Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms depending on what case they are in. As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative), a phenomenon formally called syncretism.
English has largely lost its case system, although personal pronouns still have three cases that are simplified forms of the nominative, accusative and genitive cases that are used with personal pronouns: subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, whoever), objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, whomever) and possessive case (my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; their, theirs; whose; whosever). Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject ("I kicked the ball"), whereas forms such as me, him and us are used for the object ("John kicked me").
Languages such as Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, Latin, Armenian, Hungarian, Hindi, Tibetan, Czech, Slovak, Turkish, Tamil, Romanian, Russian, Polish, Bosnian, Serbo-Croatian, Estonian, Finnish, Icelandic, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Basque, Esperanto and the majority of the Caucasian languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners all inflecting (usually by means of different suffixes) to indicate their case. The number of cases differs between languages: German and Icelandic have four; Turkish, Latin and Russian each have at least six; Armenian, Czech, Polish, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Ukrainian, and Lithuanian have seven; Sanskrit has eight; Estonian and Finnish have fifteen, Hungarian has eighteen and Tsez has sixty-four.
Commonly encountered cases include nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive. A role that one of these languages marks by case will often be marked in English using a preposition. For example, the English prepositional phrase with (his) foot (as in "John kicked the ball with his foot") might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case, or in Ancient Greek as ? (tôi podí, meaning "the foot") with both words (the definite article, and the noun ? (poús) "foot") changing to dative form.
More formally, case has been defined as "a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads".:p.1 Cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as agent and patient. They are often closely related, and in languages such as Latin several thematic roles have an associated case, but cases are a morphological notion, whereas thematic roles are a semantic one. Languages having cases often exhibit free word order, because thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence.
The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, which is derived from the verb cadere, "to fall", from the Proto-Indo-European root *?ad-. The Latin word is a calque of the Greek , ptôsis, lit. "falling, fall". The sense is that all other cases are considered to have "fallen" away from the nominative. This picture is also reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, "to lean", from the PIE root *?ley-.
The equivalent to "case" in several other European languages also derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Spanish and Kasus in German. The Russian word (padyézh) is a calque from Greek and similarly contains a root meaning "fall", and the German Fall and Czech pád simply mean "fall", and are used for both the concept of grammatical case and to refer to physical falls. The Finnish equivalent is sija, which can also mean "position" or "support".
Although not very prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit. Historically, the Indo-European languages had eight morphological cases, though modern languages typically have fewer, using prepositions and word order to convey information that had previously been conveyed using distinct noun forms. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages (except Macedonian and Bulgarian), with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic, German and Modern Greek, which have four.[a] In German, cases are mostly marked on articles and adjectives, and less so on nouns. In Icelandic, articles, adjectives, personal names and nouns are all marked for case, making it, among other things, the living Germanic language that could be said to most closely resemble Proto-Germanic.
The eight historical Indo-European cases are as follows, with examples either of the English case or of the English syntactic alternative to case:
|Case||Indicates||Sample case words||Sample sentence||Interrogative||Notes|
|Nominative||Subject of a finite verb||we||We went to the store.||Who or what?||Corresponds to English's subject pronouns.|
|Accusative||Direct object of a transitive verb||us,
|The clerk remembered us.
John waited for us at the bus stop.
Obey the law.
|Whom or what?||Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition "for" construction before the object, often marked by a definite article "the". Together with dative, it forms modern English's oblique case.|
|Dative||Indirect object of a verb||us,
to the (object)
|The clerk gave us a discount.
The clerk gave a discount to us.
According to the law...
|Whom or to what?||Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition "to" construction before the object, often marked by a definite article "the". Together with accusative, it forms modern English's oblique case.|
|Ablative||Movement away from||from us||The victim went from us to see the doctor.||Whence? From where/whom?|
|Genitive||Possessor of another noun||'s,
|John's book was on the table.
The pages of the book turned yellow.
Table made out of wood.
To each his own.
|Whose? From what or what of?||Roughly corresponds to English's possessive (possessive determiners and pronouns) and preposition "of" construction.|
|Vocative||Addressee||John||John, are you all right?
|Locative||Location, either physical or temporal||in China,
at the bus stop,
in the future
|We live in China.
John is waiting for us at the bus stop.
We will see what will happen in the future.
|Where or wherein? When?||Roughly corresponds to English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by" and other less common prepositions.|
|Instrumental||A means or tool used or companion present in/while performing an action||with a mop,
|We wiped the floor with a mop.
