana, see jhana
  • P?li: jh?na
  • Sanskrit: dhy?na
  • Bur: ???? zan (IPA: [zà?])
  • Mon: ????? ([chàn])
  • Mn: ?????, diyan
  • ? or ??, ? or ??
    • Cn: Chán or Chánnà
    • Jp: Zen or Zenna
    • Ko: Seon
    • Vi: Thi?n or Thi?n-na
D?pankara Buddha
  • P?li: D?pamkara
  • Sanskrit: D?pankara
  • Bur: ????????? dipankara (IPA: [dìp???k??à])
  • Thai: ??????????????????
  • ???
    • Cn: Ránd?ng Fo
    • Jp: Nent?butsu
    • Vi: Nhiên-??ng Ph?t
doan In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen
  • Japanese: ?? d?an
dokusan A private meeting between a Zen student and the master. It is an important element in Rinzai Zen training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to demonstrate understanding
  • Japanese: ?? dokusan
  • ??
    • Cn: dúc?n
    • Ko: dokcham
    • Vi: ??c tham
dudie official certificate for monks and nuns issued by government
  • ??
    • Cn: dùdié
    • Jp: doch?
    • Ko: ??
    • Vi: ??
dukkha Suffering, dissatisfaction, unsatisfactoriness, stress
  • P?li: dukkha
  • Sanskrit: du?kha
  • Bur: ????? doukkha (IPA: [do??k?a?])
  • Shan: ???????? ([tuk? k?a:?])
  • Thai: ????? took
  • Tib: ?????????? sdug bsngal
  • Mn: ??????, zovlon
  • ?
    • Cn: k?
    • Jp: ku
    • Ko: go
    • Vi: kh?
dzogchen The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being
  • Tibetan: ??????????????? rdzogs pa chen po
  • Sanskrit: atiyoga
  • ???
    • Cn: dàji?jìng
    • Jp: daikuky?
    • Ko: daegugyeong
    • Vi: ??i c?u cánh

F

Definition Etymology In other languages
Five Five-Hundred-Year Periods Five sub-divisions of the three periods following the Buddha's passing (???? Cn: s?nshí; Jp: sanji; Vi: tam th?i), significant for many Mahayana adherents:
  1. Age of enlightenment (???? Cn: ji?tu? ji?ngù; Jp: gedatsu kengo)
  2. Age of meditation (???? Cn: chándìng ji?ngù; Jp: zenj? kengo)
    These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (???? Cn: zhèngf?; Jp: sh?b?)
  3. Age of reading, reciting, and listening (?????? Cn: sòngdu?wén ji?ngù; Jp: dokuju tamon kengo)
  4. Age of building temples and stupas (?????? Cn: du?zào t?sì ji?ngù; Jp: taz? t?ji kengo)
    These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (???? Cn: xiàngf?; Jp: z?h?)
  5. Age of conflict (???? Cn: zh?ng ji?ngù; Jp: t?j? kengo), an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other natural and human-made disasters.
    This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (???? Cn: mòf?; Jp: mapp?) when the (historical) Buddha's teachings would lose all power of salvation and perish (???? Cn: báif?méi; Jp: byakuh? onmotsu) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.
  • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (?? Cn: dàjí; Jp: Daishutu-ky?, Daijuku-ky?, Daijikky?, or Daishukky?).
  • ?????, ?????
    • Cn: ????? w? ge w?b?i suì
    • Jp: ?????? go no gohyaku sai
    • Vi: ??
Four Noble Truths
  1. Truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, stress) (Sanskrit: du?kh?ryasatya; Bur: ????? dokkha; Thai: ?????; ?? Cn: k?dì; Jp: kutai; Vi: kh? ??; Mn: ??????, zovlon)
  2. Truth of the origin (samudaya) of dukkha (Sanskrit: samuday?ryasatya; Bur: ????? thamodaya; Thai: ??????; ?? Cn: jídì; Jp: jittai; Vi: t?p kh? ??; ; Mn: ?????????? ????????, zovlongiin shaltgaan)
  3. Truth of the cessation (nirodha) of dukkha (Sanskrit: du?khanirodh?ryasatya; Bur: ?????? niyawdha; Thai: ?????; ?? Cn: mièdì; Jp: mettai; Vi: di?t kh? ??; Mn: ??????, getlekh)
  4. The path (marga) that leads out of dukkha (Sanskrit: du?khanirodhag?min? pratipad; Bur: ??? meg; Thai: ????; ?? Cn: dàodì; Jp: d?tai; Vi: ??o ??; Mn: ???, mör)
  • P?li: catt?ri ariya-sacc?ni
  • Sanskrit: ??????? ??????????? catv?ry ?ryasaty?ni
  • Bur: ??????????? thissa lei ba (IPA: [???sà lé bá])
  • Khmr: ??????????????
  • ??, ???, ????
    • Cn: Sìdì
    • Jp: shitai, shish?tai, kuj?metsud?
    • Vi: T? di?u ??
  • Mn: ???????? ?????? ????, khutagtiin dörvön unen
fukudo In Zen, term for person who strikes the han
  • Japanese: ?? fukud?

G

Definition Etymology In other languages
gassho A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in various Buddhist traditions, but also used in numerous cultures throughout Asia. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness, reverence and prayer. Also considered a mudra or inkei of Japanese Shingon. See also: Añjali Mudr?, Namaste, Sampeah and Wai.
  • Japanese: ?? gassh?
  • Sanskrit: anjali
  • ??
    • Cn: hézh?ng (more common to say ?? héshí)
    • Vi: hi?p ch??ng
Gautama Buddha
  • P?li: Gotama
  • Sanskrit: Gautama
  • Bur: ????? (IPA: [???d?ma?])
  • ?? ???
    • Jp: Kudon Shiddatta
geshe A Tibetan Buddhist academic degree in the Gelug tradition, awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more
  • Tibetan: ????????
  • Mn: ???? gevsh
  • ??
gongan, lit. "public case", A meditative method developed in the Chán/Seon/Zen traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see koan
  • Chinese ?? g?ng-àn
  • ??
    • Jp: k?an
    • Ko: gong'an
    • Vi: công án
Guan Yin The bodhisattva of compassion in East Asian Buddhism, with full name being Guan Shi Yin. Guan Yin is considered to be the female form of Avalokiteshvara but has been given many more distinctive characteristics.
  • Chinese ?? Gu?n Y?n or ??? Gu?n Shì Y?n
  • ?? or ???
    • Jp: Kannon or Kanzeon
    • Ko: Gwaneum or Gwanse-eum
    • Vi: Quan Âm or Quan Th? Âm

