Great Books
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Great Books

The great books are books that constitute an essential foundation in the literature of Western culture. Specified sets of great books typically range from 100 to 150, though they differ according to purpose and context. For instance, some lists are built to be read by undergraduates in a college semester system (130 books, Torrey Honors Institute),[1] some are compiled to be sold as a single set of volumes (500 books, Mortimer Adler), while some lists aim at a thorough literary criticism (2,400 books, Harold Bloom).[2]

Concept

The great books are those that tradition, and various institutions and authorities, have regarded as constituting or best expressing the foundations of Western culture (the Western canon is a similar but broader designation); derivatively the term also refers to a curriculum or method of education based around a list of such books. Mortimer Adler lists three criteria for including a book on the list:

  • the book has contemporary significance; that is, it has relevance to the problems and issues of our times;
  • the book is inexhaustible; it can be read again and again with benefit; "This is an exacting criterion, an ideal that is fully attained by only a small number of the 511 works that we selected. It is approximated in varying degrees by the rest."[3]
  • the book is relevant to a large number of the great ideas and great issues that have occupied the minds of thinking individuals for the last 25 centuries.[4]

Origin

Thomas Jefferson,[5] well known for his interest in higher education, frequently composed great books lists for his friends and correspondents, for example, for Peter Carr in 1785[6] and again in 1787.[7]

In 1909, Harvard University published a 51-volume great books series, titled the Harvard Classics. These volumes are now in the public domain.

The Great Books of the Western World came about as the result of a discussion among American academics and educators, starting in the 1920s and 1930s and begun by Prof. John Erskine of Columbia University,[8] about how to improve the higher education system by returning it to the western liberal arts tradition of broad cross-disciplinary learning. These academics and educators included Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, Jacques Barzun, and Alexander Meiklejohn. The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought.

They were at odds both with much of the existing educational establishment and with contemporary educational theory. Educational theorists like Sidney Hook[9] and John Dewey (see pragmatism) disagreed with the premise that there was crossover in education.[]

Program

The Great Books Program is a curriculum that makes use of this list of texts. As much as possible, students rely on primary sources. The emphasis is on open discussion with limited guidance by a professor, facilitator, or tutor. Students are also expected to write papers.

In 1920, Professor Erskine taught the first course based on the "great books" program, titled "General Honors", at Columbia University.[10][11] He helped mold its core curriculum. It initially failed, however, shortly after its introduction due to fallings-out between the senior faculty over the best ways to conduct classes and due to concerns about the rigor of the courses. Thus junior faculty including Mark Van Doren and Mortimer Adler after 1923, taught a part of the course. The course was discontinued in 1928, though later reconstituted. Adler left for the University of Chicago in 1929, where he continued his work on the theme, and along with the University president, Robert M. Hutchins, held an annual seminar of great books. In 1937, when Mark Van Doren redesigned the course, it was already being taught at St. John's College, Annapolis, besides University of Chicago. This course later became Humanities A for freshmen, and subsequently evolved into Literature Humanities.[10] Survivors, however, include Columbia's Core Curriculum, the Common Core at Chicago, and the Core Curriculum at Boston University, each heavily focused on the "great books" of the Western canon.

A university or college Great Books Program is a program inspired by the Great Books movement begun in the United States in the 1920s. The aim of such programs is a return to the Western Liberal Arts tradition in education, as a corrective to the extreme disciplinary specialisation common within the academy. The essential component of such programs is a high degree of engagement with whole primary texts, called the Great Books. The curricula of Great Books programs often follow a canon of texts considered more or less essential to a student's education, such as Plato's Republic, or Dante's Divine Comedy. Such programs often focus exclusively on Western culture. Their employment of primary texts dictates an interdisciplinary approach, as most of the Great Books do not fall neatly under the prerogative of a single contemporary academic discipline. Great Books programs often include designated discussion groups as well as lectures, and have small class sizes. In general students in such programs receive an abnormally high degree of attention from their professors, as part of the overall aim of fostering a community of learning.

