|Latin (Haitian Creole alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)|
Haitian Creole (; Haitian Creole: kreyòl ayisyen,Haitian Creole pronunciation: [k?ej?l]; French: créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6-12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians. It is a creole language based largely on 18th century French with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, English, Taíno, and West African languages. Haitian Creole emerged from contact between French settlers and African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). Haitians are the largest creole-speaking community in the world. Haitian Creole should not be confused with Haitian French, which is a variety of French spoken in Haiti.
The usage of and education in Haitian Creole--which is not mutually intelligible with French--has been contentious since at least the 19thcentury: where Haitians saw French as a sign of colonialism, Creole was maligned by francophone elites as a miseducated or poor person's French. Until the late 20thcentury, Haitian presidents spoke only French to their fellow citizens, and until the 2000s, all instruction at Haitian elementary schools was in French, a foreign language to most of the students.
The word creole is of Latin origin via a Portuguese term that means "a person (especially a servant) raised in one's house". It first referred to Europeans born and raised in overseas colonies, but later was used to refer to the language as well.
Haitian Creole contains elements from both the Romance group of Indo-European languages through its superstratum French language, as well as African languages. There are many theories on the formation of the Haitian Creole language.
John Singler suggests that Creole was probably formed between the time the French colony of Saint-Domingue was founded in 1659 and 1740.:53 During this period the colony moved from tobacco and cotton production to a mostly sugar-based economy, which created a favorable setting for the Creole language to form. At the time of tobacco and cotton production, the Haitian population was made up of colonists, the engagés (employed whites), gens de couleur and slaves in relatively balanced proportions, with roughly equal numbers of people of color and engagés. Singler estimates the economy shifted into sugar production in 1690, and radically reconfigured the early Haitian people as "the big landowners drove out the small ones, while the number of slaves exploded".:53 Before this economic shift, engagés were favored over slaves as they were felt to be easier to control. However, the sugar crop needed a much larger labor force, and larger numbers of slaves were brought in. As the colored slaves had decreasing contact with native French-speaking whites, the language would have begun to change.:53-57
Many African slaves in French ownership were from the Niger-Congo territory and particularly from Kwa languages such as Gbe and the Central Tano languages and Bantu languages.:53-57 Many were sent to French colonies. Singler suggests that the number of Bantu speakers decreased while the number of Kwa speakers increased, with Gbe being the most dominant group. The first fifty years of Saint-Domingue's sugar boom coincided with the Gbe predominance in the French Caribbean. During the time Singler places the evolution of the language, the Gbe population was 50% of the imported slave population.:53-57
In contrast to the African languages, a type of classical French (françaisclassique) and langues d'oïl (Norman, Poitevin and Saintongeais dialects, Gallo and Picard) were spoken during the 17th and 18th centuries in Saint-Domingue, as well as in the other French colonies of New France and French West Africa. Slaves who seldom could communicate with fellow slaves would try to learn French. With the constant importation of slaves, the language gradually became formalized and became a distinct tongue to French. The language was also picked up by the whites and became used by all those born in what is now Haiti.
Haitian Creole and French have similar pronunciations and share many lexical items. In fact, over 90% of the Haitian Creole vocabulary is of French origin. However, many cognate terms actually have different meanings. For example, as Valdman mentions in Haitian Creole: Structure, Variation, Status, Origin, the word for "frequent" in French is fréquent; however, its cognate in Haitian Creole frekan means 'insolent, rude, and impertinent' and usually refers to people. In addition, Haitian Creole and French have different grammar, which is the main reason they are mutually unintelligible. For example, in Haitian Creole, verbs are not conjugated as they are in French.
Both Haitian Creole and French have also experienced semantic change; words that had a single meaning in the have changed or have been replaced in both languages. For example, "Ki jan ou rele?" ("What is your name?") corresponds to the French Comment vous appelez-vous? Although the average French speaker would not understand this phrase, every word in it is in fact of French origin: qui "what"; genre "manner"; vous "you", and héler "to call", but the verb héler has been replaced by appeler in modern French.