H

Definition Etymology In other languages
han In Zen monasteries, wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day
  • Japanese: ?
Hinayana, lit. "small vehicle", A coinage by the Mahayana for the Buddhist doctrines concerned with the achievement of Nirvana as a ?r?vakabuddha or a Pratyekabuddha, as opposed to a Samyaksambuddha. While sometime thought as derogatory, it means in fact that the Hinayana doctrine is made to save but 1 individual, the one who follows its teachings, just like a 1 place vehicle, while the Mahayana allow the monk to take other people along with him, like a bus or a great plane.
  • Sanskrit: h?nay?na
  • Bur: ?????? hinayana (IPA: [h?na?jàna?])
  • ?? or ??, ??
    • Cn: Xi?oshèng
    • Jp: Sh?j?
    • Vi: Ti?u th?a
  • Mn: ???? ??????, Baga hölgön

I

Definition Etymology In other languages
Ino, Jp. lit. "bringer of joy to the assembly." Originally from Sanskrit karmadana, lit. bestower of conduct [karma]. In Zen, the supervisor of the meditation hall [sodo]. One of the six senior temple administrators.
  • Japanese: ??

[1]

J

Definition Etymology In other languages
jhana Meditative contemplation; more often associated with ?amatha practices than vipa?yana. See also: shamata, samadhi, samapatti
  • from ?dhy?: to think of, to contemplate, meditate on
  • P?li: jh?na
  • Sanskrit: dhy?na
  • Bur: ???? zan (IPA: [zà?])
  • Mon: ????? ([chàn])
  • Thai: ??? chaan
  • ? or ??, ? or ??
  • Sinhala: ??? jh?na
    • Cn: Chán or Chánnà
    • Jp: Zen or Zenna
    • Ko: Seon
    • Vi: Thi?n or Thi?n-na
  • Mn: ?????, diyan
jisha In Zen, a senior priest's attendant
  • Japanese: ?? jisha
jukai Zen public ordination ceremony wherein a lay student receives certain Buddhist precepts.
  • Chinese: ??, shou jie
  • Korean: ??, sugye

K

Definition Etymology In other languages
Kakusandha Buddha
  • P?li: Kakusandha
  • Sanskrit: Krakkucchanda
  • Bur: ?????? Kakuthan (IPA: [ka?k??à?])
  • ????
    • Zh: J?liús?n Fó
    • Vi: Câu-l?u-tôn Ph?t
karma, lit. "action", The law of cause and effect in Buddhism
  • from ?kri: to do
  • Sanskrit: karma
  • P?li: kamma
  • Bur: ?? kan (IPA: [kà?]) or ?????? kyamma (IPA: [t??mà])
  • Mon: ?? ([k?m])
  • Shan: ????????? ([kja:m? ma:?]) or ????? ([ka:m?])
  • Thai: ???? gum
  • Tib: ??, las
  • Mn: ?????? ??, uiliin ür
  • ?¹, ??²
    • Cn: ¹, comm.: ²y?ngu?
    • Jp: g?, inga
    • Ko: ? eob
    • Vi: nghi?p
Kassapa Buddha
  • P?li: Kassapa

Sanskrit: Kasyapa

  • Bur: ??? Kathapa (IPA: [ka???pa?])
  • ???
    • Cn: Ji?yè Fó
    • Jp: Kash?butsu
    • Vi: Ca-di?p Ph?t
kensho In Zen, enlightenment; has the same meaning as sat?ri, but is customary used for an initial awakening experience
  • Japanese: ?? kensh?
  • ??
    • Cn: jiànxìng
    • Vi: ki?n tính, ki?n tánh
khyenpo, also khenpo, An academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology
  • Tibetan
khanti patience
  • Bur: ????? khanti (IPA: [k?à? dì])
  • Shan: ??????? ([k?an? t?i?])
  • Thai: ????? kanti
  • ??
    • Cn: Nàix?n
    • Vi: nh?n (trong l?c ba-la-m?t)
kinhin Zen walking meditation
  • Japanese: ?? kinhin or ky?gy?
  • ??
    • Cn: j?ngxíng
    • Vi: kinh hành
koan A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding, yet may be accessible to Intuition
  • Japanese: ?? k?an
  • ??
    • Cn: g?ng-àn
    • Ko: gong'an
    • Vi: công án
ksanti The practice of exercising patience toward behaviour or situations that might not necessarily deserve it--it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.
  • Sanskrit
  • ??
    • Jp: ninniku
Ko??gamana Buddha
  • P?li and Sanskrit: Ko??gamana
  • Bur: ???????? Kawnagon (IPA: [k??n??ò??])
  • ????
    • Zh: J?nàhán Fó
    • Vi: Câu-na-hàm-mâu-ni Ph?t'
kyosaku In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during zazen, to help overcome fatigue or reach satori
  • Japanese: ?? ky?saku, called keisaku in Rinzai
  • ??
    • Cn: xiangban

L

Definition Etymology In other languages
lama A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit "guru"
  • Tibetan: ????? bla ma
  • Sanskrit: guru
  • ??
    • Cn: l?ma
    • Jp: rama
    • Vi: l?t-ma
  • Mn: ???, lam
lineage The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to a tradition
  • ??