There are only a few true "Great Books Programs" still in operation.[] These schools focus almost exclusively on the Great Books Curriculum throughout enrollment and do not offer classes analogous to those commonly offered at other colleges. The first and best known of these schools is St. John's College in Annapolis and Santa Fe (program established in 1937);[12] it was followed by Shimer College in Chicago, the Integral Program[13] at Saint Mary's College of California (1955), Northeast Catholic College in Warner, New Hampshire, and Thomas Aquinas College in Santa Paula, California. More recent schools with this type of curriculum include New Saint Andrews College in Moscow, Idaho (est. 1994), Gutenberg College in Eugene, Oregon (est. 1994), Harrison Middleton University in Tempe, Arizona (est. 1998), Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming (est. 2005), and Imago Dei College in Oak Glen, California (est. 2010). Fordham University's Honors Program at Rose Hill incorporates the Great Books curriculum into a rigorous first four semesters in the program. The University of Notre Dame's Program of Liberal Studies, established in 1950, is a highly regarded Great Books Program that operates as a separate institution within the College of Liberal Arts. Dharma Realm Buddhist University is the first Great Books school to offer curriculum combining Eastern and Western classics.[14]

The Center for the Study of the Great Ideas advances the Great Conversation found in the great books by providing Adler's guidance, and resource materials through both live and on-line seminars, educational and philosophical consultation, international presence on the Internet, access to the Center's library collection of books, essays, articles, journals and audio/video programs. Center programs are unique in that they do not replicate other existing programs either started or developed by Adler.

Universities

Over 100 institutions of higher learning in the United States, Canada, and Europe maintain some version of a Great Books Program as an option for students.[15] Among these are:

United States

Canada

Europe

Asia

Controversy

In contemporary scholarship, the great books curriculum was drawn into the popular debate about multiculturalism, traditional education, the "culture war," and the role of the intellectual in American life. Much of this debate centered on reactions to the publication of The Closing of the American Mind in 1987 by Allan Bloom.[58]

Series

The Great Books of the Western World is a hardcover 60-volume collection (originally 54 volumes) of the books on the great books list (about 517 individual works). Many of the books in the collection were translated into English for the first time.[] A prominent feature of the collection is a two-volume Syntopicon that includes essays written by Mortimer Adler on 102 "great ideas." Following each essay is an extensive outline of the idea with page references to relevant passages throughout the collection. Familiar to many Americans, the collection is available from Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., which owns the copyright.

Shortly after Adler retired from the Great Books Foundation in 1989, a second edition (1990) of the Great Books of the Western World was published; it included more Hispanic and female authors and, for the first time, works by black authors.[59] During his tenure as president of the Foundation, Adler had resisted such additions.[60]

We did not base our selections on an author's nationality, religion, politics, or field of study; nor on an author's race or gender. Great books were not chosen to make up quotas of any kind; there was no "affirmative action" in the process ... we chose the great books on the basis of their relevance to at least 25 of the 102 great ideas. Many of the great books are relevant to a much larger number of the 102 great ideas, as many as 75 or more great ideas, a few to all 102 great ideas. In sharp contrast are the good books that are relevant to less than 10 or even as few as 4 or 5 great ideas. We placed such books in the lists of Recommended Readings to be found in the last section in each of the 102 chapters of the "Syntopicon". Here readers will find many twentieth-century female authors, black authors, and Latin American authors whose works we recommended but did not include in the second edition of the great books.[3]

In the course of history ... new books have been written that have won their place in the list. Books once thought entitled to belong to it have been superseded; and this process of change will continue as long as men can think and write. It is the task of every generation to reassess the tradition in which it lives, to discard what it cannot use, and to bring into context with the distant and intermediate past the most recent contributions to the Great Conversation.[61]

The following is an example list, in chronological order, compiled from How to Read a Book by Mortimer Adler (1940), and How to Read a Book, 2nd ed. by Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren (1972):