Lefebvre proposed the theory of relexification, arguing that the process of relexification (the replacement of the phonological representation of a substratum lexical item with the phonological representation of a superstratum lexical item, so that the Haitian creole lexical item looks like French, but works like the substratum language(s)) was central in the development of Haitian Creole.
|la maison||afe a||kay la||the house|
Haitian Creole developed in the 17th and 18th centuries on the western third of Hispaniola in a setting that mixed native speakers of various Niger-Congo languages with French colonizers. In the early 1940s under President Élie Lescot, attempts were made to standardize the language. American linguistic expert Frank Laubach and Irish Methodist missionary H. Ormonde McConnell developed a standardized Haitian Creole orthography. Although some regarded the orthography highly, it was generally not well received. Its orthography was standardized in 1979. That same year Haitian Creole was elevated in status by the Act of 18 September 1979. The Institut Pédagogique National established an official orthography for Creole, and slight modifications were made over the next two decades. For example, the is no longer used, nor is the apostrophe.:131:185-192 The only accent mark retained is the grave accent in ?è? and ?ò?.:433
The Constitution of 1987 upgraded Haitian Creole to a national language alongside French. It classified French as the langue d'instruction or "language of instruction", and Creole was classified as an outil d'enseignement or a "tool of education". The Constitution of 1987 names both Haitian Creole and French as the official languages, but recognizes Haitian Creole as the only language that all Haitians hold in common.:263
Even without government recognition, by the end of the 1800s, there were already literary texts written in Haitian Creole such as Oswald Durand's Choucoune and Georges Sylvain's Cric?Crac!. Félix Morisseau-Leroy was another influential author of Haitian Creole work. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers, and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole. In 2001, Open Gate: An Anthology of Haitian Creole Poetry was published. It was the first time a collection of Haitian Creole poetry was published in both Haitian Creole and English. On 28 October 2004, the Haitian daily Le Matin first published an entire edition in Haitian Creole in observance of the country's newly instated "Creole Day".:556
Although both French and Haitian Creole are official languages in Haiti, French is often considered the high language and Haitian Creole as the low language in the diglossic relationship of these two languages in society. That is to say, for the minority of Haitian population that is bilingual, the use of these two languages largely depends on the social context: French is more used in public, especially in formal situation, whereas Haitian Creole is more used in a daily basis and is often heard in ordinary conversation.
However, there is still a large population in Haiti that is unilingual in Haitian Creole. For these people, Haitian Creole is the sole means of communication, whether under formal or informal conditions. As Yves Dejean states in Diglossia revisited: French and Creole in Haiti:
"French plays no role in the very formal situation of a Haitian peasant (more than 80% of the population make a living from agriculture) presiding at a family gathering after the death of a member, or at the worship of the family lwa or voodoo spirits, or contacting a Catholic priest for a church baptism, marriage, or solemn mass, or consulting a physician, nurse, or dentist, or going to a civil officer to declare a death or birth."(Dejean 192)
In most schools, French is still the preferred language for teaching. Generally speaking, Haitian Creole is more used in public schools, as that's where most children of ordinary families who often only speak Haitian Creole go to school.
Historically, the education system has been French-dominant. Except the children of elites, many had to drop out of school because learning French was very challenging to them and they had a hard time to follow up. The Bernard Reform of 1978 tried to introduce Haitian Creole as the teaching language in the first four years of primary school; however, the reform overall was not very successful. As a result, the use of Haitian Creole has grown but in a very limited way. After the earthquake in 2010, basic education became free and more accessible to the monolingual masses. The government is still trying to expand the use of Haitian Creole and improve the school system.
Haitian Creole has a phonemic orthography with highly regular spelling, except for proper nouns and foreign words. According to the official standardized orthography, Haitian Creole is composed of the following 32 symbolsa?, ?an?, ?b?, ?ch?, ?d?, ?e?, ?è?, ?en?, ?f?, ?g?, ?h?, ?i?, ?j?, ?k?, ?l?, ?m?, ?n?, ?ng?, ?o?, ?ò?, ?on?, ?ou?, ?oun?, ?p?, ?r?, ?s?, ?t?, ?ui?, ?v?, ?w?, ?y?, and ?z?.:100 The letters ?c? and ?u? are always associated with another letter (in the multigraphs ?ch?, ?ou?, ?oun?, and ?ui?). The Haitian Creole alphabet has no ?q? or ?x?; when ?x? is used in loanwords and proper nouns, it represents the sounds /ks/, /kz/, or /gz/.:433
The first technical orthography for Haitian Creole was developed in 1940 by H.Ormonde McConnell. It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach, resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell-Laubach orthography.:434
The McConnell-Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell-Laubach orthography for its lack of codified front rounded vowels, which are typically used only by francophone elites.:436 Another criticism was of the broad use of the letters ?k?, ?w?, and ?y?, which Pressoir argued looked "too American".:431-432 This criticism of the "American look" of the orthography was shared by many educated Haitians, who also criticized its association with Protestantism.:432 The last of Pressoir's criticisms was that "the use of the circumflex to mark nasalized vowels" treated nasal sounds differently from the way they are represented in French, which he feared would inhibit the learning of French.:431
The creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language is superior, which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians and an admiration for it from others.:435 This orthographical controversy boiled down to an attempt to unify a conception of Haitian national identity. Where ?k? and ?w? seemed too Anglo-Saxon and American imperialistic, ?c? and ?ou? were symbolic of French colonialism.:191
When Haiti was still a colony of France, edicts by the French government were often written in a French-lexicon creole and read aloud to the slave population. The first written text of Haitian Creole was composed in the French-lexicon in a poem called Lisette quitté la plaine in 1757 by Duvivier de la Mahautière, a White Creole planter.