M

Definition Etymology In other languages
Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophical school, founded by Nagarjuna. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas
  • Sanskrit: m?dhyamika
  • Tib: ???????? dbu ma pa
  • Mn: ??? ????, töv üzel
  • ???, ???
    • Cn: Zh?nggu?nz?ng
    • Jp: Ch?ganha
    • Vi: Trung quán tông
mahabhuta four great elements in traditional Buddhist thought
  • P?li and Sanskrit: Mah?bh?ta
mahamudra A method of direct introduction the understanding of sunyata, of samsara and that the two are inseparable
  • Sanskrit: mah?mudr?
  • Bur: ???????? maha modra (IPA: [m?hà mo??d?à])
  • Tib: ??????????????? chag-je chen-po
  • Mn: ?????????, mahamudra
  • ???
    • Cn: dàsh?uyìn
    • Jp: daishuin
    • Vi: ??i th? ?n
mahasiddha litt. great spiritual accomplishment. A yogi in Tantric Buddhism, often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment
  • Sanskrit: mah?siddha
  • Bur: ???????? maha theidda (IPA: [m?hà ?e??da?])
  • Thai: ??????
  • ???
    • Cn: dàchéngjiù
    • Jp: daij?ju
    • Vi: ??i thành t?u
Mahayana, lit. "great vehicle", A major branch of Buddhism practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Main goal is to achieve buddhahood or samyaksambuddha
  • Sanskrit: mah?y?na
  • Bur: ?????? mahayana (IPA: [m?hàjàna?])
  • ?? or ??
    • Cn: Dàshèng
    • Jp: Daij?
    • Vi: ??i th?a
  • Mn: Ikh khölgön
Maitreya The Buddha of the future epoch
  • P?li: Metteyya
  • Sanskrit: Maitreya
  • Bur: ??????????? arimetteya (IPA: [???mèdja?])
  • Shan: ??????????????? ([?a? ri? mit? ta? j??])
  • Tib: ??????, byams pa
  • Mn: ??????, maidar
  • ?? or ???, ?? or ???
    • Cn: Mílè or Mílè Fó
    • Jp: Miroku or Miroku-butsu
    • Vi: Di-l?c or Ph?t Di-l?c
makyo In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during zazen
  • Japanese: ?? maky?
  • Vi: ma ch??ng
M?na conceit, arrogance, misconception
  • P?li and Sanskrit: M?na
  • Bur: ??? mana (IPA: [màna?])
  • Mon: ???? man ([màn])
  • Shan: ?????? ([ma:? na:?])
  • ?
    • Jp: man
mandala a spiritual and ritual symbol representing the Universe
  • Sanskrit: ????? Ma??ala (lit. "circle")
  • ???
    • Cn: màntúluó
    • Jp: mandara
    • Vi: m?n-?à-la
mantra Chant used primarily to aid concentration, to reach enlightenment. The best-known Buddhist mantra is possibly Om mani padme hum
  • Sanskrit: mantra
  • Thai: ????? moan
  • Mn: ?????, ?????; maani, tarni
  • ?, ??
    • Cn: zou
    • Jp: shingon, ju
    • Vi: chân âm, th?n chú
Mappo The "degenerate" Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha's passing and last for "10,000 years"; follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (?? Cn: zhèngf?; Jp: sh?b?) and of Middle Day of the Law (?? Cn: xiàngf?; Jp: z?h?). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the Three periods
  • Japanese: ?? mapp?
  • ??
    • Cn: mòf?
    • Vi: m?t pháp
merit
  • P?li: puñña
  • Sanskrit: pu?ya
  • Bur: ??????? kutho (IPA: [k?ðò])
  • Mon: ????? ([kao?s?]) or ????? ([p?n])
  • Shan: ???????? ([pu?? ?a:?]) or ???????? ([ku? s?o?]) or ??????? ([ku? s?a? la:?])
  • ??
    • Jp: kudoku
metta loving kindness
  • P?li:
  • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: ?????? myitta (IPA: [mj??tà])
  • Mon: ?????? ([mètta])
  • Shan: ???????? ([mit? ta:?]) or ???????? ([m?t? ta:?])
  • Thai: ????? metta
  • ?
    • Ch:
    • Jp: ji
    • Vi: t?
Middle Way The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices
  • P?li: majjhim?pa?ipad?
  • Sanskrit: madhyam?pratipad
  • Bur: ???????????? myizima badi bada (IPA: [mj??z?ma? b?d? b?dà])
  • ??
    • Ch: zh?ngdào
    • Jp: ch?d?
    • Vi: trung ??o
  • Mn: ?????? ??? ???, dundaj zam mör
(right) mindfulness The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the Noble Eightfold Path
  • P?li: (samm?)-sati
  • Sanskrit: (samyag)-sm?ti
  • Bur: ??? thadi (IPA: [ðad?])
  • Thai: ???????? samma-sati
  • ??
    • Cn: zhèngniàn
    • Jp: sh?nen
    • Vi: chính ni?m, chánh ni?m
moksha Liberation
  • Sanskrit: mok?a
  • P?li: vimutti
  • Bur: ???????? wimouti (IPA: [w?mo??t?])
  • ??
    • Cn: ji?tu?
    • Jp: gedatsu
    • Vi: gi?i thoát
mokugyo A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish
  • Japanese: ?? mokugyo
  • ??
    • Cn: mùyú
    • Vi:
mondo In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student
  • Japanese: ?? mond?
  • ??
    • Cn: wènd?
    • Vi:
mudra lit. "seal", A gesture made with hands and fingers in meditation
  • Sanskrit: mudr?
  • Bur: ????? modra (IPA: [mo??d?à])
  • Tib: ???????? phyag rgya
  • Mn: ??????, chagjaa
  • ??
    • Cn: sohyìn (commonly only yìn)
    • Jp: shuin
    • Vi: ?n

N

Definition Etymology In other languages
namo An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha's name or a sutra (Nam(u) My?h? Renge Ky?), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as ?? kimy?: to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to

Derivatives:

  • Namo Amitabha
  • P?li: namo
  • Sanskrit: nama? or namas

Derivatives:

  • Sanskrit: namo-'mit?bh?ya
  • Bur: ???? namaw (IPA: [n?m??])
  • Tib: ????????(??), chag tsal (lo)
  • Mn: ???????, mörgömü
  • ??
    • Cn: nánmó
    • Jp: namu or nam
    • Ko: namu
    • Vi: nam-mô

Derivatives:

  • ??????
    • Cn: Nánmó ?mítuó fó
    • Jp: Namu Amida butsu
    • Ko: Namu Amita Bul
    • Vi: Nam-mô A-di-?à Ph?t
  • ???????
    • Cn: Nánmó Guán Syr Yín P? Sá
    • Jp: Namu Kanzeon Butsu
    • Ko: Namu Gwan Se Eum Bo Sal
    • Vi: Nam-mô Quan Th? Âm B? Tát
nekkhamma renunciation
  • P?li:
  • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: ?????? neikhama (IPA: [ne??k??ma?])
  • Thai: ???????? nekkamma
  • Mn: ????? ???????, magad garahui
  • ??
    • Cn: Ch?shì
    • Jp: shusse
    • Vi: xu?t th?
Nirvana/Nibbana Extinction or extinguishing; ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist tradition
  • from ni?-?v?: to extinguish
  • P?li: nibb?na
  • Sanskrit: nirvana
  • Bur: ???????? neibban (IPA: [ne??bà?])
  • Thai: ?????? nípphaan
  • Tib: ??????????????, mya-ngan-las-'das-pa
  • Mn: ??????, nirvan
  • ??
    • Cn: Nièpán
    • Jp: Nehan
    • Ko: Yeolban
    • Vi: Ni?t-bàn
Nikaya, lit. "volume", The Buddhist texts in P?li
  • P?li: nik?ya
  • Sanskrit: ?gama
  • Bur: ????? nikaya (IPA: [n?k?ja?])
  • ??
    • Cn: Bùj?ng
    • Jp: buky?
    • Vi: B? kinh
Noble Eightfold Path
  1. Right View (P?li: samm?-di??hi; Sanskrit: samyag-d???i; ?? Cn: zhèngjiàn; Vi: chính ki?n)
  2. Right Thought (P?li: samm?-sa?kappa; Sanskrit: samyak-sa?kalpa; ??? Cn: zhèngs?wéi; Vi: chính t? duy)
    These 2 constitute the path of Wisdom (P?li: paññ?; Sanskrit: prajñ?)
  3. Right Speech (P?li: samm?-v?c?; Sanskrit: samyag-v?k; ?? Cn: zhèngy?; Vi: chính ng?)
  4. Right Action (P?li: samm?-kammanta; Sanskrit: samyak-karm?nta; ?? Cn: zhèngyè; Vi: chính nghi?p)
  5. Right Living (P?li: samm?-?j?va; Sanskrit: samyag-?j?va; ?? Cn: zhèngmìng; Vi: chính m?nh)
    These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (P?li: s?la; Sanskrit: ??la)
  6. Right Effort (P?li: samm?-v?y?ma; Sanskrit: samyag-vy?y?ma; ??? Cn: zhèngj?ngjìn; Vi: chính tinh ti?n)
  7. Right Mindfulness (P?li: samm?-sati; Sanskrit: samyag-sm?ti; ?? Cn: zhèngniàn; Vi: chính ni?m)
  8. Right Concentration (P?li: samm?-sam?dhi; Sanskrit: samyak-sam?dhi; ?? Cn: zhèngdìng; Vi: chính ??nh)
    The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (P?li, Sanskrit: sam?dhi)
  • P?li: a??h??gika-magga
  • Sanskrit: a????gika-m?rga
  • Bur: ?????? meggin (IPA: [m??????])
  • Thai: ???????? ariya-mak
  • ???
    • Cn: B?zhèngdào
    • Jp: Hassh?d?
    • Ko: Paljeongdo
    • Vi: Bát chính ??o

O

Definition Etymology In other languages
oryoki A set of bowls used in a Zen eating ceremony
  • Japanese: ??? ?ry?ki
osho A term used to address a monk of the Zen Buddhist tradition. Originally reserved for high-ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen clergy
  • Japanese: ?? osh?

P

Definition Etymology In other languages
pabbajja, (a layperson) leaving home to join a community of monks and nuns (lit. "to go forth")
  • Sanskrit: pravrajya
  • Pali: Pabbajja
  • ??
    • Cn: ch?ji?
    • Jp: shukke
    • Vi: xu?t gia
panca skandha The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:
  1. "form": P?li, Sanskrit: r?pa; Bu: ??? yupa; ? Cn: ; Jp: shiki
  2. "sensation": P?li, Sanskrit: vedan?; Bu: ???? wedana; ? Cn: shòu; Jp: ju
  3. "cognition": P?li: saññ?; Sanskrit: sa?jñ?; Bu: ??? thinnya; ? Cn: xiàng; Jp: s?
  4. "mental formations": P?li: sa?kh?ra; Sanskrit: sa?sk?ra; Bu: ??????? thinkhaya; ? Cn: xíng; Jp: gy?
  5. "consciousness": P?li: viññ??a; Sanskrit: vijñ?na; Bu: ?????? winyin; ? Cn: shí; Jp: shiki
  • Sanskrit: pañca skandha
  • P?li: pañca khandha
  • Bur: ??????????? khanda nga ba (IPA: [k?à?dà ?á bá])
  • Shan: ??? ??????? ([ha:? k?an? t?a:?])
  • ??, ??, ??
    • Cn: w?yùn
    • Jp: go-on, sometimes go-un
    • Vi: ng? u?n
Panchen Lama The second highest ranking lama in the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism. after the Dalai Lama
  • Tibetan: ???????????? pan-chen bla-ma
  • Sanskrit: pa??itaguru
  • Mn: ?????? ????, Banchin Bogd
  • ????
    • Cn: B?nchán L?ma
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: Ban-thi?n L?t-ma
paññ?, see prajna
  • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: ??? pyinnya (IPA: [pj????à])
  • Mon: ??? ([p?n?a])
  • Shan: ???????? ([pi?? ?a:?])
  • Tibetan: ??????? shes rab
  • Mn: ?????, bilig
  • ?? or ?? or ??
    • Cn: Zhìhuì, zh?huì, b?r?
    • Jp: chie,hannya
    • Vi: bát-nhã
paramartha Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional, truth or reality; see also samvrti
  • Sanskrit: param?rtha
  • Bur: ????? paramat (IPA: [p???ma?])
  • Thai: ??????? paramutt
  • ??
    • Jp: shintai
paramita, lit. "reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana practices for obtaining enlightenment; giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom
  • P?li: p?ram?
  • Sanskrit: p?ramit?
  • Bur: ????? parami (IPA: [pà??mì])
  • Mon: ????? ([par?m?e])
  • Thai: ????? baramee
  • Mn: ???????, baramid
  • ??? or ????
    • Cn: b?luómì or b?luómìdu?
    • Jp: haramitsu or haramita
    • Vi: ba-la-m?t or ba-la-m?t-?a
parinibbana/parinirvana The final nibbana/nirvana
  • from nibbana/nirvana above
  • P?li: parinibb?na
  • Sanskrit: parinirv??a
  • Bur: ??????????? pareineibban (IPA: [p??e??ne??bà?])
  • Thai: ????????? pari-nippaan
  • ???
    • Cn: b?nièpán
    • Jp: hatsunehan
    • Vi: bát-ni?t-bàn
Perfection of Wisdom
  • from p?ramit? ("perfection") above and prajñ?/paññ? ("wisdom") below
  • Sanskrit: prajñ?p?ramit?
  • P?li: paññ?parami
  • Bur: ???????? pyinnya parami (IPA: [pj????à pà??mì])
  • Mon: ???????? ([p?n?a par?m?e])
  • Mn: ????? ???????, bilig baramid
  • ????? or ??????
    • Cn: b?r?-b?luómì or b?r?-b?luómìdu?
    • Jp: hannya-haramitsu or hannya-haramita
    • Vi: bát-nhã-ba-la-m?t or bát-nhã-ba-la-m?t-?a
Pointing-out instruction The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence Mahamudra and Dzogchen. A root guru is the master who gives the 'pointing-out instruction' so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind
  • Tibetan: ????????? ngo-sprod
prajna/paññ? "wisdom", "insight"
  • P?li: paññ?
  • Sanskrit: prajñ?
  • Bur: ??? pyinnya (IPA: [pj????à])
  • Thai: ????? pun-ya
  • Tibetan: ??????? shes rab
  • Mn: ??????, khötlökh
  • ??
    • Cn: b?r? or b?nruò
    • Jp: hannya
    • Vi: bát-nhã
pratitya-samutpada "Dependent origination," the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions contingent with it. In English also called "conditioned genesis," "dependent co-arising," "interdependent arising," etc.