  1. Homer - Iliad; Odyssey
  2. The Old Testament
  3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
  4. Sophocles - Tragedies
  5. Herodotus - Histories
  6. Euripides - Tragedies
  7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
  8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
  9. Aristophanes - Comedies
  10. Plato - Dialogues
  11. Aristotle - Works
  12. Epicurus - "Letter to Herodotus"; "Letter to Menoecus"
  13. Euclid - Elements
  14. Archimedes - Works
  15. Apollonius - Conics
  16. Cicero - Works (esp. Orations; On Friendship; On Old Age; Republic; Laws; Tusculan Disputations; Offices)
  17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
  18. Virgil - Works (esp. Aeneid)
  19. Horace - Works (esp. Odes and Epodes; The Art of Poetry)
  20. Livy - History of Rome
  21. Ovid - Works (esp. Metamorphoses)
  22. Quintilian - Institutes of Oratory
  23. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
  24. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola; Germania; Dialogus de oratoribus (Dialogue on Oratory)
  25. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
  26. Epictetus - Discourses; Enchiridion
  27. Ptolemy - Almagest
  28. Lucian - Works (esp. The Way to Write History; The True History; The Sale of Creeds; Alexander the Oracle Monger; Charon; The Sale of Lives; The Fisherman; Dialogue of the Gods; Dialogues of the Sea-Gods; Dialogues of the Dead)
  29. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
  30. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
  31. The New Testament
  32. Plotinus - The Enneads
  33. St. Augustine - "On the Teacher"; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
  34. The Volsungs Saga or Nibelungenlied
  35. The Song of Roland
  36. The Saga of Burnt Njál
  37. Maimonides - The Guide for the Perplexed
  38. St. Thomas Aquinas - Of Being and Essence; Summa Contra Gentiles; Of the Governance of Rulers; Summa Theologica
  39. Dante Alighieri - The New Life (La Vita Nuova); "On Monarchy"; Divine Comedy
  40. Giovanni Boccaccio - The Decameron
  41. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
  42. Thomas à Kempis - The Imitation of Christ
  43. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
  44. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
  45. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly; Colloquies
  46. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
  47. Thomas More - Utopia
  48. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
  49. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
  50. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
  51. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
  52. William Gilbert - On the Lodestone and Magnetic Bodies
  53. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
  54. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
  55. Francis Bacon - Essays; The Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum; New Atlantis
  56. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
  57. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Two New Sciences
  58. Johannes Kepler - The Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Harmonices Mundi
  59. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; Generation of Animals
  60. Grotius - The Law of War and Peace
  61. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan; Elements of Philosophy
  62. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy; Principles of Philosophy; The Passions of the Soul
  63. Corneille - Tragedies (esp. The Cid, Cinna)
  64. John Milton - Works (esp. the minor poems; Areopagitica; Paradise Lost; Samson Agonistes)
  65. Molière - Comedies (esp. The Miser; The School for Wives; The Misanthrope; The Doctor in Spite of Himself; Tartuffe; The Tradesman Turned Gentleman; The Imaginary Invalid; The Affected Ladies)
  66. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensées; Scientific Treatises
  67. John Bunyan - The Pilgrim's Progress
  68. Boyle - The Sceptical Chymist
  69. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
  70. Benedict de Spinoza - Political Treatises; Ethics
  71. John Locke - A Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  72. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies (esp. Andromache; Phaedra; Athalie (Athaliah))
  73. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Opticks
  74. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays on Human Understanding; Monadology
  75. Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe; Moll Flanders
  76. Jonathan Swift - The Battle of the Books; A Tale of a Tub; A Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
  77. William Congreve - The Way of the World
  78. George Berkeley - A New Theory of Vision; A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  79. Alexander Pope - An Essay on Criticism; The Rape of the Lock; An Essay on Man
  80. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; The Spirit of the Laws
  81. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
  82. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
  83. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; Lives of the Poets
  84. David Hume - A Treatise of Human Nature; Essays Moral and Political; An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; History of England
  85. Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Discourse on Inequality; On Political Economy; Emile: or, On Education; The Social Contract; Confessions
  86. Laurence Sterne - Tristram Shandy; A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy
  87. Adam Smith - The Theory of Moral Sentiments; The Wealth of Nations
  88. William Blackstone - Commentaries on the Laws of England
  89. Immanuel Kant - Critique of Pure Reason; Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals; Critique of Practical Reason; Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics; The Science of Right; Critique of Judgment; Perpetual Peace
  90. Edward Gibbon - The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Autobiography
  91. James Boswell - Journal; The Life of Samuel Johnson
  92. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier - Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elements of Chemistry)
  93. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison - Federalist Papers (together with the Articles of Confederation; United States Constitution and United States Declaration of Independence)
  94. Jeremy Bentham - Comment on the Commentaries; Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation; Theory of Fictions