This letter was written by hand.
|How? With what or using what? By what means?
|Corresponds to English prepositions "by", "with" and "via" as well as synonymous constructions such as "using", "by use of" and "through".|
All of the above are just rough descriptions; the precise distinctions vary from language to language, and are often quite complex. Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the noun's role in the sentence. This is not how English works; instead, word order and prepositions are used to achieve this.
Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The personal pronouns of Modern English retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class (a remnant of the more extensive case system of Old English). For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive" (-'s).[b]
Taken as a whole, English personal pronouns are typically said to have three morphological cases:
Most English personal pronouns have five forms: the nominative and oblique case forms, the possessive case, which has both a determiner form (such as my, our) and a distinct independent form (such as mine, ours) (with two exceptions: the third person singular masculine and the third person singular neuter it, which use the same form for both determiner and independent [his car, it is his]), and a distinct reflexive or intensive form (such as myself, ourselves). The interrogative personal pronoun who exhibits the greatest diversity of forms within the modern English pronoun system, having definite nominative, oblique, and genitive forms (who, whom, whose) and equivalently coordinating indefinite forms (whoever, whomever, and whosever).
Though English pronouns can have subject and object forms (he/him, she/her), nouns show only a singular/plural and a possessive/non-possessive distinction (e.g. chair, chairs, chair's, chairs'). Note that chair does not change form between "the chair is here" (subject) and "I saw the chair" (direct object), a distinction made by word order and context.
Cases can be ranked in the following hierarchy, where a language that does not have a given case will tend not to have any cases to the right of the missing case::p.89
This is, however, only a general tendency. Many forms of Central German, such as Colognian and Luxembourgish, have a dative case but lack a genitive. In Irish nouns, the nominative and accusative have fallen together, whereas the dative-locative has remained separate in some paradigms; Irish also has genitive and vocative cases. In Punjabi, the accusative, genitive, and dative have merged to an oblique case, but the language still retains vocative, locative, and ablative cases. Old English had an instrumental case, but not a locative or prepositional.
The "traditional" case order (nom-gen-dat-acc) was expressed for the first time in The Art of Grammar in the 2nd century AD:
There are five Cases, the right [nominative], the generic [genetive], the dative, the accusative, and the vocative.
However, for some languages, such as Russian or Latin, due to case syncretism the order may be changed for convinience, where the accusative or the vocative cases are placed after the nominative and before the genitive. For example:
In the most common case concord system, only the head-word (the noun) in a phrase is marked for case. This system appears in many Papuan languages as well as in Turkic, Mongolian, Quechua, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, and other languages. In Basque and various Amazonian and Australian languages, only the phrase-final word (not necessarily the noun) is marked for case. In many Indo-European, Balto-Finnic, and Semitic languages, case is marked on the noun, the determiner, and usually the adjective. Other systems are less common. In some languages, there is double-marking of a word as both genitive (to indicate semantic role) and another case such as accusative (to establish concord with the head noun).
Declension is the process or result of altering nouns to the correct grammatical cases. Languages with rich nominal inflection (use grammatical cases for many purposes) typically have a number of identifiable declension classes, or groups of nouns with a similar pattern of case inflection or declension. Sanskrit has six declension classes, whereas Latin is traditionally considered to have five, and Ancient Greek three declension classes. For example, Slovak has fifteen noun declension classes, five for each gender (the number may vary depending on which paradigms are counted or omitted, this mainly concerns those that modify declension of foreign words; refer to article).
In Indo-European languages, declension patterns may depend on a variety of factors, such as gender, number, phonological environment, and irregular historical factors. Pronouns sometimes have separate paradigms. In some languages, particularly Slavic languages, a case may contain different groups of endings depending on whether the word is a noun or an adjective. A single case may contain many different endings, some of which may even be derived from different roots. For example, in Polish, the genitive case has -a, -u, -ów, -i/-y, -e- for nouns, and -ego, -ej, -ich/-ych for adjectives. To a lesser extent, a noun's animacy or humanness may add another layer of complexity. For example, in Russian:
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
An example of a Belarusian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Belarusian term for "country," which belongs to Belarusian's first declension class.
In German, grammatical case is largely preserved in the articles and adjectives, but nouns have lost many of their original endings. Below is an example of case inflection in German using the masculine definite article and one of the German words for "sailor".
Modern Greek has four cases: nominative, genitive, accusative, and vocative. For neuters and most groups of feminines and plural masculines, the genitive case differs from the other three. Below is an example of the declension of ? (sky), which has a different form in the singular of all four cases, together with the appropriate article in both the singular and the plural:
Ancient Greek had one additional case, the dative. At some point, it was replaced with the preposition , followed by the accusative. This became necessary when pronunciation simplified, merging the two long vowels eta and omega to short. The result was that dative did not sound much different from the accusative in the singular of the first two groups. However, the dative case is still used in many expressions.