A famous application of dependent origination is the Twelve Nidana, or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: dv?da???gaprat?tyasamutp?da; ????, ???? Cn: shíàr y?nyuán; Jp: j?ni innen; Vi: th?p nh? nhân duyên), which are:

  1. Ignorance (P?li: avijj?; Sanskrit: avidy?; ?? Cn: wúmíng; Jp: mumy?; Vi: vô minh; Mn: ?????????, munhrahui)
  2. Ignorance creates Mental Formation (P?li: sa?kh?ra; Sanskrit: sa?sk?ra; ? Cn: xíng; Jp: gy?; Vi: hành; Mn: ????? ????????, khuran uildehui)
  3. Mental Formation creates Consciousness (P?li: viññ??a; Sanskrit: vijñ?na; ? Cn: shí; Jp: shiki; Vi: th?c; Mn: ???? ???????, tiin medehui)
  4. Consciousness creates Name & Form (P?li, Sanskrit: n?mar?pa; ?? Cn: míngsè; Jp: my?shiki; Vi: danh s?c; Mn: ??? ????, ner öngö)
  5. Name & Form create Sense Gates (P?li: sa??yatana; Sanskrit: ?a??yatana; ?? or ?? Cn: liùrù; Jp: rokuny? or rokusho; Vi: l?c c?n; Mn: ????? ???????, törön tugehui)
  6. Sense Gates create Contact (P?li: phassa; Sanskrit: spar?a; ?, ? Cn: chù; Jp: soku; Vi: xúc; Mn: ??????????, khureltsehui)
  7. Contact creates Feeling (P?li, Sanskrit: vedan?; ? Cn: shòu; Jp: ju; Vi: th?; Mn: ???????, serehui)
  8. Feeling creates Craving (P?li: ta?h?; Sanskrit: t????; ? Cn: ài; Jp: ai; Vi: ái; Mn: ?????????, khuritsahui)
  9. Craving creates Clinging (P?li, Sanskrit: up?d?na; ? Cn: q?; Jp: shu; Vi: th?; Mn: ??????, avahui)
  10. Clinging creates Becoming (P?li, Sanskrit: bhava; ? Cn: y?u; Jp: u; Vi: h?u; Mn: ??????, sansar)
  11. Becoming creates Birth (P?li, Sanskrit: j?ti; ? Cn: sh?ng; Jp: sh?; Vi: sinh; Mn: ???????, töröhui )
  12. Birth leads to Aging & Death (P?li, Sanskrit: jar?mara?a; ?? Cn: láos?; Jp: r?shi; Vi: lão t?; Mn: ????? ??????, ötlöh uhehui)
  • P?li: pa?icca-samupp?da
  • Sanskrit: pratitya-samutp?da
  • Bur: ??????????????? padeissa thamopad (IPA: [p?de??sa? ??mo??pa?])
  • Tib: ?????????????????????????? rten cing `brel bar `byung ba
  • Mn: ????? ??????????, shuten barildlaga
  • ?? (thought to be an abbreviation for ????), ??
    • Cn: yuánq?
    • Jp: engi
    • Vi: duyên kh?i
  • Also called ??, ??
    • Cn: y?nyuán
    • Jp: innen
    • Vi: nhân duyên
Pratyekabuddha/Paccekabuddha, lit. "a buddha by his own", A buddha who reaches enlightenment on his own
  • P?li: paccekabuddha
  • Sanskrit: pratyekabuddha
  • Bur: ???????????? pyiseka boddha (IPA: [pj??sèka? bo??dà])
  • ???
    • Cn: Bìzh? Fó
    • Jp: Hyakushibutsu
    • Vi: Bích-chi Ph?t
Pure Land Buddhism A large branch of Mahayana, dominantly in East Asia. The goal of Pure Land Buddhism is to be reborn in the Western sukhavati of Amitabha, either as a real place or within the mind, through the other-power of repeating the Buddha's name, nianfo or nembutsu.
  • ???(Ch), ???(Jp)
    • Cn: Jìngt?-z?ng
    • Jp: J?do-kyo
    • Ko: Jeongtojong
    • Vi: T?nh ?? tông
purisa The practicing Buddhist community as a whole; sangha and laity

R

Definition Etymology In other languages
rebirth The process of continuity of life after death
  • P?li: punabbhava
  • Sanskrit: punarbhava
  • ??
    • Cn: lunhui
    • Jp: rinne
    • Vi: luân h?i
Ratnasambhava
  • Sanskrit: Ratnasambhava
  • Tib: ????????????????? Rinchen Jung ne
  • Mn: ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????;
    ?????? ??????? ????, ???? ??????;
    Erdeni garkhu yin oron, Tegüs Erdeni
  • ???, ????
    • Jp: H?sh? Nyorai
    • Vi: B?o-sanh Nh? Lai
refuge Usually in the form of "take refuge in the Three Jewels"
  • P?li: sara?a
  • Sanskrit: ?ara?a
  • Bur: ?????? tharanagon (IPA: [????n??ò??])
  • Mn: ?????, avral
  • Tib: skyabs
  • Thai: ???? sorana
  • ??
    • Cn: gu?y?
    • Jp: kie
    • Vi: quy y
Rigpa, the knowledge that ensues from recognizing one's nature
  • Tibetan: ????? (rig pa)
  • Sanskrit: ?????? (vidy?)
Rinpoche, lit. "precious one", An honorific title for a respected Tibetan lama, such as a tulku
  • Tibetan: ??????????, rin-po-che
  • Mn: ????????, rimbuchii
  • ???
    • Cn: rénb?qi?
    • Jp: ????? rinpoche
    • Vi: ??
Rinzai Zen sect emphasizing koan study; named for master Linji Yixuan
  • Japanese: ??? Rinzai-sh?
  • ???
    • Cn: Línjì-z?ng
    • Vi: Lâm T? tông
Rohatsu A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha's enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar
  • Japanese: ?? R?hatsu or Rohachi
roshi, lit. "Master", An honorific given to Zen teachers in the Rinzai and Obaku sects.
  • Japanese ?? R?shi
  • ??
    • Cn: ''chan sh? (lit., old master)