  95. Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Faust; Poetry and Truth
  96. Thomas Robert Malthus - An Essay on the Principle of Population
  97. John Dalton - A New System of Chemical Philosophy
  98. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier - Analytical Theory of Heat
  99. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - The Phenomenology of Spirit; Science of Logic; Elements of the Philosophy of Right; Lectures on the Philosophy of History
  100. William Wordsworth - Poems (esp. Lyrical Ballads; Lucy poems; sonnets; The Prelude)
  101. Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Poems (esp. Kubla Khan; The Rime of the Ancient Mariner ); Biographia Literaria
  102. David Ricardo - On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
  103. Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice; Emma
  104. Carl von Clausewitz - On War
  105. Stendhal - The Red and the Black; The Charterhouse of Parma; On Love
  106. François Guizot - History of Civilization in France
  107. Lord Byron - Don Juan
  108. Arthur Schopenhauer - Studies in Pessimism
  109. Michael Faraday - The Chemical History of a Candle; Experimental Researches in Electricity
  110. Nikolai Lobachevsky - Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels
  111. Charles Lyell - Principles of Geology
  112. Auguste Comte - The Positive Philosophy
  113. Honoré Balzac - Works (esp. Le Père Goriot; Le Cousin Pons; Eugénie Grandet; Cousin Bette; César Birotteau)
  114. Ralph Waldo Emerson - Representative Men; Essays; Journal
  115. Victor Hugo - Les Misérables
  116. Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Scarlet Letter
  117. Alexis de Tocqueville - Democracy in America
  118. John Stuart Mill - A System of Logic; Principles of Political Economy; On Liberty; Considerations on Representative Government; Utilitarianism; The Subjection of Women; Autobiography
  119. Charles Darwin - On the Origin of Species; The Descent of Man; Autobiography
  120. William Makepeace Thackeray - Works (esp. Vanity Fair; The History of Henry Esmond; The Virginians; Pendennis)
  121. Charles Dickens - Works (esp. Pickwick Papers; Our Mutual Friend; David Copperfield; Dombey and Son; Oliver Twist; A Tale of Two Cities; Hard Times)
  122. Claude Bernard - Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine
  123. George Boole - The Laws of Thought
  124. Henry David Thoreau - Civil Disobedience; Walden
  125. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - Das Kapital (Capital); The Communist Manifesto
  126. George Eliot - Adam Bede; Middlemarch
  127. Herman Melville - Typee; Moby-Dick; Billy Budd
  128. Fyodor Dostoyevsky - Crime and Punishment; The Idiot; The Brothers Karamazov
  129. Gustave Flaubert - Madame Bovary; Three Stories
  130. Henry Thomas Buckle - A History of Civilization in England
  131. Francis Galton - Inquiries into Human Faculties and Its Development
  132. Bernhard Riemann - The Hypotheses of Geometry
  133. Henrik Ibsen - Plays (esp. Peer Gynt; Brand; Hedda Gabler; Emperor and Galilean; A Doll's House; The Wild Duck; The Master Builder)
  134. Leo Tolstoy - War and Peace; Anna Karenina; "What Is Art?"; Twenty-Three Tales
  135. Richard Dedekind - Theory of Numbers
  136. Wilhelm Wundt - Physiological Psychology; Outline of Psychology
  137. Mark Twain - The Innocents Abroad; Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; The Mysterious Stranger
  138. Henry Adams - History of the United States; Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres; The Education of Henry Adams; Degradation of Democratic Dogma
  139. Charles Peirce - Chance, Love, and Logic; Collected Papers
  140. William Sumner - Folkways
  141. Oliver Wendell Holmes - The Common Law; Collected Legal Papers
  142. William James - The Principles of Psychology; The Varieties of Religious Experience; Pragmatism; A Pluralistic Universe; Essays in Radical Empiricism
  143. Henry James - The American; The Ambassadors
  144. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche - Thus Spoke Zarathustra; Beyond Good and Evil; On the Genealogy of Morality; The Will to Power; Twilight of the Idols; The Antichrist
  145. Georg Cantor - Transfinite Numbers
  146. Jules Henri Poincaré - Science and Hypothesis; Science and Method; The Foundations of Science
  147. Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams; Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality; Introduction to Psychoanalysis; Beyond the Pleasure Principle; Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents; New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis
  148. George Bernard Shaw - Plays and Prefaces
  149. Max Planck - Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory; Where Is Science Going?; Scientific Autobiography
  150. Henri Bergson - Time and Free Will; Matter and Memory; Creative Evolution; The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
  151. John Dewey - How We Think; Democracy and Education; Experience and Nature; The Quest for Certainty; Logic - The Theory of Inquiry
  152. Alfred North Whitehead - A Treatise on Universal Algebra; An Introduction to Mathematics; Science and the Modern World; Process and Reality; The Aims of Education and Other Essays; Adventures of Ideas
  153. George Santayana - The Life of Reason; Scepticism and Animal Faith; The Realms of Being (which discusses the Realms of Essence, Matter and Truth); Persons and Places
  154. Vladimir Lenin - Imperialism; The State and Revolution
  155. Marcel Proust - In Search of Lost Time (formerly translated as Remembrance of Things Past)
  156. Bertrand Russell - Principles of Mathematics; The Problems of Philosophy; Principia Mathematica; The Analysis of Mind; An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth; Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits
  157. Thomas Mann - The Magic Mountain; Joseph and His Brothers
  158. Albert Einstein - The Theory of Relativity; Sidelights on Relativity; The Meaning of Relativity; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; The Evolution of Physics
  159. James Joyce - "The Dead" in Dubliners; A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Ulysses
  160. Jacques Maritain - Art and Scholasticism; The Degrees of Knowledge; Freedom and the Modern World; A Preface to Metaphysics; The Rights of Man and Natural Law; True Humanism
  161. Franz Kafka - The Trial; The Castle
  162. Arnold J. Toynbee - A Study of History; Civilization on Trial
  163. Jean-Paul Sartre - Nausea; No Exit; Being and Nothingness
  164. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn - The First Circle; Cancer Ward