Before Haitian Creole orthography was standardized in the late 20th century, spelling varied, but was based on subjecting spoken HaitianCreole to written French, a language whose spelling has not matched its pronunciation since at least the 16thcentury. Unlike the phonetic orthography, French orthography of HaitianCreole is not standardized and varies according to the writer; some use exact French spelling, others adjust the spelling of certain words to represent pronunciation of the cognate in HaitianCreole, removing the silent letters. For example:
Li ale travay nan maten (lit. "He goes to work in the morning") could be transcribed as:
Haitian Creole grammar is highly analytical: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender, which means that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order is subject-verb-object as it is in French and English.
Many grammatical features, particularly the pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain markers, like yo, to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or clitics, and if punctuation such as the hyphen should be used to connect them to the word.:185-192
|bekann mwen yo
("bike my plural")
|keke che le
("bike my plural")
There are six pronouns: first, second, and third person, each in both singular, and plural; all are of French etymological origin. There is no difference between direct and indirect objects.
|long form||short form:131|
|ou[a][b]||w||hw||tu||you (singular), thou (archaic)|
|l||him, her, it|
|lui||him, her, it|
Definite nouns are made plural when followed by the word yo; indefinite plural nouns are unmarked.
|liv yo||les livres||the books|
|machin yo||les autos||the cars|
|fi yo mete wob||les filles mettent des robes||the girls put on dresses|
Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. In northern Haiti, a or an is placed before the possessive pronoun.
Possession does not indicate definiteness ("my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"), and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article.
|lajan li||son argent||his money|
|fanmi mwen||ma famille||my family|
|fanmi an m|
|kay yo||leur maison||their house|
|leurs maisons||their houses|
|papa ou||ton père||your father|
|chat Pierre a||le chat de Pierre||Pierre's cat|
|chèz Marie a||la chaise de Marie||Marie's chair|
|zanmi papa Jean||l'ami du père de Jean||Jean's father's friend|
|papa vwazen zanmi nou||le père du voisin de notre ami||our friend's neighbor's father|
The language has two indefinite articles, on and yon (pronounced /õ/ and /jõ/) which correspond to French un and une. Yon is derived from the French . Both are used only with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun:
|on kouto||un couteau||a knife|
|on kravat||une cravate||a necktie|
In Haitian Creole, there are five definite articles,:28 and they are placed after the nouns they modify. The final syllable of the preceding word determines which is used with which nouns.:20 If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel, it becomes la:
|kravat la||la cravate||the tie|
|liv la||le livre||the book|
|lakay la||la maison||the house|
|lamp lan||la lampe||the lamp|
|bank lan||la banque||the bank|
|kouto a||le couteau||the knife|
|peyi a||le pays||the country|
If a word ends in "mi", "mou", "ni", "nou", or a nasal vowel, it becomes an:
|fanmi an||la famille||the family|
|mi an||le mur||the wall|
|chyen an||le chien||the dog|
|pon an||le pont||the bridge|
If the last sound is a nasal consonant, it becomes nan, but may also be lan:
|machin nan||la voiture||the car|
|telefonn nan||le téléphone||the telephone|
|fanm nan||la femme||the woman|
There is a single word sa that corresponds to English "this" and to "that" (and to French ce, ceci, cela, and ça). As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative, except that it is placed after the noun that it qualifies. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number): sa a ("this here" or "that there"):
|jaden sa bèl||ce jardin est beau||this garden is beautiful|
|that garden is beautiful|
As in English, it may also be used as a pronoun, replacing a noun:
|sa se zanmi mwen||c'est mon ami||this is my friend|
|that is my friend|
|sa se chyen frè mwen||c'est le chien de mon frère||this is my brother's dog|
|that is my brother's dog|
Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive, but there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense, mood, and aspect are indicated by the use of markers:
|li ale travay nan maten||il va au travail le matin||he goes to work in the morning|
|elle va au travail le matin||she goes to work in the morning|
|li dòmi aswè||il dort le soir||he sleeps in the evening|
|elle dort le soir||she sleeps in the evening|
|li li Bib la||il lit la Bible||he reads the Bible|
|elle lit la Bible||she reads the Bible|
|mwen fè manje||je fais à manger||I make food|
|nou toujou etidye||nous étudions toujours||we always study|
The concept expressed in English by the verb "tobe" is expressed in Haitian Creole by three words, se, ye, and sometimes e.