S

Definition Etymology In other languages
sacca truthfulness
  • Sanskrit: Satya
samanera/shramanera A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu ordination
  • Sanskrit: ?r?ma?era
  • Bur: (????)????? (shin) thamane (IPA: [(????) ?àm?nè])
  • Mon: ??????? ([sam?n?e])
  • Shan: ??????? ([s?a:? mne?])
  • Thai: ?????? sama-naen
  • ??
    • Cn: sh?mí
    • Jp: shami
    • Vi: sa-di, chú ti?u
samatha Mental stabilization; tranquility meditation. Distinguished from vipassan? meditation
  • P?li: samatha
  • Sanskrit: ?amatha
  • Bur: ??? thamahta (IPA: [??m?t?a?])
  • Thai: ???? samatha
  • ???
    • Cn: sh?mót?
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: ??
samsara The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced
  • P?li, Sanskrit: sa?s?ra
  • Bur: ????? thanthaya (IPA: [?à?ð?jà])
  • Thai: ????????? sung-sara-wat
  • Tib: ?????? khor ba
  • Bur: ?????
  • Mn: ??????, orchlon
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: lúnhúi
    • Jp: rinne
    • Vi: luân h?i
samu Work, conceived as a part of Zen training.[2]
  • Japanese: ?? samu
  • ??
    • Cn: zuòwù
    • Vi: ??
samvrti Conventional, as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also paramartha
  • Sanskrit: sa?vriti
  • Bur: ??????? thamudi (IPA: [??m?d?])
  • Thai: ?????? sommoot
  • ??
    • Jp: zokutai
sangha The community of Buddhist monks and nuns. Teachers and practitioners.
  • Sanskrit: sa?gha
  • Bur: ???? thangha (IPA: [?à??à])
  • Mon: ??? ([s??])
  • Shan: ???????? ([s?a:?? k?a:?])
  • Thai: ???? song
  • Tib: ??????????? tsog gyu chog
  • Mn: ????????? ???????, khuvragiin chuulgan
  • ??
    • Cn: s?ng tuan
    • Jp: s?, s?ry?
    • Vi: t?ng già
Sanlun Buddhist philosophical school based on the Madhyamaka school
  • Chinese: ?? s?nlùn
  • ???
    • Cn: S?nlùnz?ng
    • Jp: Sanron-sh?
    • Vi: Tam lu?n tông
sanzen A formal interview with a teacher in many traditions of Zen. Similar to dokusan
  • Japanese
satori Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment
  • Japanese: ?? satori
  • ?
    • Cn:
    • Vi: ng?
sayadaw Burmese meditation master
seichu In the Zen Buddhist calendar, a period of intensive, formal monastic training. It is typically characterized by week-long Daisesshins and periodic sanzen
  • Japanese: ?? seichu
sesshin A Zen retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days
  • Japanese: ??, ??
  • ??
    • Cn: ''fóq?
  • ??/??
    • Cn: zuòlà
shikantaza Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on sitting" is the main practice of the Soto school of Japanese Zen Buddhism
  • Japanese: ????
  • ??
    • Cn: mòzhào
shunyata Emptiness; see also Nagarjuna
  • P?li: suññat?
  • Sanskrit: ??nyat?
  • Bur: ??? ' (IPA: [?ò???a?])
  • Shan: ???????? ([s?u?? ?a:?])
  • Tib: stong pa nyid
  • Mn: ?????? ?????, khooson chanar
  • ?
    • Cn: k?ng
    • Jp: k?
    • Vi: tính Không
Sikh? Buddha Buddha of Knowledge
  • P?li: Sikh? Buddha
  • Sanskrit: ?ikh?n Buddha
  • Jp: Shiki Butsu
sila "morals", "morality", "ethics": precepts
  • P?li: s?la
  • Sanskrit: ??la
  • Bur: ??? thila (IPA: [?ìla?])
  • Mon: ?? ([s?ela?])
  • Shan: ?????? ([s?i? la:?])
  • Thai: ??? seen
  • ??,?
    • Cn: jiè
    • Jp: kai
    • Vi: gi?i
  • Mn: ?????????, shagshaabad
S?t? Sect of Zen emphasizing shikantaza as the primary mode of practice; see also D?gen
  • Japanese: ??? S?t?-sh?
  • ???
    • Cn: Cáodòng-z?ng
    • Vi: Tào ??ng tông
store consciousness The base consciousness (alayavijnana) taught in Yogacara Buddhism
  • P?li, Sanskrit: ?layavijñ?na
  • ????
    • Cn: ?y?shí
    • Jp: arayashiki
    • Vi: a-l?i-da th?c
sukha happiness; ease; pleasure; bliss
  • P?li: sukha
  • Sanskrit: sukha
  • Bur: ???
  • Mon: ??
  • Mn: ??
  • ?
    • Cn:
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: ??
sutra Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof
  • from ?siv: to sew
  • Sanskrit: sutra
  • P?li: sutta
  • Bur: ???? thoht (IPA: [?o??])
  • Mon: ???? ([s?t])
  • Mon: ????? ([s?uk?])
  • Thai: ???? soothe
  • Mn: ?????, sudar
  • ?, ?
    • Cn: j?ng
    • Jp: ky?
    • Vi: kinh
Sutra Pitaka The second basket of the Tripi?aka canon, the collection of all Buddha's teachings
  • P?li: Sutta-pi?aka
  • Sanskrit: S?tra-pi?aka
  • Bur: ???? thoht (IPA: [?o??])
  • Mon: ???? ([s?t])
  • Mon: ????? ([s?uk?])
  • Mn: ?????? ????? Sudriin aimag
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: j?ngcáng
    • Jp: ky?z?
    • Vi: Kinh t?ng