The original edition of How to Read a Book contained a separate "contemporary list" because "Here one's judgment must be tentative"[62] All but the following authors were incorporated into the single list of the revised edition:

  1. Ivan Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes
  2. Thorstein Veblen - The Theory of the Leisure Class; The Higher Learning in America; The Place of Science in Modern Civilization; Vested Interests and the State of Industrial Arts; Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times
  3. Franz Boas - The Mind of Primitive Man; Anthropology and Modern Life
  4. Leon Trotsky - The History of the Russian Revolution

Television

In 1954 Mortimer Adler hosted a live weekly television series in San Francisco, comprising 52 half-hour programs, entitled The Great Ideas. These programs were produced by the Institute for Philosophical Research and were carried as a public service by the American Broadcasting Company, presented by National Educational Television (NET), the precursor to what is now PBS. Adler bequeathed these films to the Center for the Study of the Great Ideas, where they are available for purchase.[63]

In 1993 and 1994, The Learning Channel created a series of one-hour programs discussing many of the great books of history and their impact on the world. It was narrated by Donald Sutherland and Morgan Freeman, amongst others.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Reading List | Torrey Honors Institute, Biola University".
  2. ^ Teeter, Robert. "Bloom. Western Canon".
  3. ^ a b Adler, Mortimer J. "Selecting Works for the 1990 Edition of the Great Books of the Western World". Retrieved .
  4. ^ Adler, "Second Look", p. 142
  5. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Reading Lists". John-uebersax.com. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (An honest heart, a knowing head; Paris, August 19, 1785). In: Merril D. Peterson (ed.), Thomas Jefferson Works, 1984. (pp. 814-818)
  7. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr (The homage to Reason; Paris, August 10, 1787). In: Merril D. Peterson (ed.), Thomas Jefferson Works, 1984. (pp. 900-906).
  8. ^ "radicalacademy.com". radicalacademy.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-07. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Hook, Sidney (1946). "A Critical Appraisal of the St. John's College Curriculum". Education for Modern Man. New York, NY: The Dial Press. Reprinted with some minor changes from The New Leader, May 26 and June 4, 1944
  10. ^ a b c "The Beginnings of the Great Books Movement at Columbia". Columbia Magazine. Winter 2001. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ "An Oasis of Order: The Core Curriculum at Columbia College:Faculty Profiles:John Erskine". Columbia College. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ "St. John's College | Academic Program | The Reading List". Stjohnscollege.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "The Integral Program".
  14. ^ a b "Dharma Realm Buddhist University Accepting Applications for Undergraduate Program". Dharma Realm Buddhist University. Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ Casement, William. "College Great Books Programs". The Association for Core Texts and Courses (ACTC). Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ "Azusa Pacific University Honors College". apu.edu. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Baylor University || Great Texts". Baylor.edu. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "About « Torrey Honors Institute « Biola University". Biola.edu. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "Perspectives and PULSE programs".
  20. ^ "Core Curriculum - Boston University". www.bu.edu.