The verb se (pronounced similarly to the English word "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative:
|li se frè mwen||il est mon frère||he is my brother|
|mwen se yon doktè||je suis médecin||I'm a doctor|
|je suis docteur|
|sa se yon pyebwa mango||c'est un manguier||this is a mango tree|
|that is a mango tree|
|nou se zanmi||nous sommes amis||we are friends|
|se yon bon ide||c'est une bonne idée||that's a good idea|
|this is a good idea|
|se nouvo chemiz mwen||c'est ma nouvelle chemise||that's my new shirt|
|this is my new shirt|
To express "I want to be", usually vin ("tobecome") is used instead of se.
|li pral vin bofrè m||il va devenir mon beau-frère||he will be my||he will be my stepbrother|
|li pral vin bofrè mwen|
|mwen vle vin on doktè||je veux devenir docteur||I want to become a doctor|
|sa pral vin yon pye mango||ça va devenir un manguier||that will become a mango tree|
|this will become a mango tree|
|nou pral vin zanmi||nous allons devenir amis||we will be friends|
|mwen se Ayisyen||je suis haïtien||I am Haitian|
|Ayisyen mwen ye|
|Koman ou ye?||lit. Comment êtes-vous?||How are you?|
|mwen gen yon sè ki malad||j'ai une soeur malade||I have a sick sister|
|sè mwen malad||ma soeur est malade||my sister is sick|
The verb "to have" is genyen, often shortened to gen.
|mwen gen lajan nan bank lan||j'ai de l'argent dans la banque||I have money in the bank|
The verb genyen (or gen) also means "there is" or "there are":
|gen anpil Ayisyen nan Florid||il y a beaucoup d'Haïtiens en Floride||there are many Haitians in Florida|
|gen on moun la||il y a quelqu'un là||there is someone here|
|there is someone there|
|pa gen moun la||il n'y a personne là||there is nobody here|
|there is nobody there|
The Haitian Creole word for "to know" and "to know how" is konnen, which is often shortened to konn.
|Eske ou konnen non li?||Connais-tu son nom?||Do you know his name?|
|Do you know her name?|
|mwen konnen kote li ye||je sais où il est||I know where he is|
|je sais où elle est||I know where she is|
|Mwen konn fè manje||Je sais comment faire à manger||I know how to cook
(lit. "I know how to make food")
|Eske ou konn ale Ayiti?||As-tu été à Haïti?||Have you been to Haiti?
(lit. "Do you know to go to Haiti?")
|Li pa konn li franse||Il ne sait pas lire le français||He cannot read French
(lit. "He doesn't know how to read French")
|Elle ne sait pas lire le français||She cannot read French
(lit. "She doesn't know how to read French")
Fè means "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.
|Kòman ou fè pale kreyòl?||Comment as-tu appris à parler Créole?||How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole?|
|Marie konn fè mayi moulen.||Marie sait faire de la farine de maïs.||Marie knows how to make cornmeal.|
The verb kapab (or shortened to ka, kap or kab) means "to be able to (do something)". It refers to both "capability" and "availability":
|mwen ka ale demen||je peux aller demain||I can go tomorrow|
|petèt mwen ka fè sa demen||je peux peut-être faire ça demain||maybe I can do that tomorrow|
|nou ka ale pita||nous pouvons aller plus tard||we can go later|
|mwen pale kreyòl||je parle créole||I speak Creole|
|mwen manje||j'ai mangé||I ate|
|ou manje||tu as mangé||you ate|
|li manje||il a mangé||he ate|
|elle a mangé||she ate|
|nou manje||nous avons mangé||we ate|
|yo manje||ils ont mangé||they ate|
|elles ont mangé|
Manje means both "food" and "to eat", as manger does in Canadian French; m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food".
