Emperor Go-Mizunoo ( Go-Mizunoo-tenn?, 29 June 1596 - 11 September 1680) was the 108th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Go-Mizunoo's reign spanned the years from 1611 through 1629.
This 17th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Seiwa and go- (?), translates as "later", and thus, he could be called the "Later Emperor Mizunoo". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one", and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Mizunoo II".
Before Go-Mizunoo's accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina) was Kotohito () or Masahito.
He was the third son of Emperor Go-Y?zei. His mother was Konoe Sakiko, the daughter of Konoe Sakihisa.
He resided with his family in the Dairi of the Heian Palace. The family included at least 33 children; and four of them would occupy the throne.
- Ch?g?: Tokugawa Masako (?, 1607-1678), later known as T?fuku-mon'in (?),Tokugawa Hidetada's daughter
- Second Daughter: Imperial First Princess Okiko ( Onna-ichi-no-miya Okiko Naishinn?, 1624-1696), became Empress Meish?
- Third Daughter: Imperial Second Princess ( Onna-ni-no-miya, 1625-1651) married Konoe Hisatsugu
- Second Son: Imperial Prince Sukehito (? Sukehito Shinn?, 1626-1628)
- Third Son: Prince Waka ( Waka-no-miya, 1628)
- Fourth Daughter: Imperial Third Princess Akiko ( Onna-San-no-miya Akiko Naishinn?, 1629-1675)
- Sixth Daughter: Imperial Fifth Princess Yoshiko ( Onna-Go-no-Miya Yoshiko Naishinn?, 1632-1696) married Nij? Mitsuhira
- Seventh Daughter: Princess Kiku ( Kiku-no-miya, 1633-1634)
- Lady-in-waiting: Yotsutsuji Yotsuko (, d. 1639), later known as Meiky?'in (), Yotsutsuji Kinto's daughter
- First Son: Prince Kamo ( Kamo-no-miya) 1618-1622
- First Daughter: Princess Ume ( Ume-no-miya) 1619-1697, later known as Princess Bunji (?)
- Lady-in-waiting: Sono (Fujiwara) Mitsuko () 1602-1656, later known as Mibu'in (), Sadaijin Sono Mototada's daughter
- Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Suga-no-miya Tsuguhito (? Suga-no-miya Tsuguhito Shinn?, 1633-1654), became Emperor Go-K?my?
- Sixth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Syuch? ( Shy?ch? Shinn?, 1634-1680), in 1654, becomes abbot of Kan'ei-ji in Ueno, known as Rinn?ji no miya.
- Tenth Daughter: Princess Gensho (? 1637-1662)
- Eleventh Daughter: Princess S?ch? (? 1639-1678)
- Thirteenth Daughter: Princess Katsura ( Katsura-no-miya, 1641-1644)
- Lady-in-waiting: Kushige (Fujiwara) Takako (1604-1685; ?) later H?shunmon-in (?), Kushige Takachika's daughter
- Fifth Daughter: Princes Risho (1631-1656; ?)
- Fifth Son: (1633)
- Eighth Daughter: Imperial Princess Ake-no-miya Teruko ( Ake-no-miya Teruko Naishinn?, 1634-1727), artist
- Eight Son: Imperial Prince Hide-no-miya Nagahito ( Hide-no-miya Nagahito Shinn?, 1638-1685), became Emperor Go-Sai
- Ninth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Shosin (; 1639-1696)
- Eleventh Son: Imperial Prince Hachij?-no-miya Yasuhito (? Hachij?-no-miya Yasuhito Shinn?, 1643-1665), later adopted into the Katsura-no-miya princely house.
- Twelfth Daughter: Princess Masa (; 1640-1641)
- Fourteenth Daughter: Princess Richu (?; 1641-1689)
- Thirteenth Son: Imperial Prince Priest D?kan (; 1647-1676)
- Lady-in-waiting: Sono (Fujiwara) Kuniko (1624-1627; ) later Shin-Kogimon-in (), Sono Motonari's daughter
- Tenth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Gyojo (; 1640-1695)
- Fifteenth Daughter: Imperial Princess Tsuneko (; 1642-1702) married Konoe Motohiro
- Fourteenth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Shinmu (; 1649-1706)
- Sixteenth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Sonshoho (; 1651-1694)
- Nineteenth Son: Imperial Prince Ate-no-miya Satohito (?): became Emperor Reigen
- Seveteenth Daughter: Princess Eikyo (?; 1657-1686)
- Lady-in-waiting: Yotsutsuji Tsuguko (?; d.1657), Yotsutsuji Suetsugu's daughter
- Twelfth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Sonko (; 1645-1680)
- Eighteenth Prince: Imperial Prince Priest Seiin (; 1651-1680)
- Sixteenth Daughter: Princess Bunsatsu (?; 1654-1683)
- Court Lady: Minase Ujiko (; 1607-1672), Minase Ujinori's daughter
- Eighth Daughter: Princess Shin (; 1635-1637)
- Seventh Son: Imperial Prince Priest Shojo (; 1637-1678)
Prince Masahito became emperor following the abdication of his emperor-father. The succession (the senso) was considered to have been received by the new monarch; and shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Mizunoo is said to have acceded (the sokui). The events during his lifetime shed some light on his reign. The years of Go-Mizunoo's reign correspond with a period in which Tokugawa Hidetada and Tokugawa Iemitsu were leaders at the pinnacle of the Tokugawa shogunate.