  21. ^ "index". Ecu.edu. 2013-04-16. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "The Honors Program « Franciscan University". Franciscan.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "Overview of the William Penn Honors Program at George Fox University". Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Gutenberg College Great Books". Gutenberg.edu. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Curriculum - Harrison Middleton University". Hmu.edu. Retrieved .
  26. ^ "Honors College". Hbu.edu. Retrieved .
  27. ^ "Mercer Great Books". Departments.mercer.edu. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "Literary Studies Requirements". middlebury.edu. Retrieved .
  29. ^ The Newman Guide, "Northeast Catholic College" Archived 2015-07-06 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 5-11-2015
  30. ^ "Honors Program | Palm Beach Atlantic University". Pba.edu. Retrieved .
  31. ^ "Great Books" (PDF). Seaver.pepperdine.edu. Retrieved .
  32. ^ "Integrated Studies in the Great Books Major Description". anselm.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-08-24. Retrieved .
  33. ^ "St. John's College". Stjohnscollege.edu. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "The Integral Program". St. Mary's College. Retrieved .
  35. ^ [1] Archived December 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "Templeton Honors College and Eastern University". Eastern University. Retrieved .
  37. ^ "The Great Books | Thomas Aquinas College". Thomasaquinas.edu. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "The Thomas More College Curriculum". Thomasmorecollege.edu. 2013-02-15. Retrieved .
  39. ^ "The College Core Curriculum". University of Chicago. Retrieved .
  40. ^ "Association for Core Texts and Courses & The ACTC Liberal Arts Institute » College Great Books Programs". Coretexts.org. Retrieved .
  41. ^ "About Us - U-M LSA Department of Classical Studies". lsa.umich.edu.
  42. ^ "Program of Liberal Studies". University of Notre Dame. 2014. Retrieved .
  43. ^ "St. Ignatius Institute - University of San Francisco (USF)". Usfca.edu. Retrieved .
  44. ^ "Thomas Jefferson Center for the Study of Core Texts and Ideas". Utexas.edu. 2013-11-05. Retrieved .
  45. ^ "Kugelman Honors Program Study of Great Books" (PDF). uwf.edu. 2016-02-26. Archived from the original on 2014-11-08. Retrieved .
  46. ^ "Academics » The Great Books". Wyoming Catholic College. 2013-03-28. Retrieved .
  47. ^ "The Great Books in the Bachelor of Humanities Program". .carleton.ca. Retrieved .
  48. ^ "Welcome - Liberal Arts College - Concordia University - Montreal, Quebec, Canada". Liberalartscollege.concordia.ca. Retrieved .
  49. ^ "Overview - Liberal Studies - Vancouver Island University". socialsciences.viu.ca.
  50. ^ "Great Books". St Thomas University. 2014. Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Foundation Year Programme | University of King's College". Ukings.ca. Retrieved .
  52. ^ "Arts One Program". ubc.ca. Retrieved .
  53. ^ "UCP - Instituto de Estudos Políticos". Iep.lisboa.ucp.pt. Retrieved .
  54. ^ "Universidade da Beira Interior". UBI.pt. Retrieved .
  55. ^ "Foundation Courses". Retrieved .
  56. ^ "Courses Offered". Ateneo de Manila University. 2012-11-21. Retrieved .
  57. ^ "A Great Books College". Shalem College. Archived from the original on 2013-06-13. Retrieved .
  58. ^ John Searle, "The Storm Over the University," The New York Review of Books, December 6, 1990
  59. ^ Sabrina Walters (2001-07-01). "Great Books won Adler fame, scorn". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2007-11-04. Retrieved .
  60. ^ Peter Temes (2001-07-03). "Death of a Great Reader and Philosopher". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2007-11-04. Retrieved .
  61. ^ Great Books - The Foundation of a Liberal Education, New York - Simon & Schuster, 1954.
  62. ^ How to Read a Book, 1940, p. 375
  63. ^ "Mortimer Adler Videos on The Great Ideas". www.thegreatideas.org.

Sources

External links


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