For other tenses, special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are:
|te||simple past||from French été ("been")|
|t ap||past progressive||a combination of te and ap, "was doing"|
|ap||present progressive||with ap and a, the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap, l ap, n ap, y ap, etc.). From 18th century French être après, progressive form|
|a||future||some limitations on use. From French avoir à ("to have to")|
|pral||near or definite future||translates to "going to". Contraction of French pour aller ("going to")|
|ta||conditional future||a combination of te and a ("will do")|
|mwen te manje||I ate|
|I had eaten|
|ou te manje||you ate|
|you had eaten|
|li te manje||he ate|
|he had eaten|
|she had eaten|
|nou te manje||we ate|
|we had eaten|
|yo te manje||they ate|
|they had eaten|
|mwen t ap manje||I was eating|
|ou t ap manje||you were eating|
|li t ap manje||he was eating|
|she was eating|
|nou t ap manje||we were eating|
|yo t ap manje||they were eating|
|m ap manje||I am eating|
|w ap manje||you are eating|
|l ap manje||he is eating|
|she is eating|
|n ap manje||we are eating|
|y ap manje||they are eating|
For the present progressive, it is customary, though not necessary, to add kounyea ("rightnow"):
|m ap manje kounye a||I am eating right now|
|y ap manje kounye a||they are eating right now|
Also, ap manje can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence:
|m ap manje apre m priye||I will eat after I pray|
|I am eating after I pray|
|mwen pap di sa||I will not say that|
|I am not saying that|
Near or definite future:
|mwen pral manje||I am going to eat|
|ou pral manje||you are going to eat|
|li pral manje||he is going to eat|
|she is going to eat|
|nou pral manje||we are going to eat|
|yo pral manje||they are going to eat|
|n a wè pita||see you later
(lit. "we will see later")
|mwen te wè zanmi ou yè||I saw your friend yesterday|
|nou te pale lontan||we spoke for a long time|
|lè l te gen uit an...||when he was eight years old...|
|when she was eight years old...|
|m a travay||I will work|
|m pral travay||I'm going to work|
|n a li l demen||we'll read it tomorrow|
|nou pral li l demen||we are going to read it tomorrow|
|mwen t ap mache epi m te wè yon chen||I was walking and I saw a dog|
Recent past markers include fèk and sòt (both mean "just" or "just now" and are often used together):
|mwen fèk sòt antre kay la||I just entered the house|
A verb mood marker is ta, corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:
|yo ta renmen jwe||they would like to play|
|mwen ta vini si m te gen yon machin||I would come if I had a car|
|li ta bliye w si ou pa t la||he would forget you if you weren't here|
|she would forget you if you weren't here|
The word pa comes before a verb and any tense markers to negate it:
|Rose pa vle ale||Rose doesn't want to go|
|Rose pa t vle ale||Rose didn't want to go|
Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology; often the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin. However, the language also inherited many words of different origins, among them Wolof, Fon, Kongo, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Taino and Arabic.
Haitian Creole creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities. Examples of this are fè bak which was borrowed from English and means "to move backwards" (the original word derived from French is rekile from reculer), and also from English, napkin, which is being used as well as tòchon, from the French torchon.
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|ablado||/ablado/||Spanish: hablador||"a talker"|
|Ayiti||/ajiti/||Taino: Ahatti, lit. 'mountainous land'||Haiti ("mountainous land")|
|bagay||/ba?aj/||French: bagage, lit. 'baggage'||thing|
|bannann||/bãnãn/||French: banane, lit. 'banana'||banana / plantain|
|Bondye||/bõdje/||French: bon dieu, lit. 'good God'||God|
|chenèt||/?en?t/||French: quénette (French Antilles)||gap between the two front teeth|
|chouk||/?õk/||Fula: chuk, lit. 'to pierce, to poke'||poke|
|dekabes||/dekabes/||Spanish: dos cabezas, lit. 'two heads'||two-headed win during dominos|
|diri||/di?i/||French: du riz, lit. 'some rice'||rice|
|Etazini||/etazini/||French: États-Unis||United States|
|fig||/fi?/||French: figue, lit. 'fig'||banana|
|je||/?e/||French: yeux, lit. 'eyes'||eye|
|kay||/kaj/||French: la cahutte, lit. 'the hut'||house|
|kle||/kle/||French: clé, lit. 'key'||key, wrench|
|kle kola||/kle kola/||French: clé, lit. 'key'||bottle opener|
|kònfleks||/kõnfleks/||corn flakes||breakfast cereal|
|kawotchou||/kaut?u/||French: caoutchouc, lit. 'rubber'||tire|
|lalin||/lalin/||French: la lune, lit. 'the moon'||moon|
|li||/li/||French: lui||he, she, him, her, it|
|manbo||/mãbo/||Kongo: mambu or Fon: nanbo||vodou priestess|
|matant||/matãt/||French: ma tante, lit. 'my aunt'||aunt, aged woman|
|moun||/mun/||French: monde, lit. 'world'||people, person|
|mwen||/mw/||French: moi, lit. 'me'||I, me, my, myself|
|nimewo||/nimewo/||French: numéro, lit. 'number'||number|
|oungan||/ã/||Fon: houngan||vodou priest|
|piman||/pimã/||French: piment||a very hot pepper|
|pann||/pãn/||French: pendre, lit. 'to hang'||clothesline|
|podyab||/podjab/||French: pauvre diable or Spanish: pobre diablo||poor devil|
|pwa||/pwa/||French: pois, lit. 'pea'||bean|
|tonton||/tõtõ/||French: tonton||uncle, aged man|
|yo||/jo/||Fon: ye||they, them, their; plural marker|
|zonbi||/zõbi/||Kongo: nzumbi||soulless corpse, living dead, ghost|
|zwazo||/zwazo/||French: les oiseaux, lit. 'the birds'||bird|
Despite nèg and blan having similar words in French (nègre, a pejorative to refer to black people, and blanc, meaning white, or white person), the meanings they carry in French do not apply in Haitian Creole. Nèg means "person", regardless of skin color (like "guy" or "dude" in American English). The word blan generally means "foreigner" or "not from Haiti". Thus, a non-black Haitian man would be called nèg, while a black person from the US could be referred to as blan.
