Help:IPA/Mandarin
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Help:IPA/Mandarin

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in like2do.com resource articles. See Standard Mandarin phonology for more detail on the sounds of the language.

Note that English equivalents given in this page may represent only loose approximations to the original pronunciations.

Consonants
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
p b p ? ? (?) span
p? p p' ? ? pan
m m ? ? moon
f f ? ? fan
t d t ? ? stop
t? t t' ? ? top
n n- ? ? noon
-n ?, ? ?, ?
l l ? ? (?) leaf
k g k ? ? skin
k? k k' ? ? kin
? -ng ?, ? ?, ? song
x h ? ? Scottish English: loch; often weakened to [h] (as in English hat)
t? j ch ? ? like itchy, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[a]
t q ch' ? ? like cheap, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[a]
? x hs ? ? (?) like sheep, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[a]
zh ch ? ? roughly like jaw, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
ch ch' ? ? like church, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
? sh ? ? like show, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
?[b] r- j ? ? like red, with a flat tongue (retroflex).
ts z ts ? ? roughly like buds
ts? c ts' ? ? cats hissing
s s ? ? same
Semivowels
j y-/-i- ? ? yes
w w-/-u- ? ? water
? yu-/-ü-[c] yü-/-ü- ? ? French: nuit
Syllabic consonants
zhi, chi, shi, ri ih ?[d] ?, ?, ? (?), ? roughly like glasses[e]
zi, ci, si û ?, ?, ?
Vowels
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
a a ?, ?, ? ?, ?, ? father
er êrh ? ?
? yan/-ian yen/-ien ? Varies between [e] and [a]
yuan/-üan ?
e ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh ? ?, ? yes
? en,[f]eng ên, êng ?, ? ?, ? about
? e ê / o[g] ? ?
o wo/-uo[h] o[i] ? ? war in British English
i yi/-i ? ? see
? -ong -ung , ?, ? Varies between [o] and [u]
u wu/-u ? ? shoe
y yu/-ü[c] yü/-ü ? ? German: ü; French: tu
Diphthongs
ai ai ? ? time
au ao ? ? out
ei ei[f] ? ? face
ou ou[f] ? ? (?) show
Rhotic vowel
? er êrh ? ? sir (American English)[j]
Tones
IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example Tone number Description
á ? a1 ? ? 55 tone 1: high: ?
? á a2 ?? ? 35 tone 2: mid rising:
à ? a3 ?? ? 21, 11, 13, 214 tone 3:
medially, low: ?
initially, mid falling:
finally, low rising:
in isolation, dipping:
â à a4 ?` ? 51 tone 4: high falling:
a a a0 ?? ? - "toneless":
low after the high falling tone ;
mid after other tones
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c [?, t?, t] are always followed by /i, j/ or /y, ?/.
  2. ^ Also transcribed as ? in older literature.
  3. ^ a b ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ Note that this symbol is rarely used, usually omitted during writing.
  5. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [?, ?] or [, z?]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant
  6. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  7. ^ ?ê? is spelled as ?o? after ?k, k', h? in Wade-Giles.
  8. ^ ?uo? is spelled ?o? after ?b, p, m, f? in Pinyin.
  9. ^ is spelled as ?o?, except for ?k, k', h, sh? (as ?kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo?) in Wade-Giles.
  10. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.

References

  • Duanmu, San (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109-112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  • Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Help:IPA/Mandarin
 



 

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