T

Definition Etymology In other languages
tangary? A period of waiting for admission into a Zen monastery at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks--depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the s?d?.
  • Japanese: ???
tanha Craving or desire
  • P?li: ta?h?
  • Sanskrit: t????
  • Bur: ???? tahna (IPA: [t?n?à])
  • Thai: ????? tunha
  • Mn: ?????????, khuritsahui
  • ?
    • Cn: ài
    • Jp: ai
    • Kr: ? ae
    • Vi: ái
Tanto In Zen, one of the main temple leaders, lit."head of the tan." In a Zen temple, the Tanto is one of two officers (with the Godo) in charge monks' training.[2]
  • Japanese:??
tantra Esoteric religious practices, including yoga, mantra, etc. See also Vajrayana.
  • Sanskrit: tantra
  • Mn: ??????? ??, ??????, tarniin yos, dandar
  • ??,???
    • Cn: dátèluó
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: ?át-??c-la
Tathagata one of the Buddha's ten epithets
  • Sanskrit: tath?gata; The "Thus-Gone One"
  • Bur: ????? tahtagata (IPA: [ta?t?à??ta?])
  • Thai: ????? tatha-kohd
  • Mn: ???????? ?????, tuunchlen irsen
  • ??
    • Cn: rúlái
    • Jp: nyorai
    • Vi: nh? lai
tathagatagarbha Buddha-nature or the seed of enlightenment
  • Sanskrit: tath?gatagarbha
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: fóxìng
    • Jp: bussh?
  • Also ??
    • Cn: juéxìng
    • Jp: kakush?
    • Vi: giác tính
  • Also ???, ???
    • Cn: rúláizàng
    • Jp: nyuoraiz?
    • Vi: nh? lai t?ng
teisho A presentation by a Zen master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen realisation
  • Japanese: ?? teish?
tenzo In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen
  • Japanese: ?? tenzo
  • ??
    • Cn: di?nzuò
    • Vi: ?i?n to?
Theravada, lit. "words of the elders", Most popular form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.
  • P?li: therav?da
  • Sanskrit: sthavirav?da
thera or their, lit. "elder", Honorific applied to senior monks and nuns in the Theravada tradition.
  • P?li: thera
Three Jewels Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings (Dharma) and the community of realized practitioners (Sangha), and in return look toward for guidance (see also Refuge (Buddhism))
  • P?li: tiratana
  • Sanskrit: triratna
  • Bur: ????????????? tharanagon thon ba (IPA: [????n??ò?? ?ó?? bá]) OR ??????????? yadana thon ba ([j?d?nà ?ó?? bá)])
  • Thai: ???????? trai-rut
  • Tib: ??????????????, dkon mchog gsum
  • Mn: ????? ???? ????? chuhag deed gurav
  • ??
    • Cn: s?nb?o
    • Jp: sanb?
    • Vi: tam b?o
Three periods
  • Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (?? Cn: zhèngf?; Jp: sh?b?), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (?? Cn: xiàngf?; Jp: z?h?), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (?? Cn: mòf?; Jp: mapp?), which is to last for 10,000 years.
  • The three periods are significant to Mahayana adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra in high regard; e.g., Tiantai (Tendai) and Nichiren Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different capacity to accept a teaching (?? Cn: j?g?n; Jp: kikon) of the people born in each respective period.
  • The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (???? Cn: w? w?b?i suì; Jp: go no gohyaku sai), the fifth and last of which was prophesied to be when the Buddhism of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters.
  • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (??? Cn: dàjí j?ng; Jp: Daishutu-ky?, Daijuku-ky?, Daijikky?, or Daishukky?). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mapp? will last for 10,000 years).
  • ??
    • Cn: S?nshí
    • Jp: Sanji
    • Vi: Tam th?i
Three Poisons or Three Fires
The three primary causes of unskillful action that lead to the creation of "negative" karma; the three root kleshas:
  1. Attachment (P?li: lobha; Sanskrit: r?ga; Tib.: ????????? 'dod chags)
  2. Aversion (Pali: doha; Sanskrit: dve?a; Tib.: ??????? zhe sdang; Mn: ???? ?????, urin khilen; ? Cn: ch?n; Jp: jin; Vi: sân)
  3. Ignorance (P?li: moha; Sanskrit: moha; Tib.: ???????? gti mug)
  • P?li: kilesa (Defilements)
  • Sanskrit: kle?a
  • Sanskit: trivi?a
  • Tib: düsum (Wylie: dug gsum)
  • Bur: ?????????? mi thon ba (IPA: [mí ?ó?? bá])
  • Mn: ?????? ???, gurvan khor
  • ??
    • Cn: S?ndú
    • Jp: Sandoku
    • Vi: Tam ??c
Tiantai/Tendai A Mahayana school of China that teaches the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra
  • Chinese: ?? ti?ntái
  • ???
    • Cn: ti?ntái z?ng
    • Jp: tendai-sh?
    • Vi: Thiên Thai tông
trailõkya The 3 "regions" of the world:
  1. Kamaloka or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, P?li: k?maloka, k?madh?tu; Tibetan: ????????? `dod khams; Mn: ?????????? ????, amarmagiin oron; ?? Cn: yùjiè, Jp: yokkai Vi: d?c gi?i)
  2. Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: r?paloka, r?padh?tu; Tibetan: ?????????? gzugs khams; Mn: ???????? ????, durstiin oron; ?? Cn: sèjiè; Jp: shikikai , Vi: s?c gi?i)
  3. Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: ar?paloka, ar?padh?tu; Tibetan: ?????????????? gzugs med khams; Mn: ???????? ????, dursquin oron; ??? Cn: wú sèjiè, Jp: mushikikai Vi: vô s?c gi?i)
  • Sanskrit: triloka
  • P?li: tisso dh?tuyo
  • Tibetan: ????????? khams gsum
  • Mn: ?????? ????, gurvan oron
  • ??
    • Cn: s?njiè
    • Jp: sangai
    • Vi: tam gi?i
trikaya The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:
  • Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: dharmak?ya; ?? Cn: f?sh?n; Jp: hosshin; Vi: pháp thân)
  • Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: sa?bhogak?ya; ?? Cn: bàosh?n; Jp: h?shin; Vi: báo thân)
  • Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: nirm??ak?ya; ??,??,?? Cn: yìngsh?n; Jp: ?jin; Vi: ?ng thân)
  • Sanskrit: trik?ya
  • ??
    • Cn: s?nsh?n
    • Jp: sanjin
    • Vi: tam thân
Tripitaka The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism (P?li)
  • Vinaya Pitaka (P?li, Sanskrit: Vinaya-pi?aka; Tib: ?????????????????? `dul ba`i sde snod; Mn: ?????? ????? ??? vinain aimag sav; ??, ?? Cn: l?zàng; Jp: Ritsuz?; Vi: Lu?t t?ng)
  • Sutra Pitaka (P?li: Sutta-pi?aka; Sanskrit: S?tra-pi?aka; Tib: ??????????????????? mdo sde`i sde snod; Mn: ?????? ????? ??? sudriin aimag sav; ??, ?? Cn: j?ngzàng; Jp: Ky?z?; Vi: Kinh t?ng)
  • Abhidhamma Pitaka (P?li: Abhidhamma-pi?aka; Sanskrit: Abhidharma-pi?aka; Tib: ?????????????????? mngon pa`i sde snod; Mn: ????????? ????? ??? avidarmiin aimag sav; ??, ?? Cn: lùnzàng; Jp: Ronz?; Vi: Lu?n t?ng)
  • P?li: tipi?aka
  • Sanskrit: tripi?aka
  • Burmese: ?????? Tipitaka (IPA: [t?p?t?ka?])
  • Thai: ??????? Traipidok
  • ??????????????, sde snod gsum
  • Mn: ?????? ????? ???, gurvan aimag sav
  • ??, ??
    • Cn: S?nzàng
    • Jp: Sanz?
    • Ko: Samjang
    • Vi: Tam t?ng
Triratna/Tiratana, see Three Jewels above
  • P?li: tiratana
  • Sanskrit: triratna
  • Tib: ??????????????, dkon mchog gsum
  • Mn: ?????? ??????, gurvan erdene
trsna, see tanha above
tulku A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher
  • Tibetan: ?????????? tulku
  • Mn: ?????????, khuvilgaan
  • ??? (?????????)
    • Cn: Zài lái rén
    • Jp: keshin
    • Vi: hoá thân