With time, only the sigma of was left and got attached to the article, except when an article is not used and it becomes instead. Note that this is not a different case from the accusative.
Below is an example with the dative case of the word ? (city):
Cases in Japanese are marked by particles placed after the nouns. A distinctive feature of Japanese is the presence of two cases, which are roughly equivalent to the nominative case in other languages: one representing the sentence topic, the other representing the subject. The most important case markers are the following:
Cases in Korean are marked by particles placed after the nouns, similar to Japanese. Like Japanese, the nominative case has two distinctions, one representing the topic of a sentence and the other the subject. In informal speech, nominative (?/? and ?/?) and accusative (?/?) particles are often omitted, while dative () and ablative () are shortened to simply ?, if the meaning of the sentence can easily be inferred from context. Most common case markers are the following:
An example of a Latin case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Latin term for "cook," which belongs to Latin's second declension class.
Latvian nouns have seven grammatical cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative. The instrumental case is always identical to the accusative in the singular and to the dative in the plural. It is used as a free-standing case (without a preposition) only in highly restricted contexts in modern Latvian.
An example of a Latvian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Latvian term for "man," which belongs to the first declension class.
In Lithuanian, only the inflection usually changes in the seven different grammatical cases:
An example of a Polish case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Polish terms for "human" (cz?owiek) and "monkey" (ma?pa)
Hungarian declension is relatively simple with regular suffixes attached to the vast majority of nouns. The following table lists a few of the many cases used in Hungarian.
|Suffix||Meaning||Example||Meaning of the example||Case name|
|?||subject||lakás||flat/apartment (as a subject)||Nominative case|
|-ot/(-at)/-et/-öt/-t||direct object||lakást||flat/apartment (as an object)||Accusative case|
|-nak/-nek||indirect object||lakásnak||to the flat/apartment||Dative case|
|-val/-vel (Assim.)||with||lakással||with the flat/apartment||Instrumental-comitative case|
|-ért||for, for the purpose of||lakásért||for the flat/apartment||Causal-final case|
|-vá/-vé (Assim.)||into||lakássá||[turn] into a flat/apartment||Translative case|
|-ig||as far as, up to||lakásig||as far as the flat/apartment||Terminative case|
Romanian is the only major Romance language with a case system for all nouns, whereas all other languages dropped the cases replacing them by prepositions. An example of Romanian case inflection is given below, using the singular form of the Romanian word for "boy":
An example of a Russian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Russian term for "sailor," which belongs to Russian's first declension class.
Grammatical case was analyzed extensively in Sanskrit. The grammarian Pini identified six semantic roles or k?raka, which by default are related to the following eight Sanskrit cases in order:
|Order||Default thematic role||English case||Example with|
|Case 1||Kart?||Nominative||? (r?ma?), ? (r?mau), (r?m)|
|Case 2||Karman||Accusative||(r?mam), ? (r?mau), (r?m?n)|
|Case 3||Kara?a||Instrumental||(r?me?a), ? (r?m?bhy?m), (r?mai?)|
|Case 4 ?||Samprad?na||Dative||(r?m?ya), ? (r?m?bhy?m), (r?mebhya?)|
|Case 5||Ap?d?na||Ablative||(r?m?t), ? (r?m?bhy?m), (r?mebhya?)|
|Case 6||Sambandha||Genitive||(r?masya), (r?mayo?), (r?mm)|
|Case 7||Adhikara?a||Locative||? (r?me), (r?mayo?), (r?me?hu)|
|Case 8 ?||Sambodhana||Vocative||(he r?ma), ? (he r?mau), (he r?m)|
For example, in the following sentence leaf is the agent (kart?, nominative case), tree is the source (ap?d?na, ablative case), and ground is the locus (adhikara?a, locative case). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -?t, -am, and -au respectively.
|from the tree||a leaf||to the ground||falls|
However, the cases may be deployed for other than the default thematic roles. A notable example is the passive construction. In the following sentence, Devadatta is the kart?, but appears in the instrumental case, and rice, the karman, object, is in the nominative case (as subject of the verb). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -ena and -am.
|by Devadatta||the rice||is cooked|
The Tamil case system is analyzed in native and missionary grammars as consisting of a finite number of cases. The usual treatment of Tamil case (Arden 1942) is one in which there are seven cases: nominative (first case), accusative (second case), instrumental (third), dative (fourth), ablative (fifth), genitive (sixth), and locative (seventh). In traditional analyses, there is always a clear distinction made between post-positional morphemes and case endings. The vocative is sometimes given a place in the case system as an eighth case, but vocative forms do not participate in usual morphophonemic alternations and do not govern the use of any postpositions. Modern grammarians, however, argue that this eight-case classification is coarse and artificial and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case.