There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin including grimo, bren, roz, and mawon. Some Haitians consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system, while others use the terms freely.
|A demen!||See you tomorrow!|
|A pi ta!||See you later!|
|Adye!||Good bye! (permanently)|
|Anchante!||Nice to meet you! (lit. "enchanted!")|
|Bon apre-midi!||Good afternoon!|
|Bònn nui!||Good night!|
|Kenbe la!||Hang in there! (informal)|
|Ki jan ou rele?||What's your name?|
|Ki non ou?|
|Ki non w?|
|Koman ou rele?|
|Mwen rele...||My name is...|
|Ki jan ou ye?||How are you?|
|Ki laj ou?||How old are you? (lit. "What is your age?")|
|Ki laj ou genyen?|
|Kòman ou ye?||How are you?|
|Kon si, kon sa||So, so|
|Kontinye konsa!||Keep it up!|
|M'ap boule||I'm managing (informal; lit. "I'm burning")
(common response to sa kap fèt and sak pase)
|M'ap kenbe||I'm hanging on (informal)|
|M'ap viv||I'm living|
|Men wi||Of course|
|Mwen byen||I'm well|
|Mwen dakò||I agree|
|Mwen gen ... an||I'm ... years old|
|Mwen la||I'm so-so (informal; lit. "I'm here")|
|N a wè pita!||See you later! (lit. "We will see later!")|
|Orevwa!||Good bye (temporarily)|
|Pa mal||Not bad|
|Pa pi mal||Not so bad|
|Padonne m!||Pardon me!|
|Pòte w byen!||Take care! (lit. "Carry yourself well!")|
|Sa k'ap fèt?||What's going on? (informal)|
|What's up? (informal)|
|Sa'k pase?||What's happening? (informal)|
|What's up? (informal)|
|Tout al byen||All is well (lit. "All goes well")|
|Tout bagay anfòm||Everything is fine (lit. "Everything is in form")|
|Tout pa bon||All is not well (lit. "All is not good")|
Proverbs play a central role in traditional Haitian culture and Haitian Creole speakers make frequent use of them as well as of other metaphors.
|Men anpil, chay pa lou||Strength through unity (lit. "With many hands, the burden is not heavy"; Haitian Creole equivalent of the French on the coat of arms of Haiti, which reads l'union fait la force)|
|Apre bal, tanbou lou||There are consequences to your actions (lit. "After the dance, the drum is heavy")|
|Sak vid pa kanpe||No work gets done on an empty stomach (lit. "An empty bag does not stand up"):60|
|Pitit tig se tig||Like father like son (lit. "The son of a tiger is a tiger")|
|Ak pasyans w ap wè tete pis||Anything is possible (lit. "With patience you will see the breast of the ant")|
|Bay kou bliye, pòte mak sonje||The giver of the blow forgets, the carrier of the scar remembers|
|Mache chèche pa janm dòmi san soupe||You will get what you deserve|
|Bèl dan pa di zanmi||Not all smiles are friendly|
|Bèl antèman pa di paradi||A beautiful funeral does not guarantee heaven|
|Bel fanm pa di bon menaj||A beautiful wife does not guarantee a happy marriage|
|Dan konn mode lang||People who work together sometimes hurt each other (lit. "Teeth are known to bite the tongue")|
|Sa k rive koukouloulou a ka rive kakalanga tou||What happens to the turkey can happen to the rooster too (lit. "What happens to the dumb guy can happen to the smart one too"):75|
|Chak jou pa Dimanch||Your luck will not last forever (lit. "Not every day is Sunday")|
|Fanm pou yon tan, manman pou tout tan||A woman is for a time, a mother is for all time:93|
|Nèg di san fè, Bondye fè san di||Man talks without doing, God does without talking:31|
|Sa Bondye sere pou ou, lavalas pa ka pote l ale||What God has saved for you, nobody can take it away|
|Nèg rich se milat, milat pov se nèg||A rich negro is a mulatto, a poor mulatto is a negro|
|Pale franse pa di lespri||Speaking French does not mean you are smart:114|
|Wòch nan dlo pa konnen doulè wòch nan solèy||The rock in the water does not know the pain of the rock in the sun|
|Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul||Justice will always be on the side of the stronger (lit. "A cockroach in front of a chicken is never correct")|
|Si ou bwè dlo nan vè, respèkte vè a||If you drink water from a glass, respect the glass|
|Si travay te bon bagay, moun rich ta pran l lontan||If work were a good thing, the rich would have grabbed it a long time ago|
|Sèl pa vante tèt li di li sale||Let others praise you (Said to ridicule those who praise themselves)|
|Bouch granmoun santi, sak ladan l se rezon||Wisdom comes from the mouth of old people (lit. "The mouth of the old stinks but what's inside is wisdom")|
|Tout moun se moun||Everyone matters (lit. "Everybody is a person")|
|Se lave men, siye l atè||It was useless work (lit. "Wash your hands and wipe them on the floor")|
|M ap di ou sa kasayòl te di bèf la||Mind your own business|
|Li pale franse||He cannot be trusted, he is full of himself (lit. "He speaks French")|
|Kreyòl pale, kreyòl konprann||Speak straightforwardly and honestly (lit. "Creole talks, Creole understands"):29|
|Bouche nen ou pou bwè dlo santi||You have to accept a bad situation (lit. "Pinch your nose to drink smelly water"):55|