- 29 June 1596: The birth of an Imperial prince who will become known by the posthumous name of Go-Mizunoo.
- 20 May 1610 (Keich? 15, 27th day of the 3rd month): Toyotomi Hideyori came to Miyako to visit the former-Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu; and the same day, Go-Y?zei announced his intention to renounce the throne.
- 9 May 1611 (Keich? 16): In the 26th year of Go-Y?zei-tenn? 's reign (), he abdicated; and the reign of Emperor Go-Mizunoo is considered to have begun. The young emperor was aged 16.
- 1614 (Keich? 19): Siege of Osaka. Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada vanquished Toyotomi Hideyori and set fire to Osaka Castle, and then he returned for the winter to Edo.
- 26 November 1614 (Keich? 19, 25th day of the 10th month): There was a strong earthquake. The same year a great bell for the Daibutsu Temple in Kyoto was cast.
- 1615 (Keich? 20): Osaka Summer Battle begins
- 1615 (Genna 1): Tokugawa Ieyasu and his son, Shogun Hidetada, marched again to Osaka Castle, which was captured and burned. Hideyori committed suicide. However his body was never found; it was rumored that he fled to Satsuma, where he had prepared a refuge in advance.
- 6 January 1616 (Genna 2, 17th day of the 4th month): Ieyasu died at Suruga.
- 25 September 1617 (Genna 3, 26th day of the 8th month): Former-Emperor Go-Y?zei died. He is buried at the North Fukakusa Burial Mound (? Fukakusa no Kita no Misasagi).
- 1620 (Genna 6): Tokugawa Masako, the daughter of Shogun Hidetada, entered the palace as a consort of the emperor; and the marriage was celebrated with great pomp.
- 2 April 1620 (Genna 6, 30th day of the 2nd month): Severe fire in Kyoto.
- 6 April 1620 (Genna 6, 4th day of the 3rd month): Severe fires in Kyoto.
- 1623 (Genna 9): Tokugawa Iemitsu, son of Hidetada, came to the court of the emperor where he was created Shogun.
- 25 October 1623 (Kan'ei 3, 6th day of the 9th month): Go-Mizunoo visits Nij? Castle, which was built in 1586 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
- 1627 (Kan'ei 6): The "Purple Robe Incident" (? shi-e jiken): The Emperor was accused of having bestowed honorific purple garments to more than ten priests despite the shogun's edict which banned them for two years (probably in order to break the bond between the Emperor and religious circles). The shogunate intervened making the bestowing of the garments invalid. The priests which had been honored by the emperor were sent into exile by the bakufu.
- 22 December 1629 (Kan'ei 6, 8th day of the 11th month): Go-Mizunoo abdicated. The emperor renounced the throne in favor of his daughter, Okiko, on the same day that the priests of the "Purple Robe Incident" went into exile. Okiko became the Empress Meish?.
For the rest of his long life, Go-Mizuno-in concentrated on various aesthetic projects and interests, of which perhaps the best-known are the magnificent Japanese gardens of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa.
- 11 September 1680 (Enp? 8, 19th day of the 8th month): Former-Emperor Go-Mizunoo died.
Go-Mizunoo's memory is honored at Senny?-ji in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto where a designated Imperial mausoleum (misasagi) is located. It is named Tsuki no wa no misasagi. Also enshrined are this emperor's immediate Imperial successors - Meish?, Go-K?my?, Go-Sai, Reigen, Higashiyama, Nakamikado, Sakuramachi, Momozono, Go-Sakuramachi and Go-Momozono.
Kugy? () is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Mizunoo's reign, this apex of the Daij?-kan included:
- Kampaku, Kuj? Yukiie, 1608-1612
- Kampaku, Takatsukasa Nobuhisa, 1612-1615
- Kampaku, Nij? Akizane, 1615-1619
- Kampaku, Kuj? Yukiie, 1619-1623
- Kampaku, Konoe Nobuhiro, 1623-1629.
- Kampaku, Ichij? Akiyoshi, 1629
- Udaijin, Konoe Nobuhiro, 1619.
The years of Go-Mizunoo's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or neng?.
|Ancestors of Emperor Go-Mizunoo|
- ^ Imperial Household Agency (Kunaich?): (108)
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 113-115.
- ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 410-411.
- ^ Emperor Seiwa, after his death, was sometimes referred to as Mizunoo () because this is the location of his tomb.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 9.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Titsingh, p. 410.
- ^ a b c d Ponsonby-Fane, p. 114.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 115.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 114-115; Satow, Ernest Mason. (1881). A Handbook for Travellers in Central & Northern Japan, p. 408.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 115
- ^ Titsingh, p. 410; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinn? Sh?t?ki, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jit?, Y?zei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- ^ a b c Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186.
- ^ Titsingh, p. 409.
- ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane, p. 113.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 410.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 114; Titsingh, p. 411.
- ^ Titsingh, p. 414; Meyer, p. 186.
- ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 423.
- ^ () Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 2018. (in Japanese)