|Tamil||English||Significance||Usual suffixes||Suffixes in Tamil|
|First case(? )||Nominative||Subject of sentence||[Zero]|
|Second case ( )||Accusative||Object of action||-ai||?|
|Third case (/? )||Instrumental, Social||Means by which action is done (Instrumental), Association, or means by which action is done (Social)||-al, -udan, -kondu||, ?,|
|Fourth case||Dative||Object to whom action is performed, Object for whom action is performed||(u)kku|
|Fifth case||Ablative of motion from||Motion from an animate/inanimate object||-in|
|Seventh case||Locative||Place in which, On the person of (animate) in the presence of||-kan|
|Eighth case (? )||Vocative||Addressing, calling||e, a|
Telugu has eight cases.
|Telugu||English||Significance||Usual Suffixes||Transliteration of Suffixes|
|(I)||Pratham? Vibhakti ( ?)||Nominative||Subject of sentence||, , ,||?u, mu, vu, lu|
|(II)||Dvit?y? Vibhakti ( ?)||Accusative||Object of action||?, ?, , , ?||nin, nun, lan, k?rchi, gurinchi|
|(III)||Trut?y? Vibhakti ( ?)||Instrumental, Social||Means by which action is done (Instrumental); Association, or means by which action is done (Social)||, ?, , ?||ch?tan, ch?n, tan, t?n|
|(IV)||Chaturthi Vibhakti (? ?)||Dative||Object to whom action is performed, object for whom action is performed||?,||korakun, kai|
|(V)||Pancham? Vibhakti ( ?)||Ablative of motion from||Motion from an animate/inanimate object||, ,||valanan, kaen, pai|
|(VI)||Shashth? Vibhakti ( ?)||Genitive||Possessive||?, ?, , ?,||kin, kun, yokka, l?n, l?palan|
|(VII)||Saptam? Vibhakti ( ?)||Locative||Place in which, On the person of (animate) in the presence of||,||a?dun, nan|
|(VIII)||Sambodhan? Pratham? Vibhakti (? ?)||Vocative||Addressing, calling||?, , ,||?, , ?r?, ?s?|
As languages evolve, case systems change. In early Ancient Greek, for example, the genitive and ablative cases became combined, giving five cases, rather than the six retained in Latin. In modern Hindi, the Sanskrit cases have been reduced to two: a direct case (for subjects and direct objects) and an oblique case. In English, apart from the pronouns discussed above, case has vanished altogether except for the possessive/non-possessive dichotomy in nouns.
The evolution of the treatment of case relationships can be circular.:pp.167-174Adpositions can become unstressed and sound like they are an unstressed syllable of a neighboring word. A postposition can thus merge into the stem of a head noun, developing various forms depending on the phonological shape of the stem. Affixes can then be subject to various phonological processes such as assimilation, vowel centering to the schwa, phoneme loss, and fusion, and these processes can reduce or even eliminate the distinctions between cases. Languages can then compensate for the resulting loss of function by creating adpositions, thus coming full circle.
Recent experiments in agent-based modeling have shown how case systems can emerge and evolve in a population of language users. The experiments demonstrate that language users may introduce new case markers to reduce the cognitive effort required for semantic interpretation, hence facilitating communication through language. Case markers then become generalized through analogical reasoning and reuse.
The following are systems that some languages use to mark case instead of, or in addition to, declension:
With a few exceptions, most languages in the Uralic family make extensive use of cases. Finnish has 15 cases according to the traditional understanding (or up to 30 depending on the interpretation). However, only 12 are commonly used in speech (see Finnish noun cases). Estonian has 14 and Hungarian has 18, both with additional archaic cases used for some words.
The lemma form of words, which is the form chosen by convention as the canonical form of a word, is usually the most unmarked or basic case, which is typically the nominative, trigger, or absolutive case, whichever a language may have.
[the -s ending is] more appropriately described as an enclitic postposition'
In speech the genitive is signalled in singular nouns by an inflection that has the same pronunciation variants as for plural nouns in the common case
In writing, the inflection of regular nouns is realized in the singular by apostrophe + s (boy's), and in the regular plural by the apostrophe following the plural s (boys)
We conclude that both head and phrasal genitives involve case inflection. With head genitives it is always a noun that inflects, while the phrasal genitive can apply to words of most classes.