|Mache sou pinga ou, pou ou pa pile: "Si m te konnen!"||"Be on your guard, so you don't have to say: 'If only I'd known!'":159|
|Tann jis nou tounen pwa tann||To wait forever (lit. "left hanging until we became string beans" which is a word play on tann, which means both "to hang" and "to wait")|
|San pran souf||Without taking a breath; continuously|
|W ap kon joj||Warning or threat of punishment or reprimand (lit. "You will know George")|
|Dis ti piti tankou ou||Dismissing or defying a threat or show of force (lit. "Ten little ones like you couldn't...")|
|Lè poul va fè dan||Never (lit. "When hens grow teeth")|
|Piti piti zwazo fè nich li||You will learn (lit. "Little by little the bird makes its nest"):110|
Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada. Some of the larger Creole-speaking populations are found in Montreal, Quebec (where French is the first official language), New York City, Boston, and Central and South Florida (Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach). To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. For instance, Miami-Dade County in Florida sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole in addition to English and Spanish. In the Boston area, the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole as well as English. North America's only Creole-language television network is HBN, based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio stations.
Haitian Creole and Haitian culture are taught in many colleges in the United States and the Bahamas. York College at the City University of New York features a minor in Haitian Creole.Indiana University has a Creole Institute founded by Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole, among other facets of Haiti, are studied and researched. The University of Kansas, Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies, founded by Bryant Freeman. Additionally, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Florida International University, and University of Florida offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. Brown University, University of Miami, and Duke University also offer Haitian Creole classes, and Columbia University and NYU have jointly offered a course since 2015. The University of Chicago began offering Creole courses in 2010.
According to the 2014-2015 English Language Learner Demographic Report published by the NYC Department of Education, 3,031 English Language Learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools in New York City speak Haitian Creole, making it the sixth most common home language of ELLs citywide and the fifth most common home language of Brooklyn ELLs. Because of the large population of Haitian Creole-speaking students within NYC schools, various organizations have been established to respond to the needs of these students. For example, Flanbwayan and Gran Chimen Sant Kiltirèl, both located in Brooklyn, New York, aim to promote education and Haitian culture through advocacy, literacy projects, and cultural/artistic endeavors.
Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba after Spanish, where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a minority language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition, there is a Haitian Creole radio station operating in Havana.
As of 2012Dominican Republic, although the locals do not speak it. However, some estimates suggest that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of undocumented immigrants from Haiti., the language was also spoken by over 450,000 Haitians who reside in the neighboring
After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, international aid workers desperately needed translation tools for communicating in Haitian Creole. Furthermore, international organizations had little idea whom to contact as translators. As an emergency measure, Carnegie Mellon University released data for its own research into the public domain.Microsoft Research and Google Translate implemented alpha version machine translators based on the Carnegie Mellon data.
Several smartphone apps have been released, including learning with flashcards by Byki and two medical dictionaries, one by Educa Vision and a second by Ultralingua, the latter of which includes an audio phrase book and a section on cultural anthropology.
Under the 1987 Constitution, adopted after the overthrow of Jean-Claude Duvalier's dictatorship, [Haitian] Creole and French have been the two official languages. But at least 95 percent of the population speaks only Creole.
There are more speakers of French-based Creoles than all other Creoles combined (including English), thanks mostly to Haiti, the biggest Creole-speaking nation in the world...
Name: ... Haitian Creole ...; Phylum: ... Indo-European...