U

Definition Etymology In other languages
upadana Clinging; the 9th link of Pratitya-Samutpada; the Ninth Twelve Nidanas
  • P?li, Sanskrit: up?d?na
  • Bur: ??????? upadan (IPA: [?pàdà?])
  • Shan: ??????????? ([?u? pa:? ta:n?])
  • Thai: ??????? u-pa-taan
  • Tib: ?????, len pa
  • Mn: ??????, avahui
  • ?(???????)
    • Cn: q?
    • Jp: shu
    • Vi: th?
Upajjhaya spiritual teacher
  • P?li: Upajjhaya
  • Sanskrit: up?dhy?y
upasaka A lay follower of Buddhism
  • Sanskrit: up?saka
  • Bur: ?????? upathaka (IPA: [?pà??kà])
  • Mon: ?????? ([??pas?ka])
  • Thai: ?????? u-ba-sok
  • ???, ???
    • Cn: jìnshìnán
    • Jp: ubasoku
    • Vi: c? s?
upasika A female lay follower
  • from upasaka above
  • Sanskrit: up?sika
  • Bur: ??????? upathika (IPA: [?pà??kà])
  • Thai: ???????? u-ba-sika
  • ???, ???
    • Cn: jìnshìn?
    • Jp: ubai
    • Vi: (n?) c? s?
upaya Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "merely" expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against one's own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines

In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment

  • Sanskrit: up?ya
  • Bur: ????? upe (IPA: [? pè])
  • Tib: ???, thabs
  • Mn: ????, arga
  • ??
    • Cn: f?ngbiàn
    • Jp: h?ben
    • Vi: ph??ng ti?n
upekkha equanimity
  • P?li: upekkh?
  • Sanskrit: upek??
  • Bur: ?????? upyikkha (IPA: [?pj??k?à])
  • Thai: ??????? u-bek-kha
  • Tib: ??????????, btang snyoms
  • Mn: ?????? ???????, tegshid barihui
  • ??,??, ?
    • Cn: Zhèndìng, chénzhuó
    • Jp: sha
urna A concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows
  • Sanskrit: urna
  • Mn: ??????? ??????, bilgiin melmii
  • ??
    • Jp: byakug?
    • Vi: b?ch hào

V

Definition Etymology In other languages
Vajrayana, The third major branch, alongside Hinayana and Mahayana, according to Tibetan Buddhism's view of itself
  • Sanskrit: vajray?na, lit. "diamond vehicle"
  • Bur: ??????? wazeirayana (IPA: [w?zei?a? jàna?])
  • Thai: ??????? wachira-yaan
  • Mn: ????? ??????, ochirt khölgön
  • ???
    • Cn: J?ng?ng shèng
    • Jp: Kong? j?
    • Vi: Kim c??ng th?a
Vairocana,
  • Sanskrit: ??????
  • Tib: ??????????????? rNam-par-snang mdzad
  • Mn: ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????;
    ????????, ????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ??????;
    Biruzana, Masida Geyigülün Zohiyaghci, Gegegen Gereltü
  • ?????, ????
    • Cn: Pílúzh?nàfó
    • Jp: Dainichi Nyorai, Birushana-butsu
    • Vi: ??i Nh?t Nh? Lai
V?san? habitual tendencies or dispositions
  • P?li and Sanskrit: V?san?
Vinaya Pitaka, The first basket of the Tripitaka canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life
  • P?li, Sanskrit: vinaya-pi?aka, lit. "discipline basket"
  • Bur: ???????????? wini pitakat (IPA: [w?ní p?d??a?])
  • Mon: ???? ([wì?nòa])
  • Shan: ?????? ([wi?? ??])
  • Thai: ????? wi-nai
  • Tib: ?????????????????? dul-bai sde-snod
  • Mn: ?????? ????? ???, vinain aimag sav
  • ??
    • Cn: L?zàng
    • Jp: Ritsuz?
    • Vi: Lu?t t?ng
vipassana Usually translated as "Insight" meditation, most associated with the Therav?da tradition, but also present in some other traditions such as Tiantai. Often combined with ?amatha meditation
  • from vi-?d??: to see apart
  • P?li: vipassan?
  • Sanskrit: vipa?yan?, vidar?an?
  • Bur: ?????? wipathana (IPA: [w?pa??anà])
  • Shan: ???????????? ([wi? pa:t? s?a? na:?])
  • Thai: ???????? wipadsana
  • Tib: ????????lhag mthong
  • Mn: ????? ????, ulemj uzel
  • ?,?
    • Cn: gu?n
    • Jp: kan
    • Vi: quán
viriya energy, enthusiastic perseverance
  • from
  • P?li: viriya
  • Sanskrit: v?rya,
  • Tib: brtson-grus
  • Thai: ?????? wiriya
  • ??
    • Cn: néngliàng
    • Jp: n?ry?
    • Vi: n?ng-l??ng

Y

Definition Etymology In other languages
y?na divisions or schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice (lit. "vehicle")
  • P?li: y?na
  • Sanskrit: y?na
  • ?
    • Cn: shèng
    • Jp: j?
    • Vi: th?a

Z

Definition Etymology In other languages
zazen Sitting meditation as practiced in the Zen School of Buddhism
  • Japanese: ??
  • ??
    • Cn: zuòchán
    • Kr: jwaseon
    • Vi: to? thi?n
Zen School A branch of Mahayana originating in China that originally emphasizes non-dualism and intuition. Modern monastic forms have a strong emphasis on zazen (Korean) or on zazen combined with militaristic top-down hazing (Japanese)
  • Japanese: ?? Zen-shu
  • ??
    • Cn: Chánz?ng
    • Vi: Thi?n tông
zendo In Zen, a hall where zazen is practiced
  • Japanese: ??
  • ??
    • Cn: chántáng
    • Vi: thi?n ???ng

See also

References

  1. ^ Leighton / Okumura (1996). Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community. Albany, NY: SUNY. p. 214. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2. 
  2. ^ Leighton/ Okumura (1996). Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community. Albany: SUNY. p. 231. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2. 

External links


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