A larger number of engagés was also favored because authorities feared that the growing number of slaves would become increasingly hard to control.
le français et le créole haïtien ... sont des langues différentes «non mutuellement intelligibles»
L'usage du créole, en tant que langue commune parlée par les 90 % de la population haïtienne, est permis dans les écoles comme instrument et objet d'enseignement.
Nou suiv sa yo rele 'òtograf ofisyèl' la lan tout sa li mande. Tout liv oubyen dokiman sòti respekte òtograf sa a alalèt. Yon sèl ti eksepsyon petèt, se kesyon apostwòf nou pa anplwaye aprè de gwoup kòm ;
In 1979, by a presidential decree, Haitian Creole was officially recognized as classroom medium and as school subject at the primary level. In the 1983 Constitution it was upgraded to the level of national language with French.
Article 5 of the ... Constitution of 1987 ... recognizes Creole as the sole language that unites all Haitians.
Tous les Haïtiens sont unis par une Langue commune : le Créole.
L'absence d'opposition distinctive dans la distribution des voyelles hautes ainsi que le facteur combinatoire illustré ci-dessus amènent certains auteurs ... à considérer les voyelles nasales [?] et [?] comme des variantes contextuelles de leurs correspondantes orales. Toutefois, l'occurrence dans le vocabulaire des Haïtiens de nombre de termes qui se rattachent pour la plupart à la religion vaudou contribue à affaiblir cette analyse. Par exemple, dans la liste des mots que nous présentons ... il est facile de constater que les voyelles nasales hautes n'apparaissent pas dans l'environnement de consonnes nasales:
[ã] 'prêtre vaudou'
[?si] 'assistante du prêtre/ de la prêtresse'
[?f?] 'sanctuaire du temple vaudou'
[o] 'divinité vaudou'
[v?] 'collier au cou du prêtre vaudou'
[pa] 'prenez garde'
[kabo] 'pipe de terre'
[j?/? n] 'un individu'
For some opponents of the official orthography, ?k and ?w are tainted with the perceived stigma of being Anglo-Saxon and smack of American imperialism. The French symbols , however, are allied with colonialism.
Kèlkeswa kote ou' fè nan peyi a lè ou kite Pòtoprens, ou travèse zòn kote yo fè jaden... Quelle que soit la route qu'on emprunte pour sortir de Port-au-prince, on traverse des zones cultivées.
Yo pa fè diferans ant « kawotchou » machin ak « wou » machin nan. Yo di yonn pou lòt. Gen kawotchou ki fèt pou resevwa chanm, genyen ki pa sèvi ak chanm. Yo rele kawotchou sa a tiblès... On ne fait pas de différence entre « pneu » et « roue » d'une voiture. On dit l'un pour l'autre. Il y a des pneus conçus pour recevoir une chambre à air, il y en a qui s'utilisent sans chambre à air. On appelle ce dernier type de pneus « tubeless ».
Most English words that are of the same origin as Creole words are marked with an asterisk (*).... Etazini n[oun] United States* ... ozetazini In the U.S.A.
The importance of metaphors in Haitian storytelling is reflected in the value ascribed to proverbs as an important aspect of teaching and reinforcing practical wisdom and values to children and community members. The existence of two separate texts in which 999 to more than 3000 Haitian proverbs are documented serve as evidence of the importance of these proverbs and their centrality in traditional Haitian culture...
Aristide took ownership of the pwen and replied with another: Men anpil chay pa lou ("With many hands, the burden is not heavy").
After Aristide announced his unexpected candidacy in the 1990 presidential elections, the American ambassador to Haiti, Alvin Adams, in a speech assured Haitians that the United States would support whichever candidate was elected but concluded his remarks with a proverb (or pwen) emphasizing the problems that would remain after the elections: 'After the dance, the drum is heavy [Apre bal, tanbou lou]'....
The rock in the sun cannot get ahead like the rock in the water. Whether you're the rock suffering in the sun or whether you're cooling off in the water depends on where you were born, what passport you hold, what education you have, whether you speak French, whether your parents are peasants or well-off, whether your parents are married or if you have a birth certificate. Chance can deal a very cruel or kind hand in Haiti.
Cette situation d'injustice institutionalisée est dénoncée par la philosophie populaire dans les adages courants comme : ... « Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul » ... « Un cafard ne saurait l'emporter sur un poulet ». Expression populaire et imagée de la loi de la jungle: « la raison du plus fort est toujours la meilleure ».
has wrongly misconstrued affirmative and egalitarian principle ('Everybody is a person')--the idea that everyone matters and that 'everyone is endowed with the same essential dignity.'
Li pale franse (He speaks French (so he is likely deceiving you).)
Lè poul va fè dan: Never (when hens grow teeth).
This course is part of the language exchange program with New York University...